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Full text of "Technical instruction. Special report of the Commissioner of Education [Henry Barnard] House of Representatives, Jan. 19, 1870"

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Technical Instruction. 



Commissioner OF Educatioi^. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Janaaiy 19th, 1870. 








(p ii y/^&,:.^^ 

Scientific and Industrial Education : an Account of Systems, 
Institutions, and Courses of Instruction in the Principles of Sci- 
ence ai>[)lied to the Arts of Peace and War in different Countries. 




Introduction, 17—32 

Progressive De%'eloj)ment of Scliools and Practicii! Courses of Instruction in Science, 17 

1. Government Institutions for Military and other Public Services, 19 

2. Royiil and Privileged Academies of Science and Art, 21 

3. Ueiilistic, Scientific, and Technical Museums, Schools, Classes, Laboratories, and 

Workshops devoted to National Industrie*;, 23 

PART I. Systems and Institutions of Special and Technical Instruction, ..33—800 


Intkoduction, 33 

Population and National Industries, 33 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 34 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 35 

Progressive Development of the System, 35 

1. Industrial Element in Common Schools, 35 

2. Sunday Improvement-Schools, 35 

3. Burgher Schools, 3(5 

4. Real Schools, 30 

.5. Polytechnic Schools, 37 

G. Sijecial Academies and Institutions, 38 

Technical and Special Schools, 39 

1. Elementary Improvement and Supplementary Schools, 39 

(1.) Apprentice and Workmen's School at Vienna, 39 

•^ (2.) Manufacturers' and Trade School at Prague, 41 

(3.) Mechanics' and Weaving School at Brunn 42 

2. Higlier Mechanic and Trade Schools, 43 

(1.) Municipal Practical School in Vienna, 43 

(2.) Provincial Practical School at Prague, 44 

(3.) Imperial Practical School in Vienna, 45 

3. Polytechnic Institutions, 46 

(10 Polytechnic Institute at Prague, 47 

General Programme of Instruction, fommcn to all pupils, 47 

Division A. — Bridges and Roads, 48 

Division B. — Architecture and Civil Constructions 48 

Division C. — Construction of Machines,. 49 

Division D. — Technological Chemistry, 49 

(2). Polytechnic Institute at Vienna, ."iO 

Historical Development, , 50 

Organization and Condition in 1836, 51 

New Organization and Condition in 1868, 53 

Subjects, and Extent of Examination for Admission in 1867, .53 

Subjects taught and their Distribution into Courses, 57 

Preparatory Division, 57 

Division I — Bridges and Roads, 58 

Division II — Architecture and Construction, 58 

Division HI — Mechanicians 59 

Division IV — Chemistry and its Application to the Arts, .59 

4. Comparative View of Austrian and other Polytechnic Schools 61 

(1.) Date — Location — Divisions or Schools — Professors — Pupils, 61 

(2.) General Organization as to Subjects and Courses, 62 

(3.) Preparatory Instruction 03 

(4.) Mechanics — Theory and Practice ofJVTachine-building — Workshops, 65 

(5.) Building and Architecture — Models and Modeling 08 

(6.) Construction of Roads and Bridges 09 

(7.) Chemistry and Chemical Technology 70 

(8.) Board of Direction— Faculty— Director, 70 

(9.) Classification of Pupils — Admission — Tuititm — Discipline, "73 

5. Special Schools and Instruction in Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 75 

(I.) Superior Schools at Krumman, Graetz, and Altenburg, 75 

(2.) Intermediate Schools at Frossau, 75 

(3.) Lower School, 75 

(4.) Special Departments — Raising Bees, 75 

6. Schools of Forestry, 70 

(1.) Superior Forest Academies, 70 

Imperial Forest Academy at Mariabrunn, 70 

(2.) Intermediate Schools at Wiesevvasser, Aussen and Kreutz, 70 

(3.) Lower Forest Schools at Pibram 70 



7. Schools of Commerce, 77 

(1.) Academy of Commerce nt Vienna, 77 

(2.) Academy of Commerce at Prague, 78 

(3.) Academy of Commerce at Pesth, 78 

8. Schools of Mines and Miners at Schemnitz and Leoben, 79 

9. Schools of Navigation, '. 78 

10. Schools of Art, Drawing, and Music, 79 

11. Special Professional Schools for Women, 80 

n. BADEN. 

Introduction, . 81 

Population — National Industries, 81 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, » .82 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 83 

1. Polytechnic School at Carlsruhe, 83 

(1.) General Scientific Studies, 84 

(2.) Civil Engineers 84 

(3.) Builders 85 

(4.) Foresters, 87 

(5.) Analytic Chemists, .' 88 

(6.) Machinists, 88 

(7.) Merchants, 89 

(8.) Post and other Public Officers, 89 

Management, Building, Laboratories, &c., 90 

2. Trade Schools, 91 

(1.) Trade School for Apprentices in Baden, 91 

(2.) School for Watch and Clockmaking at Furt wangen, 92 

(3.) Worksho])s for Practical Improvement at Furtwangen, 93 

(4.) School of Straw-plaiting, 95 

3. Schools of Agriculture and Rural Economy, 95 

(1.) Agricultural School at Hochburg, 95 

(2.) Agriculture in Common Schools, 95 

4. Military Schools, 95 

School of Cadets, 96 

5. Normal School for Teachers of Gymnastics, 95 


Introduction 97 

Population and National Industries, 97 

General System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 97 

System and Institutions of Technical Education 101 

Historical Development of the System, 101 

Existing Organization, 103 

1. Trade-schools — Mechanical, Commercial, Agricultural,.. ■ 105 

2. Real-Gymnasium in Provincial Towns, 106 

3. Central Polytechnic School, 107 

General Scientific Course of two years, 107 

Special Divisions or Scliools, 108 

(1.) Architecture and Building, 108 

(2.) Mechanical Engineering, ". 109 

(3.) Technical Chemistry, 109 

(4.) Commerce, 110 

Institutions and Classes of Special Instruction, Ill 

1. Sunday and Holiday Improvement Schools, ;. Ill 

1. Sunday Technical School at Nuremberg, 112 

2. Sunday and Holiday Scliools in Munich, 112 

a. Central Holiday School for boys, 112 

b. Journeymen's School 113 

c. Handicrafts School, 113 

3. Female Holiday Schools 113 

a. Central Holiday School, 114 

*. Parish Holiday Schools, 114 

2. Higher Trade Schools,' <f. 114 

3. District Trade School at Nuremberg, 114 

1. Regular Course of three years,. ..■ 114 

2. Sunday School for Artisans 115 

3. Elementary Drawing School, - 115 

4. Higher Trade School at Passau 115 

a. Commercial Division of Trade School, 115 

b. Higher Improvement School, 116 

c. Weaving School, 116 

5. Higher Trade School at Miindeberg, 116 

1. Weaving School 116 

2. Sunday Technical School 116 

6. Wood-carving School at Berchtesgaden, 116 

7. Royal School of Machinery at Augsburg, 117 

Workshop for Model-making, 117 

8. Polytechnic School at Munich, 118 



9. Schools of the Fine Arts, and of Drawing « 119 

J. Roynl Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, '. 119 

School of Instruction in Art, ". 120 

Government Appropriations to Art, I'iU 

Union of Art luid Trades, 120 

2. Roynl School of the Arts applied to Industrial Productions at Nuremberg, 121 

3. Special School of Industrial Drawing at Nuremberg, 121 

4. Official Programme for Instruction in Drawing in Technical Schools 122 

1. Trade Schools ". 122 

2. Agricultural Schools, 12:^ 

3. Real Schools 123 

5. Instruction in Drawing in Common Schools, 123 

10. Special Instruction in Music 124 

1. Musical Requirements of Primary School, 124 

2. Programme of Instruction in Teachers' Seminaries, 125 

3. Royal School of Music in Wurzburg, 126 

4. Royal Conservatory of Music, 126 

11. Schools and Instruction in Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 127 

1. Central High School of Agriculture at VVeihenstephan, 127 

2. Agricultural School at Lichtenhof, 132 

3. School of Practical Farming at Scldeissheim 133 

4. School of Forestry ' ^ 135 

12. Special Instruction for Women, 136 


Introduction, 137 

Population and National Industries, 137 

General System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 137 

Systkm and Institutions of Special Instruction 137 

1. Polytechnic School at Brunswick, 137 

Special Schools, 137 

(1.) Construction of Machines, 138 

(2.) Civil Engineering, Construction, and ATchitecture, 139 

(3.) Mines and Mining, 141 

.r (4.) Technical Chemistry. 142 

(5.) Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 142 

(6.) Forest Economy, 143 

(7.) Agriculture, 144 

(8.) Railways and Roads 145 

(9.) Government Surveys, 145 

2. Builders' School at Holzminden, 147 



Introduction, 149 

Population, ; 149 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction 149 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 150 

1. Trade School, 150 

2. Winter School for Building Trades, 150 

3. Plan for a System of Technical li.struction, 151 

4. Navigation Schools, 156 

5. Music in Public Schools, 156 


Introduction, 157 

Population, 157 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction 157 

Institutions of Special Instruction 158 

1. Trade School, 158 

2. School of Commerce, 1 50 


Introduction, 160 

Population 160 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, ICO 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 160 

Trade School at Lubeck 160 

IV. BREMEN, 161 

Introduction, 161 

Population 161 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 161 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 162 


Introduction, 163 

Population 163 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 163 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 164 

1. Improvement Schools for Apprentices, ,....' 164 



Artisan School at Hanover, j ]64 

Workmen's Society Classes, 164 

Commercinl School, 184 

Building Trucles Schools at Nienberg, 164 

2. Polytechnic School at Hanover, 165 

Programme for Preparatory School, 166 

Programme for Polytechnic School 166 

1. Chemists, 166 

2. Agriculturists, 166 

3. Surveyors 166 

4. Mechanicians, , . 107 

5. Architects, 167 

6. Civil Engineers, 167 

Distribution of Students, 168 


Introduction 169 

Population 169 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 169 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 169 


Introduction 170, 

Population, 170 

System and Statistics of Public Tnsfructiiin , 170 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 170 


Introduction, • 171 

Population, J71 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 171 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 171 


Introduction, ! 172 

Population, 172 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 172 

Institutions of Special Instruction 172 

1. Industrial Schools of the Gewerbe-Verein, 173 

System of Apprenticeship 173 

2. Agricultural Institute at Geisberg 175 


Introduction, 176 

Population, 176 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 170 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 176 


Introduction, 177 

Population, 177 

System and Statistics of Puhiic Instrnrtion 179 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, .'. . 181 

Sunday and Further Improvement Schools 181 

Real and Bursrher Schools, 181 

Special Technical Schools, 182 

Trade Schools, 1H3 

1. General Scientific Instruction, 184 

2. Special Schools, 185 

Institutions of Technical fn^tri/ction, 187 

1. Sunday trade School nt Konigsberir. 187 

2. Workingmen's Union Schools nt Berlin .. 187 

3. Provincial Trade School nt Dantzic, 189 

4. Royal Real School at Berlin, 191 

5. City Trade School at Berlin, 192 

6. Royal Trade Academy at Berlin, 192 

Organization and Condij;ion in 18^7 192 

Reorganizntion nnd Condition in 1867 197 

(1.) General Technological Department, 198 

(2.) Special Tcchni^logical Section, 198 

a. M'-chanicians 198 

b. Chemists and Smelters, 199 

c. Ship-builders 199 

7. School of Industrial Drawing, 200 

8. Royal Arndemy of Architecture, 201 

9. Building School nt Berlin 202 

JO. Superior Weaving School at Elberfeki, 203 



11. Instruction in Agriculture and Rural Economy, 2U.'> 

System— Cliissificaf ion of Schools— Collections of Tools, ice, i-'Oo 

1. Intermediate Agricultural School at Aunaberg, 205 

2. Superior Institutes of Agriculture , '20(5 

(1.) Agricultural Academy at Moglin, established by Thner 2<J»» 

(2.j Royal Agricultural Academy at Poppelsdorf, 207 

Object, and Course of Instruction, 207 

I. Studies connected with Funning 2L8 

A. Soils — Manures — Drainage — Implements — Crops 20S 

B. Breeding of Animals, 2( 8 

C. Theory of Farming — Systems — Accoimts, 210 

D. History and Literature of Agriculture 2J0 

II, Forest Economy — Culture — Protection — Game 211 

HL Natural Philosophy and History, 2 1 

Chemistry — Physics — Mineralogy and Geology 2i3 

Botany— Physiologv and LMseases of Plants 2i2 

Zoiilogy, . . ." ". 213 

VL Mathematics 213 

Practical Geometr}- — Surveying — Mechanics 213 

V. Political Ecimomy 213 

VI. Jurisjjrudence relating to Land, .^ 213 

VII. Veterinary Science, 214 

Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals, 214 

Disorders and their Treatment, 214 

Shoeing and Tending, 214 

Vm. Architecture 214 

Materials and Art of Construction for Farming Purposes 214 

IX. Technology, ' .* 214 

Materials for fuel, light, brewing, 214 

Visit to School by Secretary of ^Massachusetts Board of Agriculture,. ........... 215 

3. Royal Academy of Agriculture at Eldena, 216 

4. Agricultural Academy at Proskau 217 

5. Superior Institute of Agriculture at Regenwalde, 217 

6. School of Horticulture nt Potsdam, 217 

7. Superior S|)eLi il School of Forestry at Neustadt and Eberswiild, 217 

•^ 8. Veterinary School at Berlin 218 

12. Schools of Commerce and Navigation, 219 

1. Superior School of Commerce nt Berlin 219 

2. Commercial and Industrial School for AVomen at Berlin, 219 

3. Schools of Navigation, 220 

13. School of Mines and Mining 221 

1. Mining Academy at Berlin 221 

2. School of Practical Mining at Bochum, 221 

14. Instruction in Drawing, 223 

1. Ministerial Programme of Instruction in Drawing, 223 

For Gymnasiums 223 

For Trade Schools 224 

Schmidt's, and Dubuis's method, 226 

2. Plans and Suggestions for Drawing in Common Schools, 227 

15. Hints and Methods for Teaching Music in Common Schools, 249 

16. New Chemical Laboratories for Instruction and Original Research, 279 

1. Bonn 279 

2. Berlin, 283 

17. Aquarium at Berlin, 286 


Introduction, 287 

Population, and National Industries 287 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 287 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 289 

1. Real Schools, , 289 

2. Commercial Schools, 291 

1. Public Commercial Schools at Leipsic, Chemnitz, and Dresden, 291 

2. Commercial Schools for Apprentices and Clerks, 292 

3. Commercial School for Young Women, 293 

3. Polytechnic School at Dresden, 294 

Organization of Studies, 295 

A. Mechanical Engineering . . 296 

B. Civil Engineering T 29G 

C. Chemistry— General and Technical, 297 

D. Training of Teachers of Scientific and Technical Schoo's, 297 

Stenogratihy — Stone-cuttins, 297 

E. Modeling and Ornamental Drawing School 218 

4. Higher Industrial School nt Chemnitz 299 

A. Mechanical Engineering and Construction 299 

B. Chemical Technoloffv ; ?00 

C. Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 300 

Royal Workmasters' School 302 

Architectural School for Masons and Carpenters .303 

5. Higher Weaving School at Chemnitz, ?.Vo 



6. Academy of Forestry at Tharand, 307 

Historical Development, 308 

Course of Studies in Agriculture, 310 

Course of Studies in Forestry, 311 

Government grant in aid of Agriculture, 307 

7. Agricultural Academy in Plagwitz, 313 

Course of Studies, 313 

8. Mining Academy at Freiburg, 318 

Historical Development, 314 

Plan of Studies, 316 

State Examination for Miners, Machinists, and Metallurgists, 317 

9. School of Practical Miners at Freiburg, 318 

School of Coal Miners at Zwickau, 319 

10. Stenographic Institution at Dresden, 319 

11. Normal School for Teachers of Gymnastics, 321 

12. Supplementary Schools for Apprentices and Adults,. 323 

(1.) Sunday Schools— General and Special, 323 

(2.) Evening Schools 32.5 

(3.) Commercial Schools in twelve large towns, 325 

(4.) Ornamental Drawing School at Chemnitz and Seiffen. 325 

(5.) Industrial School at Dresden 325 

(6.) Workingmen's Association Schocls, 325 

(7.) Mining Schools at Freiburg, Zwickau, and Altenburg, 325 

(8.) Nautical Schools for Pilots, &c 325 

(9.) Music Schools in connection with factories of musical instruments, 325 

(10.) Weaving Schools, 325 

(11.) Fringe-making School at Annaberg 326 

(12.) The* Mode, or the Dress-cutting .Academy, 326 

(13.) Spinning Schools in Lusatia, 326 

(14.) Straw- working Schools 326 

(15.) Lace-making and Embroidery Schools, 320 

13. Instruction in the Arts of Painting, Sculpture, and Engraving 326 

(1.) Royal Academy of the Fine Arts in Dresden, 327 

Academy of Arts, 327 

Architectural Academy, 329 

(2.) Academy of Arts in Leipsic, 331 

14. Instruction in Music, 332 

(1.) Conservatory of Music in Leipsic, -. ^ 332 

(2.) Conservatory of Music in Dresden, 333 


Introduction, 3.33 

Population, 333 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 3.33 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 333 


Introduction, 334 

Population 334 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction 334 

Institutions of Special Instruction • 334 


Introduction 335 

Populntion '. . 3.35 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 335 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 335 


Introduction, 336 

Population .336 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 33(> 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 336 


Introduction, .337 

Population and National Industries 337 

System and Statistics of General Public Instruction, .338 

System and Statistics or Sveci.\l Instruction, 339 

1. System and Institutions of Agricidtural Education, 345 

2. Public Instruction in Drawing, 347 

Systematic Technical Education, By J. Scott Russeil, 357 

J. The Polytechnic University, 358 

, 2. College for the Building Trades 358 

3. Agriculture and Forestry Establishments, .3.59 

Technical Instruction in detail : 300 

1. Technical University in Stiittgard 300 

2. College for the Building Trades, 3G2 



3. High Trade School :«)-i 

Organization nnd Studies, 3<)4 

I. Technical University, .■iG4 

A. Miithematiciirand Mercantile Division, ;i(>5 

B. Technical Division :)()G 

(1.) Mathematics and Mechanics, 3(i(> 

(2 ) Natural History 'MH\ 

(3.) Technology, 3fi7 

(4.) Machinery; 3(i7 

(5.) Engineering, ... SfiP 

(6.) Architecture 3(18 

Drawing and Modeling ._ 368 

Plan of Study in detail, and practice in each school, . . .' 3G9 

A. Agricultural School, 3(iy 

B. Engineers' School 3l]<) 

C. Machinery School, 3C<J 

D. Chemical School, 309 

n. College for the Building Trades :{C9 

Plan of Instruction by classes HTO 

Geometrical Class, 37 1 

HI. College of Agricnlture and Forestry, 37-3 

1. Institution in Hoheuheim, 372 

A. Agriculture and Forestry Acudemy, :»72 

B. Farming School, 373 

C. Gardening School 373 

D. Special Agricultural Courses, 373" 

(1.) Meadow lands,. . , 373 

(2.) Sheep-management, 373 

(3.) Fruit-trees 373 

(4.) Agricultural Instruction for Teaciiers ui' Public Schools .373 

E. Advice on Agricultural Matters 373 

2. Schools of Practical Farming 373 

(1.) Ellwangen ; (2.) Ochsenhausen ; (3.) Kirchberg 373 

3. Farming Schools and Classes, and Agricultural Meetings, 373 

IV. Veterinary College, , 374 

V. School of Art-workmen, 374 

Vir Science Schools, 375 

A. Gymnasium and Lyceum, 37.5 

B. Real Schools, j 37.5 

VII. Elementary Public Schools, 37li 

VIII. Industrial Schools 37(i 

Practical Restlts of the System of Technical Education, 377 

International Lessons on Technical Education, 383 


Introduction, 401 

Population and National Industries, 401 

General System of Public Instruction 402 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 403 

I. Special State Schools for the Public Service 403 

1. Polytechnic School of France 403 

2. Government Schools of Application, 421 

3. Corps and School of Civil Engineers, 422 

4. Schools of Mines and Miners, .'. 424 

II. Government Institutions in aid of Arts and Trades, 427 

1. Conservatory of Arts and Trades 439 

2. Government Schools of Arts and Trades 44.5 

1. School at Paris, 456 

2. Schools at Chalons, Angers, and A\x 4()l 

HI. Special Corporate, Communal, and Departmental Schools, 4(13 

1. Central School of Arts and Manufactures, at Paris, 463 

2. St. Nicholas Institute, at Paris 475 

3. Communal and Departmental Schools, 483 

1. La Martiniere Technical School at Lyons, 483 

2. Schools for Watchmaking, 491 

3. School of Lace-making 493 

4. School of Ribbon-designing and Weaving, 493 

5. Technical instruction at Creuzot, 494 

6. School of Weaving at Mulhouse, 496 

rV. Instruction in the Fine Arts, Drawing, and Music, 497 

1. Government Schools of the Fine Arts, 497 

(1.) School at Paris, 498 

(2.) School at Lvons, ; 500 

(3.) School at Dijon 504 

2. Instruction in Architecture and Building . . 505 

(1.; Architectural Section in School of Fine Arts, 505 

(2.) Central School of Architecture at Paris 506 

3. Instruction in Drawing applied to the Industrial Arts, 508 

(1.) Governmental School of Drawing and Ornamentation at Paris, 508 



^2.) School of Drawing for Women at Paris, 508 

(3.) Central Union, Museum, and College of Industrial Art, 509 

{4.) Municipal Schools of Drawing, 510 

(5.) Drawing in Public Schools, 511 

(1.) Primary Schools ; {'2.) Normal Schools.. 511 

(3.) Lyceums ; (4.) Secondary Special Schools, 512 

Rei)ort of M. Ravaisson on Drawing in Public Schools, 513 

4. Instruction in Music, 52i) 

Government Conservatory of Music and Declamation, 529 

Music in Lyceums and Secondary Special Schools, 531 

Popular Music in Public Schools of Paris •. . 532 

V. Special Schools of Commerce, • 533 

1. Sui)erior School of Commerce at Paris, 533 

2. Commercial School of Paris Chamber of Commerce, 539 

3. Co.nmercial Course in Jlunicipal Schools, 540 

Specimen of Lessons in Legislation Usuelle, 541 

VI. Special Schools and Encouragement of Agriculture 545 

Historical Development of Ai^ricultural Schools, 545 

1. General Survey of tJie System and Institutions in 1848 and I86ti, 545 

2. Agricultural School at Grignon 559 

3. AgricuUural School of Grand Jouan, 569 

4. School of Forestry at Nancy, 57 1 

5. Rural Economy in Primary Schools, 572 

G. Agriculture in Secondary Special Schools 573 

VII. Special Schools for the Mercantile and Military Marine, 577 

1. National School for Orphans of Seamen. 578 

2. Scholarships for Sailors, 579 

3. Naval Apprentice Schools, 581 

4. School for Boatswains and Uiider-Officers 581 

5. School for Naval Engineers and Stokers, .- 585 

6. Naval Drawing School, o&O 

7. Schools of Navigation and Hydrography, 587 

8. Naval School at Brest, " 590 

9. School of Naval Architecture, 592 

10. School of Marine Art.Uery, 594 

1 1. Board of Hydrography, 594 

VIII. Laboratories of Original Research, and Practical School, 595 



Population and National Industries, 607 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, • 608 

SvsThJM AND Institutions of Special Instruction, 609 

J. System of Technical Training, 609 

"(I.) Museum of Industry, 609 

(2.) Workshops for Apprentices, 610 

(3.) Industrial Schools 611 

2. Institutions of Special Technical Instruction, 613 

Lower Technical Schools, 614 

(1.) Industrial School at Ghent, 614 

Scientific Instruction 614 

Practical Instruction, • 614 

Distribution of Students by studies and trades, 615 

(2.) School of Mechanical Art, Woolen Manufacture, and Design, at Verviers, 613 

(3.) School of Applied Mechanics, Steam-engine, and Industrial Drawing, at Tournai, 614 

Higher Technical Instruction, , 619 

(1.) Superior School of Arts and Manufactures at Ghent, 624 

(2.) Superior School of Mines at Liege, 617 

(4.) School for Stone-cutting at Soignies, ': 617 

(5.) School for Mechanical and Building Constructions at Courtrai, 617 

(6.) School for Foremen of Manufacturing Establishments at Liege, 618 

(7.) School for Adult Workmen at Huy, 618 

(1.) University School of Arts and Mines at Liege, 619 

Preparatory School, 619 

School of Mining, 619 

School of Man ufactures, ' 620 

School of Mechanics 620 

Machine and Workshops, 620 

(2.) University School orEngineering, Maniifactures and Architecture, at Ghent, 621 

Preparatory School, 621 

School for Engineers, 621 

(3.) School of Mines at Uainault 622 

3. Schools of Commerce and Navigation, 623 

(1.) Superior School of Commerce at Antwerp, 623 

(2.) Schools of Navigation at Antwerp and Ostend, 627 

4. Agricultural Institutions and Instruction, 629 

(1.) Superior Council of Agriculture, 629 

(2.) Provincial Commissions of Agriculture, 629 

(3.) Agricultural Associations and Societies, 630 



[4.) Educational Institutions, ii'M 

1. Stale Agricultural School at Gembloux ''•?- 

2. State Frtictical Horticultural School at Vilvorde, IjiJ.'J 

3. Slate Veteruiary School at Cureghem, (V-i-i 

4. Forestry School at Bouillon, i-.M 

5. Institutions inid Instruction in the Fine Arts, Drawing, and Music, <)'1~ 

(1.) Academies and Schools of the Fine Arts, C37 

1. Historical Development 037 

2. Present Organization, C4.') 

Official Clussification C)A') 

Supervision — Direction, '1") 

Admission — Revenues — Expenditures, < 4') 

Equipment and Museum <jt" Models < -IT 

Sul)jects and Methods of Instructio CAS 

Teachers — Pupils — Prizes, ( 5l) 

Government Aid to Art and Science in 1807, ()."):{ 

(2.) Methods of Instruction in Drawing O.'iH 

1. Elementary Instruction , (iii!) 

2. Higher Instruction, OTO 

(3.) Public Instruction in Music, G8J 

1. Conservatoire of Music in Brussels 08 J 

2. Conservatoire of Music in Liege, OHJ 

3. Conservatoire of Music in Ghent, (89 

4. Comi)etition for Prizes for Musical Composition, ( 8i) 

5. Schools and Societies of Music 08i) 

6. Music in Public Schools O'JO 


Introdttction, c > 691 

Population, 091 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 091 

System of Special Instruction, 093 

1. Evening Burgher Schools , ()93 

Higher Burgher Schools, 093 

2. Agricyiltural Schools 094 

3. Polytechnic Schools,. 094 

Institutions of Technical Instruction, 094 

1. Higher Burgher Schools ut Maastrict, 094 

2. Agricultural School at Groningen 09,5 

3. Polytechnic School at Delft, (597 

4. School of Navigation, 098 


Introduction, C99 

Po!>nlation and National Industries, 099 

System of Public Instruction, ; 099 

Institttions and Classes of Special Instruction, 701 

1. Royal Agricultural and Veterinary School, 701 

2. Sunday Improvement Schools, 703 

3. Technical Institute at Copenhagen, 703 


RonrcTioN 70.^ 

Pojiulation, 70.j 

Svstem and Statistics of Public Instruction TO.^S 

SvsTE.M and Schools of Special Instruction 707 

1. Royal School of Arts and Design, 707 

2. Provincial Drawing Schools, 708 

3. Technical School at Horten, 709 

4. Schixd of Mines at Kongsberg , 710 

Plan for a System of Technical Instruction, 7J0 

1. Sunday and Evening Schools, 710 

2. Technical Elementary Schools, 710 

3. Polytechnic Institute at Christiania 710 


Introduction, 711 

Population, •. 711 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 711 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 712 

1. Sunday and Evening School at Eskilstuna, 713 

2. Elementary Technical School at Norkoping, 713 

3. Industrial Schools at Stockholm and Gothenburg, 714 

4. Mining Schools at Filipstad and Fahlun 71.5 

5. Polytechnic School at Stockholm 715 

0. Chalmers' Higher Technical School at Gothenburg 716 

7. School of Naval Architecture at Carlscrona, 716 

8. Evening Schools of Art, 716 



Introduction, 717 

Population and National Industries, , 717 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, , '. 717 

Special Schools for the Public Service, and the Arts, 719 

1. Polytecimic School at St. Petersburg, 721 

(1.) Mechanical Section, 721 

(2.) (Chemical Section, 721 

2. Polytechnic School at Riga, 723 

(i.) Preparatory Course 724 

(2.) Course for Manufacturers, • 724 

(3.) Course for Merchants 725 

(4.) Course for Agriculturists, 724 

(.T ) Course common to Machinists, Architects, and Engineers, 725 

(0.) Special Course for Constructors of Machinery, 72G 

(7.) Course for Architects, 72G 

(8.) Special Course for Engineers, 72() 

(9.) Special Course for Surveyors, 727 

3. Schools of Mining and Miners, 727 

(1.) Higher Institution for Mining Engineers, 727 

(2.) Lower Schools of Mining, 727 

4. Commercial Academy at Moscow, 728 

5. Schools of Agriculture and Forestry, .• 728 

(1 .) Higher Agricultural Academy at Gorygoretsk, 728 

(2.) Forest Academies, 728 

G. Schools of Law, Surveying, and Topography, 728 

( J .) Imperial Law School for Government Clerks, 728 

(2.) Constantino School of Surveying, 728 

7. Schools for the Civil and Diplomatic Service, 729 

(1). School of Oriental Languages, 729 

(2.) Schools for Civil Administration 729 

8. Report of Jury of Paris International Exposition in 1867, 730 

9. Museums available and useful in Technical Instruction, 733 


Introduction, 735 

Population, , 735 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 735 

Schools and Classes of Special Instruction, 737 

1. Technical Institute at Lausanne, ; 737 

2. Industrial School for Girls at Neuchatel, 742 

3. Industrial School for Boys at Lausanne, 742 

4. Federal Polytechnic School at Zurich, ; ; 743 

(1). Historical Development, 743 

Re|)ort of Committee of Federal Council, 1852, 743 

Law creating the Federal Polytechnic School, 744 

Regulations of Federal Council in 1869, 748 

(2.) Programme of Studies for 1856-7, , 749 

1. Architecture, 749 

2. Civil Engineering, 750 

3. Industrial Mechanics,. • 751 

4. Industrial Chemistry, 751 

5. Forestry and Rural Affairs, 752 

G. Philosophical and Political Science, 752 

(a.) Natural Sciences, i 752 

(b.) Mathematical Science, 7.52 

(c.) Literary, Moral, und Political Science 753 

(d.) Fine Arts, .752 

■ Apparotus — Laboratories — Cabinets — Methods, 754 

(3.) Programme of Studies for 18G7-8, 756 

Appendix, . . , 761 


Introduction 791 

Population 791 

System and Statistics of Public histrnction 792 

System and Institutions of Special Instruction, 793 


Introduction, .' 797 

Population, ; 797 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 797 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 798 


Introduction, 799 

Population 799 

System and Statistics of Public Instruction, 799 

Institutions of Special Instruction, 800 


Natioxal Education: — An Account of Public Schools and other I nslitutious of Gen- 
eral Education in different Countries. Part I. The German Stales. 






1. Political Development of the German States,. . Jl 

2. Educational System nnd Nomenclature, ....... 13 


Area — Population, 17 

Public Instruction, 17 

I. Anhalt-Dessau-Cothen 17 

Common Schools— Teachers' Seminary, 17 

(Jvmnasiums — Girls' High School,. 19 

Trades Schools, 19 

II. Anhalt-Bernburg, 20 

Common Schools — Teachers' Seminary, 20 

Gymnasiums — Girls' High School, 20 


Area — Population — Religion — Nationalities, 23 

Public Instruction in German Provinces,. . 26 

I. Elementary Schools 26 

1. Historical Development, 1621-1863, 26 

Schools of the Jesuits — Christian Brothers, 26 

Piarists — Empress Maria Theresa, 26 

Felbiger — Rabstein — Count Firmian, 27 

Board of Education — Kiiulernmnn — Felbiger,.. . 29 

Joseph II— Von Swieten— J. A. Gail 30 

Leopold II — Von Martini — Board for Regulation, 32 

Francis I — Count Rottenham, 32 

Constitution of German Common Schools in 180.5, 33 

Spendou — Ferdinand I, 34 

Francis Joseph I — Baron von Feuchtersleben, ... 36 

Concordat with the Pope, of 1855 39 

Baron von Helfert and Board of Education, 40 

2. Present System and Condition, 40 

(J) Classes or grades of Schools, 40 

(2) Denominational Character, 42 

(3) Nationality of School Interest, 42 

(4) Compulsory Attendance, 42 

(5) Support of Schools, 43 

(6) Superintendence, 44 

(7) Buildings.School-room, Residence of Teacher, 46 

(8) Teuchers-Gradation-Principuland AssistiJiits, 47 
(0) Qualification and Selection of Teachers, 47 

(iO) Salaries of'Teachers, minimum, 48 

( 1 1) Tenure of Office and Removal of Teachers,. . 50 

(i.) Pensions— Widows and Orphans of Teachers, 51 

(13) School classes, and assignment of Teachers, 51 

(14) Teachers' Conferences, 51 

( 15) Terms and Hours of Instruction, 52 

(16) Distribution of Studies, .52 

(17) Text-books and Apparatus, 52 

(18) Language of Instruction, 53 

(19) Penmanship — Arithmetic — Music — Drawing, 54 

(20) Object-teaching — Natural Objects, .54 

(21) Needlework— Orchard and Garden Culture, . . 54 

(22) Discipline — Incentives — Puni^Iiiiionts 55 

(23) Tuition Fees — Amount and how collected,.. 55 

(24) Regularity of School Attendnnce, 55 

(2.5) Examinations — Promotions of Teachers, 55 

(26) Private Schools, day and boarding, 50 


(27) Adult Instruction, ■. . . 56 

(28) Burgher-school — h ighcsl grade of Ele. Schools, 57 

(29) Seminaries for Elementary Male Teachers,. . 58 

(30) Normal Departments for Female Teachers,.. 59 

(31) Government Publishing House, 60 

3. Statistics of Elementary Schools in 186J, 61 

Defects of the System as shown by Statistics,. . . 62 

4. Legislation of 1867-8, 66 

II. Secondary Schools, 67 

1. History of the Gymnasium, 1577-Jbul, 67 

Aquaviva and the Ratio Studiorum, 67 

Jacobus Strabo and Petrus Codiciilus, 67 

Gymnasiums of the Jesuits — Piarists, 68 

Joseph I — Maria Tiieresa — Gerhnrd von Swieten, 69 

State Board of Education — ?i!'rtini — Marx, 70 

Joseph II — Hess — Teachers' Association 71 

Leopold II-Board of Educational f?efi:irm in 1795, 73 

Gymnasial Code of 1808, 74 

Plan of Rporganization of Gymn.-isiums, 1849,... 79 
Vernacular and Classical languages, 81 

2. Present Organization, 82 

(1) Complete and Incomplete — l^.inguage, 82 

(2) Supervision — Central find Provincial, 82 

(3) Grades and Duties of Teachers 83 

(4) Appointment, Salaries, and Pensions 84 

(5) Branches and Plan of Inslruclion, 85 

Latin — Greek — German language 86 

Geogra^ihy and Historj' — iNlathemutics, 88 

Natural History— Plivsirs— Philosophy, 89 

Religion — Music — Drawing — Stenography,.. 90 

(6) Text-books — Apparatus — Libraries, 90 

(7) Terms — Vacations— Admission — Tuition, . . 90 

(8) Discipline — Incentives — Punishments, 91 

(9) Examinations — Pronmtions, 91 

(10) Maturity or Leaving Examination, 92 

(11) Private Schools, and Private Students, 93 

(12) Training a,nd Examination of Teachers 93 

(13) Funds and Expense of Gymnasial Instruction, 94 

3. Statistics and Results of Secondary Schools, ... 95 
HI. Real-Schools, 98 

1. Historical Development, 1745-1861 98 

2. Present Organization atid Condition, 101 

(1) Classification — Complete and lower, 101 

(2) Language of the Majority of Pupils used,.. 10.1 

(3) Teachers— grades, appointments, privileges,.. J02 

(4) Studies— Obligatory and optional, 103 

(5) Practical Course of one year, , 103 

(6) Funds and Expenses, . . .' 105 

(7) Sunday and Evening Schools, 105 

3. Statistics and Results J 05 

IV. Public Instruction in Hungary and 
other non-German States, 107 

1. Hungary, 107 

2. Transylvania 112 

3. Croatia, 118 . 

V. Legislation of 1867-8, 120 


Area — Population — History, 121 

Public Instruction, 122 

Historical Development, 122 




I. Common or Elementary Schools, 122 

Obligatory School-attendance of Children, 122 

Duty of Parishes and Communes, 123 

Supervision and Inspection, 125 

Statistics and llesnUs, 127 

Summary of Laws and Regulations, 127 

School Authorities— School Attendance, 128 

Studies and Internal Organization, 128 

Plan of Instruction — Division of Time, 12i) 

Evening, Sunday, and Factory Schools, I'M 

Teachers — their Training, Conferences, Salaries, 133 

Legislation and Statistics of IBOU, 135 

II. Secondary Schools, l-'Jo 

Classification— Classical, and Burgher, 135 

Management — High School Council, 136 

Lyceum — Gymnasium — Preparatory, 137 

Admission— Obligatory Studies 138 

Distribution of Studies by Hours, 139 

ReUgion — Devotional E.Kercises, 140 

Latin — Greek — French -German, 141 

History — Geography — Mathematics, 143 

Philosophy — Singing — Drawing, 145 

Books of Reference 145 

Rank of Pupils — Classification 14(5 

Discipline — Incentives — Penalties, 146 

Terms — Vacations — Daily routine, 147 

Titles— Professors — Special teachers, 148 

Philological Seminaries for Teachers of Gymnasia, 148 

III. Real Schools 149 

Higher Bumher-schools 149 

Gewerbeschulen, 151 

IV. Higher Institutions for Girls, 152 

Conventual — Municipal — Private, 152 

V. Orphan AND other Special Institutions, 153 
Astor Home for Neglected Children, 154 


Area — Population — Religion — Government, 157 

Public Instruction 158 

I. Primary OK ('i)MMON Schools, 158 

1. Reorganizntion since 1802, 158 

2. Present Organization 160 

School Attendance — Parents and Communes,... 161 
School-hours — Resilience and salary of Teachers, 161 

Inspection — Lo al, Provincial, and State, 163 

Four Circle Inspections— City School Inspection, 163 
Rehitions of the Clergy to the Public Sclioi Is 165 

3. Number of Schools, Pupils, Teachers, 166 

Daily routine — Results as to Illiteracy, 167 

4. Internal Organization 168 

Tnjle Classification, and Subdivisions, 168 

Studies, and their Distribution, 168 

(1) Religion— Catechism, 169 

(2) Biblical H istory 169 

(3) Memorizing — Texts— Hymns, 169 

(4) Reading, ". 169 

(r-t) Penmanship I<i9 

(6) Dictation Exercises, 169 

(7) Business Forms, 169 

(8) Arithmetic, 169 

(9) Geography and History, 170 

( 10) Singing 170 

(11) Drawing, besides Special Drawing Schools,.. 170 

Industrial Classes, 170 

Methods of Instruction 171 

Devotional E.xercise — Conduct in th^ Streets,. . . 171 

Discipline — Incentives — Penalties, 171 

Sunday-schools— Separation of Sexes, 172 

5. Teachers — their Training, 172 

Legal Designation — Provisions for Training, 172 

Preliminarv, Seminary, and Pal-graduate Course, 173 

Teachers' Seminnry— School of Practice 173 

Teachers' Conferences, Assuciati(in<:, Periodical^, 174 

Appointment. Suspension, and Dismissal, 174 

Salaries, I'ensions, Widows' and Orphans' Funds, 175 

Emeriti Teachers 176 

Female Teachers. 176 


II. Secondary Schools 17G 

1. High Schools for Girls, 176 

Stetten Institution — Maximilian Foundation,. . . Vi6 

English Ladies' School — Conventual Schools,. . . 177 

Course (»f Instruction — Tenchers — Methods, 178 

2. Gymnasia and Classical Schco'.s, 179 

Earlv Character — Later Aims 179 

Plan'of Organization in 1804 and 18U8, 179 

Modification in 1810, 1830, 1841, 180 

Private teaching, 181 

Number— Conlessioiuil Character — lnc(jme, 182 

Preparatory Schcols — Iso'ated Latin Schocds,.., 184 

Admission — Age — Attainments 185 

Studies, and Distribution by hours in the week,. 185 

Obligatory and Optional Stud es, 185 

Religious Instruction — Devotional Exercises, 186 

Latm— Books— Composition .^ JP7 

Greek — Hebrew — French — Gerinan .' l('(i 

History — Geogra[)hy — Natural History 189 

Mathematics— Physics— Natural Philosophy, 189 

Gymnastics — Private Studies — Librarj', IW 

Class-teaching— Incentives— Behavior and Habits, 191 

School-year — Public Examinations, J9J 

Teachers, Seminaries Jbr, in the L^iiversities,. . . 192 

Appointment — Salaries — Increase 193 

Pensions — Widows' and Or])hans' Fund 193 

3. Real Schools, 193 

Earliest in 1808— Parallel Courses 193 

Institutions of Technical Instruction in J829,... 194 

(1) Agricultural Gymnasiums 195 

(2) Polytechnic School, li»5 

(3) Final course in carpentry, mining, forestry, &C.195 

(4) Higher education in Agriculture , 195 

(5) Fine Arts and Civil Architecture-, 195 

Distribution of Studies in Mechanical School,. . 196 

Distribution of Studies in Agricultural School,. . 196 

Teachers for Technological Schools, 197 

Training and Appointment,. 198 

Supervision — Attendance — Ex|)eiises, 199 

Text-books — School-year— Examination— Prizes, 201 

IV. Special In.«titutioxs, 204 

Cradle and Infant Scl ool 204 

Rescue Institutions, 205 


Area— Population, 207 

History of Schools and School Legislation, 207 

System of Public Instruction, 209 

I. Primary School?, 209 

School Age — Duty of Parishes, imd pf Parents,.. . 2;/'J 

Superintendence, local and general 211 

Internal Arrangement of the Schools, 211 

City and Villaije School.s— Studies and Classes,... 212 

Teachers — tli< ir Professional Training 213 

Ml nthlv Record — Teachers' Conference's, 2i:? 

General Teachers' Association, 21; 

i Exiimination^-Appoi itment-Promotion-Pensions. 211 

j Teachers' Mutual Life Insurance Coiii|):itiy Hi- 

Widows' and Orphans' Fund, _ •'> 

Private Schools, -J .1 

II. Orphan and Rescue Houses 
ITT. Secondary Schools 

liilian College — Caroline College, 

Gyninasinl System— Superintendence — Pupils, 
Course of Instruction 


':] ; 

2J (' 

Area— Populition— Religion— Government, 

I. Primary Schools, 

1. School Legislation 

German Writing and Cvpliering Snhoo's 

Ordinance of 1650— 1684— 1736— 1752— 1845,. . 

First Seminary for Teachers in 1751, 

Normal Schools in 18.57, 

2. Present School L:uv., 

Duty of Parents and Guardians of Children 

Duty of Parishes to establish and support School, 




Local anil General Supervision, 228 

3. School Statistics of 1855 228 

Scliools— Pupils— Teachers— Salaries, 229 

4. Timer Organization, 229 

Gradation — Sexes— Subjects — Daily Routine,... 229 
Monthly Record Book — Fines exacted of Parents, 230 

5. Teachers — Candidates and their Training, .... 2iJ0 
Examination—Location— Suspension— Assistants, 231 

Teachers' Associations — Reading Clubs 232 

Pensions — Widow and Orplian Funds, 232 

G. Higher Female Schools, 232 

7. Special Schools 233 

Blind — Deaf-mutes — Imbeciles — Orphans, &c.,.. 233 

If. SECONDARY Schools, 234 

1. Historical Development from 783 to 1858 234 

SciioJBP Grecae et Latinac, 786— Schola; Majores, 234 

Latin Schools of 1528, 1546, 1586 236 

Seminary for Gymnasial Teaciiers in 1737, 238 

Labors of Ernest i and Gesner, 238 

Study of Latin and Greek, 239 

Influence of University and Teachers' Seminary, 240 
Memorable words of Heyne 241 

2. Existing Organization 241 

(1) Final examination of Gymnasial Students,.. 242 

(2) Sujjreme Board of Instruction, 244 

3. Preparation of Teachers — Normal Seminary,.. 245 
Mathematical and Physical Seminary, 246 

4. Local School Authorities, 246 

Governmental and Municipal Board— Board of 

Instruction, 246 

Director— Ordinary or Class-teacher — Associate,. 246 

5. Endowment, and annual State stipend 247 

in. Statistics, 247 

Gymnasiums — Pro-gymnasiums— Lyceums, 247 

Latin Sclfool, 247 

Real Schools -Higher Burgher Schools,. 248 

Real classes in Gymnasiums, 248 

Teachers and Students— Income and Expenses,. . 248 

IV. Inner Organization, 249 

Course of Instruction — Condition of Admission,.. 249 
Devotional Exercises — Ueligious Instruction, .... 250 
Latin— Greek — Hebrew— French — English — Ger- 
man, 252 

History — Geography — Natural History, 2.52 

Mathematics — Natural Philosophy, ' 2.55 

I\Iusic — Drawing — Gymnastics, . ". 256 

Lessons in Gymnasium, and Real Clas.s, 257 

Progymnasiu'm and Real School 257 

Study out of School-hours — Libraries of Reference, 257 

2. Discipline — Incentives and Penalties, 258 

Personal Influence of Teacher — Ordinary Routine, 258 

3. Vacations — Final and Class Examinations and 

Exhibitions, 259 

V. Teachers, 259 

Grades and Titles, 2.59 

Examinations — Trial Exercises, 259 

State Relations — Salaries— Pensions, 260 

Widows and Orphans' Funds, 261 

Result of the Reorganization in 1830, 261 


Area— Population — Government, 263 

General View of Education and Schools, 264 

I. Elementary Schools, 265 

1. Organization — Secular — Ecclesiastical, 265 

2. School Authorities, 266 

Local School Committee, 266 

City Districts, 266 

District School Councilor, 266 

Provincial School Referee, 267 

Minister of the Interior, 267 

3. School Attendance 267 

Parentul Obligation to send Children to School, 267 

4. Internal Organization and Instruction 268 

No General Regulation as to Hours, Lessons, &c., 268 

School Diaries and Records, by Teachers and In- 

8j)ectors, 269 

Inspection and Examination, 269 

Punishments — Trespasses out of School, 270 

Industrial Instruction in Evening Classes, 270 

5. Teachers, 270 

Seminaries for Teachers — Final Organization,. . 271 

Practical Training in Gardening, &c., ,. . . . 271 

Location — Salary — Sources of income, 272 

Educational Course, and Selection, 272 

II Secondary Schools non-Classical.... 272 

1. Real Schools 272 

Imperfect Development — Influence of Guilds,. . . 273 

Real Classes in Gymnasium 273 

Real School at Cassel with Eight Classes 273 

2. Higher Female Schools, 274 

3. Private Schools, 274 

III. Gymnasiums, 274 

Relations to the State— Number— Tuition, 275 

Admission — Pupils — Studies— Recitations, 275 

Discipline — Examination — Teachers 276 

IV. Special Institutions, 277 

Orphan Homes, 277 

Rescue Institutions, 277 

Deaf-mute Asylum, 277 


Area — Population — Government, 279 

Public Instruction, 280 

I. Primary or Common Schools, 281 

1. Historical Development 281 

Church Order of 1526, 281 

Ordinance of I^andgrave George II, in 1634 281 

School Law of 1832, 281 

2. Existing System, 281 

Duty of Parents— Obligatory Attendance, 282 

Duty of Parishes and Towns — Expenses, 283 

Supervision — Local — General, , 283 

Loral or Parish Board, 283 

District Commissioner, 283 

Higher Directory of Education, 284 

3. Schools— Scholars— Teachers, 284 

4. Internal Condition, 285 

Classification — Age — Sex — Attainments, 285 

Lessons per week — Religious Instruction, 285 

Public Examinations — Discipline, 285 

5. Teachers, and their Training — Seminaries, 286 

Model School — Conferences, 287 

Permanent Settlement — Dismissal — Salaries, 287 

Pensions — Widow and Orphan Funds, 288 

5. Results, 288 

TI. Classical and Higher Schools, 289 

1. Historical Develo|)ment-Conressional character, 289 

2. Students — Teachers — Expense, 290 

3. Internal Condition, 290 

Classes — Subjects, and their Distribution, 290 

Religious Instruction — Devotional Exercises,. . . 291 

Latin— Greek— Hebrew— French— English 291 

German Language — History — Geography 292 

Mathematics— Natural Sciences — Music, 292 

G vmnastics — Swimming, 292 

Class Teachers— Private Pupils 292 

Discipline, in and out of School-hours, 293 

Gymnasial Attendance and the Civil Service, . . . 293 

4. Teachers " 2<)4 

Conditions — Examination — Trial Year, 294 

III. The Real and Trade Schools, 295 

Modifications of the Gymnasial Course, 295 

Mcnhanic School in 1822— Real Schools in 18.34,. 295 

Higher Trades School, at Darmstadt, 296 

Subjects, and their Distribution 296 

Religious Instruction — Latin — German, 296 

Modification of Subjects and Methods to Life,... . 297 
Results of the System, 298 



IV. High Schools for Girls, 298 

Origin and Extension of this class of Schools,. . . . 298 

Intellectual versus Domestic Culture, 298 

V. Special Institutions , 299 

Orphan Asylmns — Distribution in Families, 299 

Rescue Institutions, '. . 299 

Schools for Deaf-mutes, and the Blind, 299 

Infant Asylums and Schools, 300 


Area — Population — History — Government, 301 

Public Instruction, 301 

I. Elementary Schools, 302 

Schools— Pupils— Teachers— Studies, 302 


Area — Population — Religion — Government, 303 

Public Instruction, 303 

I. Primary Schools, 303 

School Age — Obligation of Parents and Parishes, 304 

Local JNIanngement — State Supervision, 304 

Classification — Studies — Religion, 304 

Common Science — Drawing, Knitting, &c., 304 

Shepherds' Schools, 305 

Infant Gardens — Spinning Schools, 305 

Teachers and their Training — Seminary, 305 

Location — Salary — Pension — Widow and Orphan, 305 

II. Secondary Schools 305 

Rector-schools — Number and Grade, .. . 305 

G vmnasiums at Detmold and Lemgo, 306 

Higher Female School at Detmold, 306 


Popular Ignorance prior to the Reformation, 307 

Schools under Ernest, 307 

, 307 


Obligation of School-attendanoe, 319 

Duty of Clergymen and Magistrates, 320 

Studies — School-rooms — Public Examination,.., 320 

Teachers — Seminary at Mirow, .* 322 

Silk, Garden and Meadow Culture 322 

II. Secondary Schools 321 

Gymnasiums and Labor Schools, 321 

Burgher and City High School 321 

High Schools for Girls, 321 


Area — Population, 
Public Instruction, 


I. Primary Schools, — 

II. Secondary Schools, 


.Area — Population — History, 308 

Public Instruction, 308 


History — Area — Population, 
Public Instruction, 



I. Primary Schools 310 

Defective Condition of Schools as they were,. .'. . 310 

Reorganization in 1756-1785, 310 

Don-mnial, Manorial, and Landschuft Schools,. . . 311 

Inspection and Management, 311 

Duty of Parents and Parishes — School attendance, 312 
Teachers — Seminary — Examination, .' 312 

II. Higher Elementary Schools 313 

III. Special Elementary Schools, 314 

Trades Schools 314 

Teachers' Seminary, 314 

Niivigation Schools 314 

Institution for Deaf-mutes, 314 

IV. Secondary Schools, 315 

Origin of Gymnasiums in 1541 315 

Studies, and their Distribution by Hours^ 315 

Higher City Schools, .- 316 

Teachers — Salaries — Maturity Examination, 317 

Real Schools— Studies, .' 318 

Area — Population, 309 

Public. Inslf uction, 318 

I. Primary School 318 

Revised Lnw of 16.50, 1711, 177:1, 1801, 1816, 1826, 319 
Teachers' Seminary in 1801 — Pensions, 319 

I. Elementary Schools, 324 

School Age — Dutv of Parents — Daily Routine,... 324 

Duty of Purishes/as to House, «24 

i Course of Instruction, 324 

Teachers — Training— CJonfessional Character,... 325 

Supervisioi; — Local and District, 325 

Support of Schools, 325 

II. Secondary Schools, 325 

Pedagogium, 326 

Gymnasium, 326 


Area — Population, 327 

Public Instruction, 327 

I. Elementary Schools, 327 

1. Priuiary Schools, 327 

State Control 327 

Age, and Extent of School-attendance, 327 

Obligation of Parents, 327 

Gradation of Schools, ^28 

Studies in a School of one class, 328 

Studies in School of two classes, upper and lower, 328 

Teachers and their Salaries and Privileges,.. .... 329 

2. Middle School— Studies and Teachers, 329 

3. Higher Burgher Schools — Studies and Teachers, 329 

4. Private Schools 329 

5. Infant Schools and Orphan Houses, 330 

III. Secondary Schools, 330 

Gymnasiums and Pro-gymnasiums, 330 

Professional and Special Schools, 331 

1. Agricultural School at Manenburg, 331 

2. Trade School at Oldenburg 331 

3. Navigation School at Eisfleth, , 331 

4. Teachers' Seminary at Oldenburg,.. 331 

5. Normal School i'or Catholic Teachers at Vechta, 332 


History — Area — Population, 333 

Public Instruction, : 334 

I. Primary or Elementary Schools 335 

Historical Development, 335 

^1. .Inte-regol Period, 335 

Mark of Brandenburg— Law of 1540, 1573, -335 

Electorate of Brandenburjr — Ordinance of 157.3,.. 336 

Duchy of Prussia, 1568,1.598 .336 

Pome'rania, Writing and Girls' Schools, 1563, 336 

Contuberninm in Wesel in 1687 336 

Duchy of Magdeburg, Edict of Augustus in 1652, 337 

B. Kivgdom of Prussia, 337 

Frederic I, 1701-1713 337 

Aid toTeiichers and Stricter Visitation of Schools, 337 

Frederic William T, 1713-1740 338 

Franke — Ratich — Comenius — Teaching, 338 

Restrictions on Class of Candidates in 1732, 1738, 338 
Normal School in Stettin in 173.5 — in Kloster- 

bergen, 1736 339 

Royal Ordinance of 1713 and 171.5 339 

i Teacherssent to Lithuania in 11 If^ 339 

1 Grantof Land, free of rents and taxes, for Schools, 340 

j Principin Resulativn of 1737— Mnns Pietatis, 340 

I DutyofParishes— Obligatory School-attendance... 340 
j Instructions for Pomerania— Berlin Circular of 1738, 341 



Frederic 11—1740-1786, 342 

Lutheran Iligli Consistory, 342 

Heguliitions of 1740— Hecker and Real Schools,.. .342 

Normal School for the Kiirmark in Berlin 342 

Ordinance of Schweidnitz, 343 

General School Regulations of Sept. 23, 17G3 343 

Opposition — Modifications — Additional Aid, 344 

Catholic Schools in Silesia, difficulties with, 34G 

School Reform in Silesia — Von Felbiger— Sagan, 3415 
Decree of Nov. 12, 1764, as to Normal Schools. &c., 347 
Candidates for the INIinistry and Normal School... 347 

Normal School iit Bresiau in 1765, 347 

Catholic Sciiool Organization, Nov. 3, 1765, 348 

Schools of the Jesuits— Dissolution of the Order,.. 349 
Von Rochow — Better Schools and School-books,. 350 

Fri;deric William II, 178G-1796, 350 

Superior School-board — Reasons for, 351 

Instructions to be modified according to occupa- 
tion, 351 

Instructions in Economics and Hygiene .351 

Schools declared State Institutions in 1794 352 

Condition of Village and Country Schools in 1796, 352 
Addition to Teachers' Income by Silk Culture,.. . 353 

C. Frederic William HI, 1797-1840 3.^3 

Wollner's Inslruct/Jons, and the King's Order, 1797, 353 

Defects in Villiige Schools and Education, 354 

Von Massow and Instructions of the King, 1798,. 3.55 

Plan for a General Improvement of Schools 355 

Preliminary Examination of their Conditiun, IfcOl, 3.56 
Mission to Olivier, in Dessau, and to Pestulozzi,.. 356 
A|)plication of the Results of these Inquiries, .... 356 

Religious Instruction in the Schools, 356 

Sunday-schooh for Journeymen and Apprentices, 357 

Middle-schools first mentioned in 1799 358 

Normal School for Female Teachers, by Gedike,.. 359 

Institute for Governesses established in 1804, 359 

Industrial Schools proposed and established, 359 

Discussion on Improved Methods, 359 

Demonstration of Pestalozzian methods byPlamann,360 
Fichte proclaimed their superiority, 360 

D. Period of Trav.^ition — Queen Louisa, 360 

Period of National Reverses in 1806-1807, 360 

Educational Policy of the King and Q,ueen, 360 

Memorable Words' of the King, and Minister Stein, 361 

Transference of the Supervision of Schools, 361 

Third Section for School and Eccles. Affairs,.... 361 
William von Humboldt, Nicolovius, and Silvern, 361 
General Historical Summary, 362 

Schools and Education — the foundation of Prus- 
sian Government, 362 

Abolition of Serfdom — Education of the Subject, 362 

Municipal Training of the Citizen, 363 

Progressive Elements from Abroad — Zeller, 363 

Letter of Altenstein to Pestalozzi, 363 

Prussian Pestalozzian School — Characteristics,.. 364 
Geography and history of Fatherland — Music,.. 364 
Drawing— Physical Training — Native Language, 364 

Corps of professionally trained Teachers, 365 

Reorganization of Normal Schools, 365 

Modern School Organization developed in 1820,.. 366 

Teachers' Association, 366 

Official Reaction against Pestalozzianism, 367 

Educational Development in the New Provinces,. 368 

I. Province of Saxony, 368 

Area — Population — Educational Antecedents, 368 

Franke— Zerrenner— Dinter— Harnisch, 370 

II. Stralsund and Pomerania, 371 

Town Schools — Free Schools in 1525, 372 

School Organization by Bugenhagen in 1535,... 372 

School in Barth in 1325, 1584, 1743, 373 

Town School at Bergen, 373 

Private Schools 374 

Teachers and Teaching 374 

Changes wrought by the Prussian System, 376 

Country Schools — former and present condition,. 378 

Obligatory School-attendance— Results , . 381 

Deficient Education and Poor Pay of Teachers,. 382 

I Page. 

III. Province of the Rhine, 384 

Previous Condition of Schools, 384 

I Difficulties of the Problem 384 

Gradual Assimilation to the General System,.. 386 

I Normal Schools established, 387 

1 IV. Province of Westphalia, ?i87 

I Detached portions of several diverse Governments, 387 
Portions belonging to Prussia — Wilberg — Hecker,. 388 

Episco|)Qte of Paderborn — Improvements, .388 

I Education of C iris— Female Teaciiers 388 

j Miinster — Regulation of Von Furstenburg, 1776, . 388 
Normal School in 1790— Labors of Overberg,. . .. .388 

I Paderborn— Prince-bishop Ferdinand H, 38S 

I Catechism — School-houses — FemaleTeachers, . . . ,388 

Decree in 1788— Francis Egon in 1789 .389 

Dnchv of Westphalia— Abp. Maximilian, 1656... 389 

I Clemens Augustus. 1721-61 — ItineratingTeachers, 389 

Feil)i£er's School Reform and Catholic Schools,. . .389 

Free Instruction for Teachers at Bonn in 1787,... 389 

Local Committee independent of Bonn, .389 

Priests were to be found qualified to keep School, 389 
First Industrial School at Honkhausen in 1769,.. 389 

Archbishopric of Cologne — Hesse Darmstadt 390 

School-attendance made obligatory on Parents,. . . 390 

Education and Support of Teachers — Girls, 390 

Action of Prussian Government — Vincke-Natorp, 390 

V. Province of Posen, 390 

Aren— Pon.ilntion— Period of Prussia, 1773, 1793, 390 
DistrictofBromberg— Political changes, 1807, 18J5, 390 
Destitution of Schools — Condkion of the Peasantry, 391 

Private Teachers for the Nobles, ". 391 

Condition of Schools and the Popnlntion in 1773, 392 

Cnlvinists (Lutheran) — Landed Proprietors, 392 

Schools independent of the Church in 1773 392 

Beneficent plans of Frederic II— Canals— Colonists, 392 

Cabinet Order of 1774— School-houses, .393 

New Schools in 1778 — Confiscated property, 393 

Revenues from the sale of Tobacco 393 

Action of Ecclesinstical Bodies and Nobles, 394 

School atTrzemeszno, by Abbot von Kosmowski, 394 

Franciscan School at Pakose in 1787 394 

Action of Saxon Government from 1697 to 1763,. 394 

Regulation of 1808-Polish language 395 

Action of the treaty of Vienna in 18J5, 395 

Grand Duchy of Posen out of Prussian dominions, 395 
Condition of Schools in 1815 in Bromberg district, 395 

Labors of Reichhelm, Runge, and Frank 396 

Normal School nt Bromberg in 1817 — at Kosmin, 397 

Public Schools in Bromberg, 397 

Earliest Public Elementary School in 1807, 397 

Condition of Public Schools in 1864 397 

Population, as to Language nnd Religion, 399 

Public Schools for both Confessions, 400 

CircularNoteofMinisterofPub. Instruction, 1822, 400 

Cabinet Order of the King in 1829, 401 

Hostility of different Nationalities and Confessions, 4(ll 

Separate Schools, 402 

L^se of Polish language confined to Polish children, 402 
Order of the King, and Instructions of the Minister, 403 
Instruction in botii Languages to certain extent,.. 403 
Schools, and modifications, for Hebrew children,. 404 

Mixed Constitution of the Local Committee, 404 

Evangelic Preachers, and Catholic Priests 405 

Evangelical Superintendents, nnd Catholic Deans, 405 

Condition of Catholic Elementary Schools 405 

Results in difference of Denominational Interest... 406 

Number of enrolled Recruits not educated, 406 

Difficulties with Proprietors of large landed estates, 406 

Conflict of Saxon and Prussian regulations, 407 

Special aid to Impoverished Communities, 407 

Income for the Teachers' Salary, 408 

Building and repair of School-houses, 408 

Special aid to Normal Schools — Rectors' Classes,. 409 

Increase of the Scanty Salaries of Teachers 409 

Fund for the ^V^idows and Orphans of Teachers, 410 

Superannuated and Emcritcd Teachers 410 

Educational Statistics of the Bromberg district,. . 411 

II. General History from 1817, 411 

Ministry of Baron von Altenstein, 411 



Consolidation of the System — Improved Institu- 
tions nnd Methods, 412 

Cenerul Revision of Law drafted, but not ordained, 412 
Hegel — Plumann — Education and the Church,. . . 413 
Becivedorf— Annals of Prussian Public Schools,^. . 413 
Dreist—Kortiini— Development of the System,.... 414 

Ministry of Eichhorn, 414 

Eilers at the head of Elementary Bureau 414 

Policv of Restriction on Primary Education, 414 

Decree of the Ministry of Nov. 5, 1842 415 

Gardening — Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers, 415 

Dissolution of Normal School at Breslau, 415 

Compulsory Resignation of Diestervveg, 415 

Recent Jldministration, 416 

Frederick Stiehl — his Special Aims, 416 

Prussian Regulations of 1st, 2d and .3d of Oct., 1854, 416 

Debate in the House of Representatives,. . 416 

Petition of the Dortmund Circle 416 

Report of Committee on Education, 417 

Petitions and Debate in 1859 417 

Regulations by Committee and the Government,.. 417 

CircularNote of Minister von Holhveg, 417 

Instruction — Religion— Overtasking the Memory.. 418 

Bible History .418 

Knowledge indispensable to Practical Life 418 

Instruction in Arithmetic and Geometry. 419 

Natural Philosophy, Botany, and Zoology, 419 

German Language — Chemistry — Drawing, 4J9 

Geography and History, especially of Prussia, 419 

Debate in the House in I860, 429 

Resolutions of the Committee, 42») 

Provincial Authorities requested to report, 421 

Memorial of the Minister on the Reports, 421 

Pamphlet by F. Stiehl, on the Regulations, 422 

Gymnastics, and Pliysical Training, 422 

Drawing — 422 

Education of Girls— Needlework, &c., 422 

Realization of Prussian National School in 1866,. 423 

Catholic Public Schools, 423 

Statistics of Prussian Public Schools,.. 424 

Number of Primary Public Schools in 1819, 424 

Town Schools and Village Schools, 424 

Teachers of Primary Schools in 1819, 424 

Salaries in Town Schools, 424 

Salaries in Village Schools 424 

Public Schools defined, 425 

Charge of Instruction in Religion, 425 

Classes, and Separate Teachers, 425 

Public Elementary Schools in 1860-61, 425 

Evangelic— Catholic— Hebrew — Total, 425 

Towns— Villages— Total, 425 

Schools and Classes — Total, 425 

Teachers, male and female — Total, 425 

Private Schools — Schools and Classes— Pupils, 426 

Children — Enumerated, and in School, 427 

Salaries of Teachers — Amount — Average, 428 

Special Statistics of Berlin Teachers 429 

Repairs and Construction of Buildings, 431 

Funds for Widows and Orphans of Teachers,. , . . 431 

Pension Funds, 432 

Statistics of Elementary Schools in 1866, 433 

II. System of Secondary Schools, 435 

1. Historual Development of School Ad- 
ministration, 435 

Ji. Supreme Administration, 435 

Decree of Elector Joachim II, in 1552 435 

Visiting Regulations of 1.573, 1662, 1687, 435 

Spirit of Frederic II, ' 436 

Decree of Frederic William I, in 1713, 1718 436 

Department of Church and School Affairs, 1722,. 436 
Education transferred to State and Law Dep., 1771, 437 

SupreiTie School Board created in 1787, 437 

Von Zedlitz, 437 

Religious Edict ofWollner 438 

Message from Frederic William HI to Wollner,.. 439 
Third Section for Worship and Public Instruction, 440 
William von Humboldt, chief, Dec. 17, 1808, ... 440 

Nicolovius and Ecclesiastical AflTairs, 440 

Silvern and School Affairs, , 440 


Von Schuckmann's Administration, 18 — , 441 

Ministry of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs, 441 

Baron von Altenstein, 441 

Hegel and his Philosophy, 441 

Mandate of Minister of the Interior and Police,... 442 

Testimony of Cousin and Thiersch, 444 

Dr. J. A. F. Eichborn, 1831 to 1850 444 

Contest between the Classical and the Scientific,. 445 

Hegelian Philusopbv, 445 

Von Raumer, 1850 "to Nov. 8, 1858, 446 

Von Bethman-Hollweg, iKoB to March 10, ]862,. 447 

Von Miihler, 1862 447 

Su])erintendent of Catholic School Affairs, 447 

B. Provincial Admini-'tration, 447 

Departments of Territorial Admiriistraticm, 17J3,. 448 

Consistories of the Provinces, 4-18 

Higher Consistory of Berlin, 1750 448 

Provincial Deputation of Worship, 1808, &c 448 

Scientific Deputations for Public Instruction. 181I), 448 

Duties of Chief President of the Eij;ht Provinces,. 448 

Literary Commissions for Examination in 1817,.. 448 

School-collegiums in 1826, 1845, 1848, 448 

General Superintendents of the Consistories,.. .. 449 

Provincial Development of Higher Education, ... 449 

I. Province of Prussia 449 

Schooisofthe Reli-rious Orders in 1351-J381,.. . . 449 

Latin Schools, 1510-1568, 449 

Schools ol" the. lesu its converted intoGvmtiasiums, 449 

Obstacles in the Polish districts, .' 449 

II. Province of Posen, 449 

Increase of Higher Schools since 1815, 449 

German and Polish language, 450 

III. Province of Silesia, 451 

High School at Goldberg, under Trotzenriorf, 45] 

Schools of the Jesuits converted into Gymnasiums, 451 

Religious Education, .' 448 

University of Breslau. 451 

Studies in Catholic Schools 4.52 

Confessional Character of Existing Institutions,.. 452 

IV. Province of Pomerania, 452 

University of Greifswald in 1456, 452 

Latin Schools after Bugenhagen's Regulations,... 452 

Polytechnic feature in new Secondary Schools,.. 453 

V. Province of Saxony ; 4.53 

Early School Foundations — Schulpforta — Halle,. 4.54 

VI. Province of Westphalia,. 4.54 

Oldest School Foundations in the Kingdom, 454 

Latest Evangelical, at Giitersloh, 1851', 4.54 

Labors of F. Kohlrausch, 1818-1830,. , 455 

VII. Province of Rhine andHohenzoll'rn, 455 

Early Schools of the Jesuits, ^ 455 

Alternate Sway of French and German Ideas, 450 

Number of Gymnasiums in 1814, 455 

Classical and Modern studies, 456 

Training and Schools for Teachers 456 

Gymnasium at Cologne, 457 

Real Schools and Higher Burgher Schools, 459 

Founding of the University at Bonn, 459 

Proclamation of Frederic William III, 459 

VIII. Province of Brandenburgh, 459 

Frankfort on the Oder, 1505— Gray Convent, 1574, 460 

Joachimsthal Gymnasium, 460 

Higher Institutions at Berlin, 460 

C. Local Jldministration and Right of Patronage, 460 

Institutions of Royal Foundation, 460 

Institutions under City School-deputation, 460 

Influence of the Berlin School regulations, 460 

Right of Patronage belongs to the Magistrate, 460 

Special City School Commission, 461 

Cabinet Order of 1862, as to Directors and Teachers, 461 

Z). State Regulation of Higher Institutions,... 462 

Declarations of the Common Law, 1794, 462 

Public Character — Right of all to admission, 462 

Liberty of Conscience — School-attendance, 462 

Teachers Officers of State— Right of Fathers,. . . . 462 



Since the cession of the Lombardo-Venetian provinces to Italy, 
the Austrian monarchy has an area of 227,234 square miles, and a 
population in 1864 of 34,432,890, distributed throughout — 

I. The Empire of Austria^ comprising the provinces of Lower 
Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Illyria, 
Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Buko- 
wina, Dalmatia ; and 

II. The Kingdom of Hungary, comprising the provinces of Hun- 
gary, Croatia, Slavonia, Transylvania, and the Military Frontier. 
Each of the two great divisions has its own ministry, parliament, 
and entirely separate administration, and every province has its own 
provincial diet. 

Austria [Empire] has, on an area of 124,116 square miles, a pop- 
ulation of 20,602,736, and the Kingdom of Hungary, on an area of 
103,118, a population of 13,830,154. The national industries are 
as varied as the climate and soil, and have called into existence a 
large number of special schools. 

The total expenditure in 1864 was 508,781,793 florins, of which 
sum 2,951,523 florins were expended for public instruction of all 
kinds, viz., 139,828 fl. in Hungary, and 2,580,670 fl. in Austria. 
The institutions of public instruction, both in Austria proper and in 
Hungary, are under a separate and special minister, except such as 
are specially connected with the administration of other depart- 
ments, such as those of war, finance, &c. 

The system of public instruction is comprehensive,* and in every 
department at the present time there is progress. The recent school 
code (1869) will compare favorably with the most advanced legis- 
lation of any country in respect to elementary instruction. 

The following statistics are gathered from the latest oflScial doc- 

*For a historical development of public instruction in Austria, see American Journnl of Edu- 
cation, vol. xvi [). 1—32, 609; xvii. p. 129. Special Report on JsTational Education : Part L 
Germany — Austria. 












Total. • 

Austria, . 














Connected with these schools, and taught by the same teachers, are 1,472 Female Industrial schools ; 382 
Apprentice schools; 15,752 Sunday Repetition schools ; 2,777 schools for instruction in fruit culture 352 for 
bee culture 169 for silkworm culture. 





























32 076 




















In Austria there are 7 universities, viz., 5 with four faculies [theology, law, medicine, philosophj-] each: 
Vienna, Gratz, Prague, Cracow, and Pesth ; and 2 universities with three faculties [theology, law, philos' 
ophyj each, viz., Innspruck and Lemberg — with a total of 9,198 students and 650 professors. 










Theological Seminaries— Roman Catholic, 

















































































" '• Greek Catholic, 

" " Armenian, 


" " Greek Oriental, 

" " Protestant, 



Agricultural Academies, 


" Schools, 


Schools of V ine-culture, 


Schools of Silkworm culture, 


Forestry Sciiools, 

Mining Schools, 


Nautical Schools 


Polytechnic Institutes, 

Polytechnic Institutes with commercial course,.. 
Ci)mmercial Academies, 



Veterinary Schools, 


Military Academies 

Special Military Schools, 

Cadet Schools . 


School Companies 

Schools for Soldiers' Children 


Schools of Gymnastics 

Academies of the Fine Arts, 

Drawing Schools, 

Music Schools 

Institutes for Deaf and Dumb 

Institutes for Blind, 

Teachers' Seminaries 


Academies of Oriental Languages, 

La w Schools 




The system of special technical instruction in Austria includes in 
its early stages, or at least recognizes, the future occupation of the 
pupils, in the primary schools of every grade, and in one of the 
grades of schools usually classed as secondary. 


The first notice of the industrial element in Austrian schools, we 
find in the normal, or model school of Kindermaini, at Kaplitz in 
Bohemia. In 1773, he taught and demonstrated to his pupil-teacliers, 
and the country school-masters, how to occupy a portion of their own 
time and that of their older pupils, in and out of school hours, in such 
in-door industries as knitting, sewing, wool carding, and spinning, and 
out-door work as kitchen gardening, culture of trees, and raising silk- 
worms. '' The advantages of these occupations are great and impor- 
tant. They protect against vice and crime, and promote the welfare 
of human society." Under his lead, in the first year of this century, 
2,644 public schools were in operation in Bohemia, 54 of which were 
burgher-schools, in which the aim was " to give the future citizen an 
instruction adapted to his special occupation." 

Instruction in needle-work and like feminine employments, is now 
usual in the female schools, and the girls* classes in mixed schools, and 
receives special attention in the industrial schools of the religious cor- 
porations and ladies' societies. Instruction in the care of mulberry 
trees, grape vines, bees, and orchards is given in the normal schools, 
and by their pupils to the older boys in a large number of districts. 


In close connection with the common school, and through the same 
agencies, the "further instruction" of boys after leaving school and en- 
tering into apprenticeship, is carried on with the assistance and special 
inspection of Chambers of Commerce, and local associations of trades- 
men. The instruction is given on Sunday and holidays (except the 
high feasts), and in the morning and evening of other days. It is 
not confined to a review of the rudimentary studies, but is extended 
to higher arithmetical calculations, book-keeping, bank dealings, busi- 
ness correspondence and forms, natural history, and particularly to 
drawing. A re-cord of attendance is kept, and delinquent parents 
and employers are fined, and proprietors of large establishments are 
subject to arrest and imprisonment for persistent neglect in respect to 
their apprentices and other juvenile operatives. 



The burgher school, which belongs to the primary system, origi- 
nally intended to prepare pupils for the occupation of tradesmen and 
mechanics by a better general education, has become a subordinate 
real school, the students generally entering the higher real school after 
finishing the course. 

There are thirty hours of instruction per week, embracing re- 
ligion, composition, German, arithmetic, geography, natural philos- 
ophy, chemistry, geometry, architecture, geometrical and architect- 
ural drawing, and a little historical detail. French, Italian, English, 
music, and gymnastics, are optional. The tuition fees are small, 
and are remitted if the pupil is poor and has conducted himself well. 

In 1865, there were 117, of which but seven gave a three years' 
course, the rest only two years ; instruction being given by the director 
and catechist of the primary high school, with 3Q5 additional teachers. 
The instruction in arithmetic, German composition, geography, natural 
philosophy, chemistry and drawing, is given in the h gher classes in 
special reference to a commercial and mechanical career. 



The object of the real school is to give to its pupils a general edu- 
cation, the dead languages being excepted, and "to fit them to enter 
the technical schools, or to pursue industrial careers." 

They have been gradually developing since 1751, but do not ap- 
pear as distinct organizations before 1851. In 1863, there were 
forty of them in the Austrian empire, of which there are sixteen 
" lower real schools," with a course of only three years, and twenty- 
four " complete real schools," which carry their students through six 
years, thus adding three years to the course at the lower real school. 
There is, in three of the lower schools, an additional class, in which 
instruction is given in technology, commodities raw and manufactured, 
commercial transactions, and particularly in drawing. 

The lower real schools turn out pupils well prepared, theoretically, 
to become master workmen and overseers ; those called complete, 
prepare students who finish the course, to enter the technical schools. 

The course of study varies somewhat in different places. The 
obligatory studies are, German (or the language of the province), 
one modern language — French, Italian, or English, geography, his- 
tory, arithmetic, geometry, physics, chemistry, commercial law, nat- 
ural history, drawing, modeling (in the highest class), ornamental 
penmanship, architecture, and mechanics. Latin has been added in 
some of the lowest classes. The modem languages, singing, gym- 


nasties, and stenography are optional. Of the above studies, element- 
ary mathematics, machinery, and the modern tongues are taught only 
in tlie higher classes, in which calligraphy is no longer obligatory. 

The complete schools have twelve professors, the lower schools 
seven. Those applying for these positions must pass an examination 
as to their scientific attainments, and undergo a year's probation in a 
public real school, before receiving the appointment. At the head 
of the corps of teachers is a director, who, with the council of teachers, 
governs the school, subject to the supervision of the general coun- 
cilor of schools. 

The fees paid by pupils vary from eight to twenty florins annually, 
besides a fee of about two florins at admission. All the fees may be 
remitted to poor pupils conducting themselves well. 

The yearly expenses of a lower school amount to from 8,000 to 
11,000 florins ; of a higher school, to from 15,000 to 20,000. They 
are either imperial royal, in which case the general government sup- 
ports them, or communal, supported by the towns. Besides these, 
two are endowed, and one is private, assimilated. 


Technical instruction in Austria is of very long standing, and 
at the beginning of this century three important technical schools 
were in operation, and others were instituted long before the neigh- 
boring German States had moved in this direction. 

In 1717, a professorship for military and civil engineering was 
established at Prague, which gradually extended itself into a school 
of engineering, and became in 1806 the first independent polytechnic 
school in Austria. It has undergone many changes, and in 1865 ^vas 
organized on the plan of special schools, unitmg on a general prepar- 
atory course. 

In 1745, the Empress Maria Theresa organized in Vienna the first 
university lectures on experimental physics, and in 1757, on mechan- 
ics, and in 1763, permitted instruction in book-keeping to be given at 
the Piarist schools, and at the same time established several schools 
for apprentices. In 1770, a Real and Mercantile Academy was es- 
tablished in Vienna, which became in 1816 the polytechnic institute. 

In the year 1763, the first lectures were held on mining nt Schem- 
nitz, and in 1770, the school in Prague being given up, the Mining 
Academy was founded there. Its fame was soon so great that 
Fourcroy, in his brilliant speech made in the French National As- 
sembly, 1794, as an incentive to the erection of the polytechnic school 
in Paris, referred to this school as a well known model for imitation. 





- 25 




- 11 




- 24 





In 1811, the Johanneum in Gratz was founded by the Archduke 
John, as a museum and institution for natural sciences, and was 
afterwards changed, little by little, into a polytechnic institute. 

In 1843, the Real and Mercantile School in Lemberg was changed, 
by the addition of several courses, into a technical institute, and in 
1846, a technical school was founded at Cracow, and in 1849, an- 
other at Briinn. 

In 1856, the Industrial School at Pesth was removed to Ofen, and 
received there the organization of a Polytechnic Institute, so that in 
1859 there were seven technical institutions of the first class, with 
157 professors, and 3,531 students, distributed as follows : 

Vienna Polytechnic Institute, 

Prague ' " " - 

Briinn " " - - 

Lemberg " " - 

Cracow " " - - 

Ofen " «... 

Gratz " " - - 

The plan of instruction embraced both technical and commercial 
studies, except at Prague and Ofefl, where technical instruction only 
was given. In Vienna there was a preparatory school, and a school 
of industrial drawing, which accounts for the larger number of pupils ; 
Cracow has a school of fine arts, and of music, and Ofen a prepara- 
tory school. 

In 1850, a reorganization of the technical institutions was proposed, 
by which they should be raised into institutes of the highest class, 
with a system of special schools, as had been already instituted at 
Carlsruhe. After many years of agitation, in which the professors, 
and large manufacturers, and capitalists, as well as statesmen, took 
part, a new plan of studies was introduced at Prague in 1864-65 ; at 
Gratz in 1865-66, and in Vienna in 1866-67. At Vienna and Prague 
there are four schools : 1. Civil Engineering; 2. Architecture; 3. Ma- 
chinery; 4. Technical Chemisti-y. At Gratz, agriculture and forest 
economy, and surveying take the place of architecture. At Gratz and 
Vienna there are two general classes, which precede the special courses. 
At Briinn by decree of 1866, two regular courses for construction 
of machinery and technical chemistry, and three special courses, one 
for commerce, and one for master mechanics and builders, and a 
third for miners, have been established. 

Besides the Technical schools, there has grown up in Austria spe- 
cial schools of Agriculture, Commerce, Navigation, &c., of which a 
rapid survey will now be given, drawn from original documents, and 
the reports of the French and English commissioners. 



We will now give from official documents, or from the Reports of the English 
and French Commissions, drawn np from the same or similar documents, with 
the advantjio-c of recent jiorsonal visits to the institutions described, a brief notice 
of a few specimens of each grade of scientific and technical instruction. 


The schools, which are known in Prussia and great part of Germany by the 
..anicof Improvement Schools (Forthildungschden) are in Austria called Trade 
Schools (Gcwei'beschulen), or industrial schools. The confusion which these dif- 
ferent significations of names may cause, ceases when we examine the object, the 
conditions, and the nature of the instruction given in these establishments. 
Their creation in Austria, and in Vienna especially, dates only from the year 
1857, when the Industrial Society was formed, with the approbation of the Gov- 
ernment and the assistance of the municipality. 

The members of this Society imposed on themselves, in principle, the obliga- 
tion of sending their apprentices, during the last year at least of their time, to 
follow the classes, which, under the title of Gewerhesohulen, should be opened in 
the Real or practical schools of the State or those of the town, and also to pay a 
subscription in pro})ortion to the importance of their establishments, even when 
they had no apprentices. This voluntary contribution is fixed at four kreutzers 
per florin (or one-fifteenth) of the taxes paid. On the other hand, it was decided 
that^ the apprentices should attend these classes during their last year, or in de- 
fault should not be regarded as having finished their apprenticeship. 

The teaching in each of these schools is under the supervision of the director, 
and is given by the professors of the practical school to which it is attached. The 
latter receive an addition to their salary in proportion to the number of hours' 
lessons ; if one of the professors be unable to undertake this additional work, the 
director appoints another person in his stead. 

In 1861, owing to the efforts made by the Chambers of Commerce and the 
manufacturers, there already existed in the suburbs of Vienna five of these 
schools annexed to the practical schools of Gumpendorf, Wieden, Landstrasse, 
Jiigerzeile, and Schottenfeld, as well a sa school of yvQ&\mg (Weberschule) at Gum- 
pendorf, and a practical school of building. They have the use of the premises, 
collections, and teaching appliances of the practical schools without any expense ; 
but the models of a mor« technical kind required are purchased with their own 


There are six trade or industrial schools in Vienna attached to the Eeal 
Gymnasium or Practical Schools, having a general resemblance, but with special 
instruction adapted to the vocation of the pupils who are apprentices and journey- 
men from the vicinity of the school. 

The instruction is divided into an elementary section having two classes, and 
several sections relating to different industrial specialties. In the elementary 
section theoretical instruction is given and the pupils are practised in the art of 
drawing, with especial adaptation to the future career of each. In the special 
sections, the knowledge acquired is apphed to the branches of industry chosen 


by the pupil. The organization of the specialties must be adapted, in every dis- 
trict, to the requirements of the local industries. The specialties of the Gum- 
pendorf school are therefore principally those necessary for weavers, workers in 
silk, ribbons, trimmings, dyeing, &c. The school of Wieden has specialties con- 
nected with machinery, and such trades as brass-turners, joiners, bookbinders, 
workers in copper and bronze, founders, &c. In the Jsegerzeile school the 
courses bear chiefly on the building trades. 

The number of hours is nine and. a half during the week, partly after half-past 
six in the evening, and partly on Sundays in the forenoon. No class must ex- 
ceed 50 pupils ; if there are more, it must be divided into two. In the first class 
of the elementary section the time allotted to the different lessons is as follows : 
Religion, 30 minutes ; German language, 2 hours ; arithmetic, 2 hours ; calli- 
graphy, 1 hour; drawing, 4 hours; total, 9^ hours per week. 

The following is the allotment of time in the second class of the elementary 
section : Religion, half hour ; German, exercises in style and commercial corres- 
pondence, 1 hour ; arithmetic and mensuration, 1 hour ; elements of physics, 2 
hours ; geography, 1 hour ; drawing, geometrical and free-hand, projections, 
drawing of figures and ornament, and modeling, 4 hours ; total, 9| hours per 

By this arrangement a single pupil attends, including the three kinds of draw- 
ing, 17| hours instruction per week at most. 

In the special sections the lessons are thus distributed : Industrial drawing, 
4 hours ; architectural drawing, estimates, 4 hours ; drawing of machines, me- 
chanics, study of machines, 4 hours ; modeling, and drawing from the round, 4 
hours ; general chemistry, 1 hour ; study of raw materials, 1 hour ; commercial 
book-keeping, &c., 1 hour; applied mechanics, 1 hour; applied chemistry, 1 hour; 
total, 21 hours per week. 

In the two elementary sections, the instruction is compulsory for all the courses. 
In the special sections, on the contrary, the choice of courses is left to the pupils. 

The school year commences on the 1st of October and ends on the 31st of July. 
At the end of the year, the pupils receive certificates giving an account of their 
behavior, application, and progress in the different branches. The most pro- 
ficient pupils receive as prizes silver or bronze medals, or honorable mentions. 

The director of the practical school, to which the school for apprentices is 
annexed, is the principal manager. He, however, shares this authority with a 
delegate of the Industrial Society. They both endeavor to introduce into the 
teaching all the improvements required by the necessities of the local industries 
as indicated by the presidents of the industrial associations which patronize the 
schools. The instruction, as already stated, is given* by the professors of the 
corresponding courses of the practical school (Realsckule,) provided that the pro- 
fessors have sufficient time at their disposal and are satisfied with the payment 
offered. When any professor declines to undertake a course in the apprentice 
school, the director has to look for a teacher elsewhere. For the technical in- 
struction, the director may, with the authorization of the municipal authority, 
admit as pi-ofessors either manufacturers or foremen, who, in everA-^thing con- 
nected with the teaching, will be under his orders. For the purchase of apparatus 
and all things necessary for consumption and use, there is a yearly budget placed 
at the disposal of the director in concert with the professor of the specialty con- 

- The general management of the trade schools of Vienna is entrusted to a 
council composed of the presidents and vice-presidents of the chambers of com- 


moroe and manufactures, of the representatives of the province and city of Vienna, 
of the president of the committee of each school, and, lastly, of members of the 
cliambers of commerce elected for the purpose. This council meets on certain 
days in general assembly, to ascertain, in the presence of the directors, the state 
of the schools and to deliberate on the means of extending their usefulness. 

Every member of the Industrial Society for promoting the establishment of 
schools, whether he have apprentices or not, is hound to pay a contribution cal- 
culated on such a basis that the total, with the addition of sundry subventions, 
will cover the v/hole probable expenses of the school during the current year. 
By so doing, he has the right to send his apprentices (if they have received the 
proper elementary instruction) to the school, without any further payment, ex- 
cept for writing and drawing materials. Apprentices, after becoming journey- 
men, cannot continue to attend the school without the payment of regular fees. 

2. manufacturers' and tradesmen's school of PRAGUE. 

In 1847, the Society for the Encouragement of Industry in Bohemia founded 
a Sunday and evening school for drawing and modeling in plaster for appren- 
tices in Prague, which, in 1860, was extended in its range and thoroughness of 
instruction to the working classes generally. The plan was drawn up by an 
eminent engineer, who had studied the organization of industrial education in 
France and other countries, and adopted by the Diet of Bohemia and the 
council of the town. 

T3ie town provided a building for the establishment, as well as the furniture, 
and a yearly grant of 1,500 florins, the D^et voted 2,000 florins, and the Indus- 
trial Society engaged to give another 2,000 florins. The school, therefore, has 
a fixed income o£ 5,500 florins. The immediate superintendence of the school is 
entrusted to a ccruncil of three members elected by the Diet, three members of 
the municipal council, and three members of the Industrial Society. 

The school was opened in 1863. .The pupils are taught through the medium 
of both the German and the Bohemian languages, which, in some cases, renders 
two professors necessary for the subjects. The 16 professors are nearly all 
attached to the professorial staff's of the two higher practical schools of the town, 
in the different class-rooms of which the lessons are given. 

The plan of studies for the year 1867-68 is as follows : 

' From 8 to 9 a.m., - Technology. 
From 8 to 10 p.m., - Practical weaving. 

f Exercises in linear drawing. 

T?,,^^" 1 n *« 1 o o ™ j Exercises in free-hand drawng. 

xirom 10 to 12 a.m., - •< i-v • /? i • ^ 

' j Drawmg of machines. 

[ Free-hand drawing of ornament. 

f Exercises in linear drawing. 

From 2 to 4 D m - -I ^^^^^-'-^^^ ^^ free-hand drawing. 

j Drawings for construction of buildings. 
[ Free-hand drawing of ornament. 

One hour, 

Lectures on machines. 

rri 1 __ i Natural history. 

^ Two hours, - - ] Algebra and geometry. 

rp ^ , ^ ,„ ( Drawing for construction of buildings. 

Two hours, . . I Modeling. 


>-> • 

One hour, 

( Arithmetic. 

( Art of construction. 

11 ■ 

Two hours, 

j Written compositions and style. 
( Chemistry. 

H 1 

I Drawing'of machines. 

Two hours, 

- .; Modeling. 

i' Drawing of patterns. 


One hour. 

- Algebra and geometry. 

1 =' 

( Lectures on machines. 

= 1 - 

Two hours, 

} Art of construction. 


( Lessons in ornamentation. 


Two hours, - 

- Drawing of patterns. 


One hour. 

( Physics and mechanics. 
I Technology. 

'T -5 . 

r Lectures on machines. 


Two hours. 

} Art of construction. 


1 ' Modeling. '' 

1 Greography. 


One hour. 

) Natural history. 


1 ' Lectures on machines. 

ll - 


Two hours, 

) Book-keeping. 

OQ o 

Two hours, 

( Physics and mechanics. 

- Modeling. 

In -winter evening classes are held from half-past six to half-past eight, and in 
summer from seven to nine o'clock. The lectures and drawing relating to the 
building arts end at Easter, those for other industries last from the beginning of 
October to the end of July. Candidates for admission to the preparatory school 
must be able to read, write, and calculate; and to attend the courses of the 
special diA-isions they must produce a certificate of capacity from the preparatory 
school, or fi-om a lower real school. The fee is half a florin a year for each 
course attended ; it is paid half-yeai'ly, and in advance. 

The technical and practical teaching is distributed into five principal divisions, 
according to the branches of industry in which the pupils are engaged. 

The Jirst is the school for the building trades, for masons, stone-cutters, car- 
penters, joiners, &c. ; the instruction includes geometry, the elements of algebra, 
the art of building in general, drawing for building and modeling, notions of 
physics and mechanics, the effects of heat ; these studies require two winter half- 
years. The second is the school for the construction of machines ; for smiths, 
mechanicians, conductors of machines, coppersmiths, modelers, joiners, «S:c. ; they 
are taught geometry, the rudiments of algebra, the elements of physics and me- 
chanics, the description and study of machines, and also drawing ; these studies 
require two years. The third, or chemical school, is for dyers, brewers, tanners, 
soapboilers, &c. ; the lectiires treat of general chemistry and chemical technology. 
The foiuih is the school for wea-\dng and spinning ; here the pupils are taught 
practical weaving, the calculations relative thereto, the preparations of the cards, 
taking out of patterns, &c. Th.& fifth, or school of industrial art, is intended for 
manufacturers of porcelain and earthenware, glass blowers, goldsmiths, confec- 
tioners, &c. ; the instruction consists of drawing and modeling. 

At the close of the courses there are examinations, after which certificates of 
capacity are given to the deserving, and the two pupils at the head of each divis- 
ion receive prizes. The number of workmen who attended the Prague school in 
1863-64 was 762. The expense was 5,900 florins, of which 2,380 was for pro- 
fessors, besides 1,620 for drawing and modchng. 



3. mechanics' school at bruewn. 

In 1851, the Chamber of Industry and Comnxerce in Briinn (a city, in 1860, 
of 45,000 inhabitants,) stimulated by the government activity in tlie thorough 
organization of real schools, established a Mechanics' school with two sections, 
the elementary for apprentices, who arc deficient in even primary education ; and a 
higher for siich additional studies as geometry, physics, free-hand, and geometri- 
cal drawing, besides lectures and practice in book-keeping, banking, and com- 
mercial correspondence. Chemistry is an optional study for ten hours a week. 

The pupils are divided into three principal classes: (1) for builders, with a 
special winter course for masons, joiners, and stone-cutters; (2) for mechanics, 
including a special class in weaving ; (3) for technical applications of chemistry. 

The instruction is given on Sunday, and the evenings, and in the winter, one 
hour by daylight, on Thursdays, is secured for drawing. Besides, several special 
assistants ; and in the weaving class, two foremen from the largest establishment 
in the city, twenty teachers from the real school, higher technical institute, and 
gymnasium, are employed. The school is free, and the attendance large. 

In 1867, there were 87 Keal schools of the lower or three years' course, and 24 
of the higher or five years' course. These are all located in the chief towns, but 
draw their pupils from all parts of the districts where they are placed. 


This school, the origin of which the Bohemians trace with justifiable pride 
throogh the successive transformations, which the progress of industry rendered 
necessary, to the year 1576, in the reign of Rudolph II., an epoch long anterior 
to the foundation of most of the schools now existing in Germany, follows the 
same programme* of studies as the Vienna schools, as will be seen from the fol- 
lowing table. The pupils, (513 in 1867,) are divided into six classes, requiring 
six years. The subjects of instruction and number of hours are indicated below. 







6 th 



Religious instruction. 








German language, 








Geography and history. 
















Natural history, - - - 








Useful knowledge, 






Bohemian language, - 








Calligraphy, - - - 








Freehand drawing, 
















Construction of buildings, - 








Mathematics, . . _ 








Linear draAving, - 








Physics, - - - - 








Description of machines, - 







Drawing of machines. 








Modeling, - - - - 








Geometry and construction 

drawing, - - - ^ 








Italian, . - , ^ 




French, - - - \{ 








Stenography, - - S 





The FrcncH commissioners remark : Of all the practical schools in Grermany 
that of Prague is certainly the one where linear drawing is best taught, and we 
are inclined to attribute this fact to the attention given from the very outset to 
the practice of freeliand drawing, which early habituates the pupil to trace his 
lines with a light hand. 

The instruction is given in German and Bohemian, but the professors are free 
to choose Avhich language they please. There are, in some cases, professors of 
each lainguage for the same course. The class-rooms, amphitheatres, and labo- 
ratories are spacious and well arranged. The collections are well stocked with 
models, and the workshop for modeling will accommodate 25 pupils at once. 


The Imperial gymnasium in the Landstrasse is accommodated in a building 
rented for the purpose, formerly the residence of Prince Lichtenstein. It has 
numerous collections, especially of mineralogy and natural history. Well ar- 
ranged laboratories have been fitted up to enable the pupils who are so disposed 
to make themselves acquainted with the elements of chemical manipulation. 
There is a workshop for modeling, and the pupils are exercised in that art from 
a drawing, and conversely in drawing from models. The drawing-class rooms 
are very spacious and well lighted : the pupils have plenty of room. For draw- 
ing from the round or from models in relief, even elementary, there are cabinets 
or cells lined with green cloth, and in which the models are lighted by a single 
gas burner, so that the shadows may be more distinct. 

The time devoted, weekly, to lessons and graphic exercises, under the eye of the 
professors, is distributed as sho^vn in the following table : 






6 th 










Religion, - - - 
























GeiTTian, - - - 








Geography and history, - 








Natural history, - 








Physics, - 
















Writing or calligraphy, - 








Freehand drawing. 








Descriptive geometry draw- 









Linear drawing of buildings, 








]Machine drawing, 








Lectures on machines. 








Modeling, - 








The time, per week, allotted to optional studies, is as follows : English language, 
5 hours ; Italian language, 3 ; French language, 3 ; stenography, 2 ; singing, 2 ; 
gymnastics, 2. 

We see by this table the immense importance attacbed to the teaching of free- 
hand drawing, almost exclusively executed from models in relief. For the six 
classes it occupies 39 hours per week, whilst to linear d^a^ving with rule and 
compass only 16 hours are given. 



At the close of every year there is an examination, and marks arc given ; ac- 
cording to the results the pupils pass to the upper classes. According to the 
information and notes of each professor the pupils are classed, and any note 
stating deficiency in a single branch of instruction prevents the pupil from enter- 
ing the upper class, and, on leaving, deprives him of tlie certificate of satisfaction 
required for admission to the technical institutes. It is evident, by these rules, 
that tlie system of outdoor pupils is compatible with strict discipline. When a 
pupil leaves the sixth class of a higher practical school with a certificate of emin- 
ence he is admitted de jure into the first class of the Polytechnic Institute, other- 
wise he must go through a year's preparatory studies. The examinations are 
very strict. The school fee at Vienna is 18 to 20 florins a year. The pupils 
who perform chemical manipulations in the laboratory pay an additional en- 
trance fee of two florins and one florin per month. The reagents arc furnished 
by the State. 


The Eeal gymnasium, located in the suburb of Wieden, founded by the city 
and administered by the municipal authorities, is of the same order as the Gov- 
ernment School. The building is a very handsome one, and is most conven- 
iently arranged. The class-rooms for drawing and study, and the laboratories, 
are large and well lighted, and there are very good collections of apparatus and 
models. Drawing is taught from objects and models in relief. Free-hand draw- 
ing receives far greater attention than linear drawing ; the former has 38 hours 
weekly in the diflerent classes, the latter only eight, and yet the results are satis- 

The subjects of instruction are distributed, per class and hours, as follows : 







6 th 


Religion, - 























German, - 








Geography and history, - 








Natural history, - 








Physics, - 
















Writing and calligraphy, - 








Descriptive geometry. 








Free-hand drawing. 








Linear drawing of buildings 

and machines, - 








Lectures on machines, 








Construction of buildings. 








Total, - 






We see by this table that the distribution of time and lessons is almost identi- 
cal with that adopted at the Imperial and Royal School in the Landstrasse. It 
is the same with regard to the selection of the subjects for drawing, which, after 
relating to questions of general education, are divided into distinct industrial 



The object of the technical institutions at Vienna, Prague, and Gratz, is, to 
give a thorough, scientific, and, so far as can be done, also practical education. 
Instniction is imparted in separate courses, (Fachschulen,) of which there are four 
at Vienna and Prague; 1. Construction of roads, canals, bridges, &c. 2. Ar- 
chitecture. 3. Construction of machinery. 4. Technical chemistry. Other 
technical studies are not excluded, if they have reference to the above courses. 

In Gratz, instead of architecture, there is a course of agriculture and forest 
economy. Likewise a course of surveying and meadow culture. At Gratz and 
Vienna the accessory studies, which form the general scientific basis of the sepa- 
rate courses (mathematies, physics, and draAving,) are taught in two general 
classes, which precede the separate courses of study. The other subjects of in- 
struction are partly such as must be taught in the separate courses, in corres- 
pondence with the aim and object of the institution, partly such as offer an oppor- 
tunity to students for other and deeper studies. 

The students are classed as ordinary and extraordinary. 

The ordinary students, for the first year's course at Vienna and Prague, must 
hold either a certificate from a real school or gymnasium, (besides giving evi- 
dence of some proficiency in free-hand and geometrical drawing,) or pass an 
examination on the studies of the same. To become an extraordinary student at 
any of the three polytechnic schools, the candidate must give proof of possessing 
sufiicient preliminary knowledge to enable him to attend the lectures with profit. 

In Vienna and Gratz, the ordinary students must follow strictly the plan of 
studies laid down for each year ; unless, with the consent of the aiithorities a 
different plan for themselves has been formed. In Prague, the plan of studies is 
not obligatory. The free choice of lectures is permitted, with the only condition 
that satisfactory evidence is given of a sufficient preliminary knowledge. 

The charge for tuition for ordinary students, in Vienna and Prague, is 50 
florins; in Gratz, for ordinary and extraordinary students, 30 florins. Thechai*ge 
for the extraordinary students, at Vienna, is at the rate of 1 florin 50 kreuzers 
for each lecture (two drawing hours are counted as one). Extra lectures are 
to be paid for separately. Students, unable to pay, who show great abilities, may 
be allowed to study partly or totally free of charge. 

The internal administration of these institutions is in the hands of a board of 
professors, at whose head is a rector, (called director at Gratz,) who is chosen 
annually by the professors. The choice must be confirmed by the government. 
In Vienna, he can only be chosen again after two years' interval. The rectors at 
Vienna and Prague have an additional salary of 1,000 florins; the director at 
Gratz, who is chosen annually from among the professors of some other technical 
school, has 500 florins. The board of professors is formed by all the ordinary 
and extraordinary professors and representatives of the tutors (docenten). 

Each of the separate divisions has a president, who is chosen from among the 
ordinary professors engaged in each separate course of study, in Vienna for tAvo 
years, in Gratz and Prague for one year. These presidents superintend the 
course of studies as Avell as the discipline of the students in each division. Each 
division has again its own boai-d of professors, which settles the claims of stu- 
dents to dispense with one or the other course of studies, to decide in doubtful 
cases as to the admission of students, and their promotion to the next class. 



The Polytechnic Institute is intended to give the pupils who follow its studies 
a fundamental scientific education adapted to the profession they mean to adopt, 
and to make them so well acquainted with technical and scientific progress that 
they may be able without further prepai-ation to enter on the duties of i)ractical 
life. To attain this end, the instruction is distributed in four special divisions : 

A. Division, bridges, roads and civil engmQcring (Wassei' unci Strassenbau). 

B. Division of architecture and civil buildings (Hochhau). 

C. Division of the construction of machines (Maschinenbaa). 

D. Division of applied chemistry (Technische Cheinie). 
The following instmction is common to all the pupils : 

I. — Mathematics. Three courses of a year each. \st Course. — Algebra, an- 
alysis, elements of differential calculus, analytical geometry, plane and solid (7 
hours). 2d Course. — Higher equations, integral and differential calculus, with 
applications to geometry (6 hours). 3d Course. — Differential equations, varia- 
tions, calculations of least squares (5 hours). 

II. — Descuiptivk Geometry. 1. Orthogonal projections, oblique and polar 
in general, with a view to technical applications, (5 hours) ; drawing of buildings 
(10 hours). 2. Sterootomy, application of descriptive geometry to cutring of 
stones and voussoirs (2 hours) ; execution of models in stone-cutting (4 hours). 

III. — Land Surveying, l.s^ Course. — Surveying, leveling, theory and de- 
scription of instruments and apparatus (5 hours) ; topographical drawing from 
models (6 hours) ; practical surveying and leveling in the field (14 days in the 
year at least). 2a Course. — Contouring; geodesic leveling (3 hours) ; practice 
in the field (for 8 days iu the year at least). 

iv^ — Mechanics and Construction of Machines. 1. Elementary me- 
chanics, terrestrial statics and dynamics, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, aerostatics 
and aerodynamics (3 hours). 2. Analytical mechanics, in the summer term (5 
hours). 3. Mechanics of constructions (3 hours) ; drawing of machines (6 hours). 
4. Study of machines, application of mechanics to the theory and the drawing of 
machines (no time specified). 5. Construction of machines, knowledge of ma- 
terials, and instruction in certain kinds of machines (5 hours). 6. Entyclopadia 
of machines, for pupils not destined for any specialty (5 hours); dra^ving of ma- 
chines (6 hours). 7. Construction of machines in the workshop (at kast 4 hours). 

V. — Technological Mechanics."" Working of metals, wood textile sub- 
stances, spinning, manufacture of Avoolen tissues and of paper (5 hours). 

VII. — Architecture and Civil Engineering. 1st Course. — Mason's and 
carpenter's work, constructions in iron, materials of formation and stability of 
buildings (4 hours) ; designs of construction (no time given). 2. 2d Course. — 
Technical study of edifices, Y)reparatory works, &c., (5 hours) ; drawing of build- 
ings (6 hours). 3. 3d Course. — Project of a large building from a given pro- 
gramme (12 hours). 4. Studiesof style with drawings (courses of 6 hours each); 
modeling in c1j«5^ (6 hours). 

VII. — Hydraulic Construction and Koad-making. \st Course. — Foun- 
dations, embankments, lakes and canals, construction of roads, resistance of 
bridges and railways (5 hours) ; drawings of constructions (no time given). 2d 
Cours?. — On bridges and railways (5 hours) ; drawing of ditto (8 hours) ; pro- 
jects of hvdraulic constructions and roads from a given programme (8 hours). 

VIII. — General notions on Hydraulic Works and Road-making. For 
pupils not destined for any specialty of construction (5 hours) ; drawing of" build- 
ings (6 hours). 

IX. — Genkral Physics. 1. Statics, dynamics, magnetism, electricity, heat, 
optics, acoustics (5 hoars). 2. Technical physics : application of physics to tech- 
nical questions and industry, pyrotechny, telegraphy, galvano-plastics (2 hours). 

X. — General Chemistry. 1. Raw materials and their uses ; working of 
metals, alloys; study of salts; organic chemistry (7 hours). 2. Analytical 
chemistry ; use of the blow-pipe ; qualitative and quantitative analysis, in winter 
(5 hours) ; practical analyzing in the laboratoiy (two courses of lo hours each). 
3. Technological chemistry: \st Course. — Chemical fermentation (in winter); 


agricultural chemistry, bleaching and drying (in summer, 5 hours). 2c? Course. — 
Manufacture of sugar (in winter, no time specified) ; manufacture of glass, chem- 
istry of salts (in summer, 5 hours). 4. Chemical encyclopaedia, for pupils not 
intending to follow any chemical specialty. 

XI. — Mineralogy. On the technical and industrial applications (in summer). 

XII. — Geology and Paleontology. Their technical and industrial bear- 
ings (3 hours). 

XIII. — Botany. Technical and industrial applications (in summer, 3 hours). 

XIV. — Zoology. Technical and industrial applications (5 hours). 

XV. — Free-hand Drawing. According to their special technical studies 
(4 hours). 


The course of special instruction occupies five years for the first three divisions 
of the first category of pupils (bridges and roads, architecture, construction of 
machines,) and four years for the fourth division (applied chemistry). 

The subjects of instruction are spread over the successive years as follows : 

Division A. — Bridges and Roads. 

First Year. — Mathematics, 1st course (7 hours); descriptive geometry' (5 hours) ; 
working drawings (10 hours) ; general physics (.5 hours) ; mineralogy (4 hours) ; 
free-hand drawing (4 hours). In all, 35 hours per week. 

Second Year. — Mathematics, 2d course ((• hours) ; land surveying, 1st course 
(5 hours) ; drawing of plans (6 hours) ; elementary mechanics (.5 hours) ; general 
chemistry (3 hours) ; technical physics (2 hours). In all, 27 hours per week ; 
and during the summer 14 days practical surveying in the field. 

Third Year. — Mathematics, 3d course (5 houi's); analytical mechanics, and 
description of machines (5 hours) ; drawing of machines (6 hours) ; architecture 
(4 hours) ; drawing of buildings (6 hours) ; geology (3 hours). In all, 29 hours 
per week. Besides geological excursions. 

Fourth Year. — Road-making and hydraulic works, 1st course (5 hours) ; draw- 
ing for ditto (8 hours) ; architecture, 2d course (5 hours); draAving for ditto 
(6 hours) ; mechanics of building (3 hours) ; cutting of stones (2 hours) ; prac- 
tical modeling and stone-cutting (2 hours). In all 30 hours per week. 

Fifth Year. — Road-making and hydraulic works (2 hours) ; drawings for ditto 
(8 hours) ; drawing of projects (8 hours) ; technical mechanics (.o hours) ; land 
surveying, 2d course (3 hours). In all, 25 hours per week, and also at least a 
week in the year in visiting remarkable engineering works. 


Division B. — Architecture and Civil Constructions. 

First ytar. — Same as Division A. 

Second year. — Same as Division A, plus 6 hours per week for the study of style, 
1st course. ■ 

Third year. — Same as Division A, plus 2d course of style ( 6 hours). 

Fourth year. — Same as Division A, plus 3d course of style (6 hours). 

Fifth year. — Architecture and civil constructions, 3d course, drawing up of 
projects (12 hours) ; national economy (5 hours in winter, 4 hours in summer) ; 
account-keeping (3 hours) ; technical mechanics (5 hours) ; study of style, 4th 
course (6 hours) ; modeling (6 hours). In all, 33 hours per week', besides visits 
to interesting constructions. 

Division C. — Construction of Machines. 

First and second years.— Same as Division A. 

TA/rc? yea/-.— Mathematics, 3d course, in winter; analytical mechanics, in 
summer (5 hours) ; drawing of machines (6 hours) ; encyclopaedia of construc- 
tion (5 hours); drawing of buildings (6 hours) ; geology (8 hours). In all, 30 
hours per week. 

Fourth year. — Construction of machines (5 hours) ; drawing of ditto ( 10 hours) ; 
projects of ditto (5 hours) ; technological mechanics (5 hours) ; technological 


chemistry and metallurgy (2 hours) : national economy, in winter (5 hours) ; 
aa'ount-keeping', in summer (3 hours) ; practice in -workshop (4 hours at least). 
In all 3j hours, besides visits to j;reat workshops. 
Fifth yea/-. — Practice in workshops. 

Division D. — Technological Chemistry. 

First year. — Mathematics, 1st course (7 hours) ; general physics (5 hours) ; 
mineralogy (3 hours' lessons, 1 hour of application) ; zoology in winter, botany, 
in summer (5 hours). In all 21 hours. 

Second year — General chemistry (7 hours); technical physics (2 hours); gen- 
eral mechanics (6 hours); drawing of machines (6 hours) ; geology (3 hours). 
In all 23 hours, besides geological excursions. 

Third year. — Analytical chemistry, in winter (5 hours) ; analysis in laboratory 
(15 hours) ; technical chemistry, in winter (5 hours) ; agricultural chemistry, in 
summer (5 hours) ; encyclopaedia of construction (5 hours) ; drawing of buildings 
(6 hours). In all 36 hours per week in winter, 31 in summer. 

Fourth year. — x\nalysing in laboratory (at least 15 hours) ; sugar-making, iron- 
works, glass-making, pottery, and chemistry of salts (5 hours) ; national economy 
and account-keeping (4 hours). In all 29 hours per week. 

It Avill be seen that in this programme the instruction given to mechanicians 
is continued without interruption for four years, and that practice in workshops 
is required only in the fifth year, which appears preferable to the plan adoptad 
at Dresden, of obliging the pupils to pass a year in the workshop after the first 
year's studies. 

The institute has 20 ordinary professors, 11 extraordinary professors of the 
first class, 20 tutors, and 6 masters. The number of pupils in 1862-63 was as 
follows : Natives of Prague, 120 ; of Bohemia, 575 ; of Moravia, 14 ; of other 
parts of the empire, 38 ; total, 747. The age of the pupils ranged from 16 to 
25, the great majority (526) being between 19 and 23. 

The Prague Institute possesses numerous collections well supplied -with the* 
necessary appliances for teaching. They consist of^ — 1. A library with from 
10,000 to 12,000 volumes. 2. Complete sets of models for descriptive geometry, 
models of surfaces generated by straight lines, &c. 3. Instruments for topogra- 
phy, surveying, and leveling for the use of the pupils ; topographical models in 
relief (Bai-din's system). 4. Models of machines in great number and variety; 
parts of machines ; apparatus to demonstrate the laws of falling bodies ; dyna- 
mometers ; divers prime movers. 5. Instruments for physical experiments, com- 
prising most of the new inventions in that department. 6. Technology-v-differ- 
ent tools ; 'raw products, &c. 7. Architectiu'C — models in plaster; handsome 
models of suspension and other bridges in wood, iron, &c. ; models of roofs and 
other carpenter's work. 8. Agriculture — well-executed models of farming ma- 
chinery and implements. 9. Natural history and mineralogy — collection of min- 
erals and rocks placed at the disposal of the pupils ; birds, reptiles, &c. 

The Institute has, for the study of applied chemistry, a complete laboratory, 
in which 40 pupils can simultaneously perform the principal manipulations. 

The French commissioner remarks, " Ave found here linear drawing in the great- 
est perfection. The lines are fine and light ; all the various kinds of working draw- 
ings are executed there, and the projects of public works, buildings, and machines 
are carefully got up." 




The Polj'technic Institute in "Vienna, as organized in 1815, was the culmina- 
tion of efforts begun in 1765 to shape the instruction of the schools to meet the 
special wants of pupils in their future mechanical or commercial occupations. 
In 1835-36, we found it the best equipped school of its class (for mechanical 
and commercial industries) in Europe, and it was thus described by Prof. Bache. 

The whole institution is intended to fulfill a threefold purpose, as a school for 
the mechanic arts, manufactures, and commerce, as a conservatory of arts and 
manufactures, and as an institute for the promotion of national industry. The 
last named object is effected by public exhibitions, from time to time, of the pro- 
ducts of manufactures, under the direction of the institute. For the better exe- 
cution of this object, a spacious building is now erecting on the premises, adapted 
to the occasional display and permanent deposit of specimens of the mechanic 
arts. The collections which form the conservators of arts are also used for in- 
struction in the school, and will be described in connection with it. 

Tlie whole institution is under the control of a director, who is responsible to 
the higher authorities of public instruction, and of trade and manufactures. The 
director is the general superintendent of the business of the institute and of the 
instruction, but does not teach. He regulates the admission of pupils and the dis- 
Xiipline. The money concerns are imder the charge of a treasurer, who is re- 
sponsible to the director. The inferior officers are responsible to the same 
authority. The discipline of the scholastic department is simple but rigid, no 
pupil being allowed to remain connected with it whose deportment is not proper. 
The courses are gratuitous, except a small entrance fee, and this is considered as 
warranting prompt removal when the pupil does not perform the duties prescribed 
by the institution. 

The department of instruction is composed of three schools, a technical, a com- 
mercial, and a " real school." The last named is a preparatory school for the 
two others, and may be entered as early as thirteen years of age. Its courses 
are of religious instruction, of German language, elementary mathematics, geog- 
raphy, history, natural history, elocution, calligraphy, and drawing, and are obli- 
gatory upon the pupils. Italian and French may be studied if the pupil desires 
it. As these courses lead in three years to the other departments of the institu- 
tion, the candidates for admission are required to possess the elementary attain- 
ments necessary to their successful prosecution. There are five professors and 
four teachers connected with this school, which is superintended by the vice-direc- 
tor of the institute. The instructors rank by regulation with those in the gym- 
nasia or classical schools of the empire. Tlie course of instruction is not as com- 
prehensive as that in the Prussian real schools, but is an adequate preparation for 
the next higher divisions, which supply in part these deficiencies. 

The technical and comm.ercial schools furnish special instruction according to 
the intended pursuits of the pupil, though he may, in fact, select the courses 
which he wishes to attend, not being limited as to the number or character of the 
branches. Tlie director advises with the pupil, on admission, as to the studies 
most appropriate to be followed, if his intended calling is fixed, and he is not 
allowed to join the classes, the courses of which require preparation, without pre- 
senting a certificate from the school at which he has been instructed, or being 
examined, to ascertain his proficiency. In regard to other courses, there is no 
such restriction. The age for admission is sixteen years. 

The instruction is given in the technical school by eight professors and two 
assistants ; the professors lecturing, and in some of the coui'ses, interrogating the 
pupils. Certain lectures are also gone over by the assistants with the classes. 
The courses which combine practice with teaching will be pointed out in enumer- 
ating the subjects of study. The division of these subjects, and the time devoted 
to them during the week, are as follows : 

I. General Chemistry, applied to the arts, five hours. 

II. Special Technical Chemistry, ten hours. This giivrs a particular account 
of all the processes of the arts of which the principles were developed in the general lectures. 


There is a J-pecial laboratory devoted to the course, where, under the superintendence of the 
professor or of his assistants, the pupils jro tiiroujrli the processes oij a small scale Those 
who have a particular object in view, as dyeing, bleacliinjr, printinj: upon stutTs, or the man- 
ufacture of chemical preparations or melallnrjry, are directed in their investigations espe- 
cially to the parts of clumislry which they will have to apply. Practice and theory are thus 

III. Physics, with special reference to its applications, five hours. 

IV. Ele.mEaMtary Mathematics, including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and mensura- 
ti(ni, ten houi-s. This course is intended for those who have not passed through the real 

V. Higher Mathematics, five hours. There is a repetition by an assistant, also of five 

VI. Mechanics, including the description and calculation of machines, five hours. This 
subjrct i.s foiuided upon a course of mach nes, considered as an application of descriptive 
geometry and drawing, superintended by an assistant. 

VII P'ractical Geometry, including land and topographical surveying, levelling. <fec., 
five hours. The lectures are accompanied by practice in the use of instruments in the field. 

VIII Civil and IIvDRAULic Architeotuke, fen hours. This includes a complete course 
of engineering, in its various branches. It is accompanied by exercises in drawing. 

IX. Technologv, or a general discussion of arts and trades, five hours. The subjects 
which come under the head of special chemistry are omitted in the lectures of thisdivision. 

X. The assistant profes.^or of chemistry delivers an extra lecture, daily, on the methods of 
measuring Specific Gravities, during part of the course. 

XI. Elementary Drawing for those who have not passed through the real school, five 
hours. There are extra courses in the Latin, Bohemian, and English languages, for those 
who wish to follow them. 

The time devoted to draw^ing depends upon the student, but it is obvious that 
his knowledge must be very incomplete, and that he will carry away from the 
school but an imperfect record of descriptive geometry and its applications, unless 
he devotes a great deal of time to this branch. In this respect the arrangement 
of the school is entirely difl'erent from that at Berlin, where the drawings accom- 
panying the courses are made as much a matter of regular duty as the attendance 
upon the leetm-es themselves. This is certainly the proper plan, and while it ap- 
peared to me that the time spent in the graphic exercises at Berlin was even 
beyond the measure of their importance, I am decidedly of opinion that a strict 
attention to this department is essential. 

The collections, by the aid of which these courses are carried out, are — 1. An 
extensive collection of chemical preparations for both special and general chemis- 
try. The pupils in special chemistry, as already stated, make preparations in the 
departments of the art which they intend to follow, and some of these are left 
behind them as specimens of their skill. In the department of the dyer there is 
quite a large series of specimens collected in this way. The laboratories for both 
special and general chemistry are admirably adapted to their purpose.* 2. A 
cabinet of instruments for the course of practical geometry. 3. A considerable 
collection of physical apparatus. 4. A collection of models of machines, and in 
engineering. 5. A technological cabinet of a most complete character, and ad- 
mirably arranged ; it contains many of the best specimens of Austrian arts and 
manufactures. All these collections are under the care of the professor in whose 
department they find a place ; there being, besides, curators for the immediate 
charge of them, and for keeping them in repair. Tlie cabinet of physical appa- 
ratus, and of models and machinery, were in the main supplied from the work- 
shops of the institution. These shops have long been celebrated for the astronom- 
ical and geodesic instrviments furnished from them. They are still kept up, 
though on a reduced scale, their chief object having been accomplished. They 
were never intended, like those of Berlin, to aiFord practical instruction to the 
pupils. The institution, indeed, does not recognize the principle that this can be 
done to advantage in the mechanical department. It is certain, as already stated, 
that great care is required to render such establishments of any avail beyond the 
point of giving to the pupil a general readiness with his hands, and that even 
when well conducted tlieyare expensive. Success in practical chemistry requires 
essentially a very considerable knowledge of theory ; the processes on a small 
scale represent, in general, fairly those upon the large, and experiments thus made 
frequently save the outlay which is required to make them in the large way. The 

* The laboratory of the professor of general chemistry, Professor Meissner, is one of the 
best arranged which I saw abroad. The furnace operations, and others likely to incom- 
mode the class, are performed behind a screen, with large glass windows, which allow a per- 
fect view : the space behind is provided with the means of carrying off the fumes. 


practice in the laboratory of a school is, besides, very nearly of the kind required 
for the manufactory. These, among other circumstances render the problem in 
regard to successful preparation for the arts depending upon chemistry, different 
ft'om that relating to the art of the machinist. It is in this department that the 
polytechnic school of Vienna is particularly strong. There can be no doubt that 
Austrian manufactures in general have received a great impulse through the me- 
dium of this institution, and particularly of its scholastic department, but while 
praise is yielded to the different courses, the arrangements for teaching chemistry 
must be considered as hcviug a preference over the others. 

The lessons in the commercial school embrace the following subjects : — 

I. Commercial correspondence, three hours per week. 

II. The science of trade (Handelswissenschaft.) three hours. 

III. Austrian laws relating to trade and exchange, three hours. 

IV. Commercial arithmetic, six hours, 

V. Book-keeping, by single and double entry, four hours. 

VI. Account of the materials of trade. (Waarenkunde,) the sources, uses, properties, kinds, 
adulterations to which they are subject, &c., four hours. 

VII. Commercial geography, three hours. 

VIII. History of commerce, three hours. There are five professors in this school. 

Once a week the professors of the institute meet, under the presidency of the 
director, to confer on the business of the institution. Saturday is appropriated in 
part to this purpose, and there are no exercises for the students on that day. 
One of the professors is secretary of the board. The professors rank by regula- 
tion with those of the imiversities. 

The lectures last fi'om October to August of every year. At the close of them, 
a pupil who wishes a certificate in any branch, presents himself, and is examined 
by a professor, in presence of a director and of two members of the imperial com- 
. mission of studies. A student who has attended the lectm-es, and does not wish 
to be examined, may receive a certificate of attendance. 

To supply the place of a regular division of studies for different callings, one 
of the earlier programmes contained a recommendation of certain courses of study 
as preparatory to particular occupations. The recommendations were the follow- 
ing : — For tradesmen, the two years of the real school, and one year of the com- 
mercial school ; or for a more complete education, an additional year, embracing 
the courses of chemistry, physics, and technology of the technical school. For 
dyers, printers in stuffs, bleachers, manufacturers of chemical products, of salt, 
of saltpeter, for miners, metallurgists, brewers, &c., special chemistry, physics, 
and technology, with some of the courses of the conmiercial school. For ma- 
chinists, hydraulic engineers, mill-wrights, foremen in manufactories, and mining 
engineers — a course of two years was recommended, the first to embrace mathe- 
matics, physics, and drawing, and the second, mechanics, njachine-drawing, and 
technology. As a preparation for agriculturists and foresters — courses of mathe- 
matics, physics, practical geometry, chemistry and book-keeping. For miners, 
mathematics, physics, practical geometry, mechanics, drawing, and book-keeping. 
For surveyors, mathematics, physics, practical geometry, drawing, and book- 

There is still a regular course laid down for architects and civil engineers, the 
satisfactory completion of wliich entitles to a diploma. The first year includes 
elementary mathematics, technology, and drawing; the second, higher mathe- 
matics, physics, and drawing ; the third, the applied mathematics, mechanics, 
practical geometry, and drawing ; the fourth, architecture, engineering, drawing, 
technolog}-, chemistry, and book-keeping. 

The library of the institute is appropriated to the several departments, and 13 
used by the students, as well as by the professors. Yearly appropriations, besides 
the entrance and diploma fees, are devoted to its increase. The professors have 
the right of recommending such works to be purchased as they may deem of use 
in their departments. An annual is published by the institute, consisting of origi- 
nal and selected scientific articles, by the professors, and notices of tie institution. 

To mark the advance in the subjects and courses of instruction, we give in 
-detail, (1) the requirements for admission to either of the special divisions in 
1868, and (2) the distribution of studies in the I. Technical Section ; 11, Com- 
mercial Section ; and III. The Special Courses. 


Requirements for Admission into the Polytechnic Institution in Vienna. 

Candidates for admission as ordinary students into tlie Polytcclmic Institution, 
are subject to examination in the subjects, and to the extent given below. 

a. Mathematics. 

1. Arithmetic and Algebra. — Cipliering in general, and calculation with com- 
mon fractions and decimal fractions in particuhir ; change of common fractions 
into decimal fractions, and continuous fractions, rule of three, reduction, chain 
rule, division ; calculation, with logarithms ; extraction of square and cubic 
roots of numbers ; the rules of algebra ; the properties of products and quotients, 
of powers, radicals, and logarithms; divisibility of numbers; greatest common 
measure, and least common multiple ; properties of common continued fractions ; 
outlines of the theory of combination ; Newton's binomial proposition ; simple 
equations with one and more unknown quantities, equations of tlie second degree 
with one and two unknown quantities, and equations of higher degrees witli one 
and more unknown quantities, in as far as they can be resolved into quadratic 
equations ; simple indeterminate equations ; arithmetical and geometrical pro- 
gression ; calculation of interest. 

2. Plane Geometry; a. — Planimetry; congruence, similarity, superficial con- 
tents, and transformation of rectilinear figures, more particularly of triangle 
and square; properties of the circle; lines and angles of the circle; its rela- 
tion to the triangle, to the square, and to regular polygons ; its periphery and 

6, Goniometry and Trigonometry. — The goniometric functions, their properties 
and mutual relations, and the more important formulas connected with them, 
particularly for the sums and differences of two angles, and for double and semi- 
angles ; problems of the resolution of the triangle, and application of this calcu- 
lation in given cases. 

c.^ Analytical Geometry. — Proposi'tion of the equations for the straight line and 
the circle in rectangular co-ordinates ; problems relating to the straight lines and 
the circle; proposition of the equations for the ellipse, the parabola, and hyper- 
bola from their definition ; deduction of the principal properties of these lines, 
more ])articularly as regards the focus and the tangents. 

3. So'id Geometry; a. — Stereometiy ; propositions and problems as to the x-e- 
lations between points, stx-aight lines, and planes ; properties of the parallel- 
opipedon, of the prism in general, of pyraniids, of regular bodies; superficies 
and solid contents of angular bodies ; properties of the cylinder, the cone and 
the sphere, their superficies and solid contents, lines and angles on the surface of 
the sphere. 

h. Spherical Trigonometry. — Properties of the spherical triangle ; problems for 
the solution of this; execution of the calculation in given cases. 

In all these matters accurate understanding of the theory, as well as skill and 
certainty in the execution of the calculations is required. 

h. Geography and History. 

Geography. — Knowledge of the leading points of mathematical and physical 
geography, particularly of orography and hydrography; survey of political 
geography ; knowledge of the most important bi-anches of production, and of 
the internal relations of the leading countries; closer acquaintance Avith the 
political geography and statistics of Austria, particularly relating to the natioiuil 
and productive circumstances, and the state of civilization in the several portions. 

History. — Synoptical knowledge of ancient history, more especially of Grecian 
history to the period of the doAvnfall of the Macedonian Empire. As regards 
the history of the East, the development of the Egyptians, the Persians, and the 
trading colonies of the Phoenicians is more particularly to be held in view ; the 
Hellenic states and constitutions dui'ing the heroic period ; the wanderings of the 
Darians; the Greek colonies; the legislation of Lycurgus, and the Messinian 
war; Solon; the Persian war; the Peloponnesian war; the Theban war, and 
the leadership of Thebes; Philip of Macedonia; Alexander's expeditions into 
Asia; the fate of the States which were formed out of the empire of Alexander. 

Roman History up to the time of Augustus. — The constitution of Rome during 
the time of the kings ; the llepublican constitution ; the struggles between patri- 


cians and plebians for equality of rights ; the war with Tarento and Pj^rrhiis ; 
the Punic wars ; the Gracchi-Marius and Sulla; the first triumvirate; Julius 
Caesar ; the second triumvirate ; Caesar Octavian Augustus. 

Survey of medieval history, and more particularly of German history. Con- 
stantine the Great and the development of Christianity. The migration of na- 
tions and the founding of new empires. The Franks, Charlemagne. Dissolu- 
tion of the empire of the Franks. The Saxon Emperors, especially Otto I, the 
Salic Frank Dynasty, Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V. The 
Crusades and their consequences. The Babenbergs. Foundation of the power 
of the Ilapsburgs. Charles IV and Wenzel. Sigismund and the ecclesiastical 
relations of his times. Germany under Frederick III and Maximilian I. The 
Italian republics of the middle ages. 

More detailed acquaintance with the history of modern times, and more par- 
ticularly with the history of Germany and Ausiria. Discoveries and inventions. 
The revival of art and science. The Reformation. Charles V, Philip II, and 
the Netherlands. The religious wars in France. Henry IV, The thirty years 
war. England under tiie Tudors, the Stuarts, Cromwell. France under Riche- 
lieu and Mazarin. The age of Louis XIV. The Austro-Turkish wars. Sweden 
under the Vasas. War of the Spanish succession. The northern war. Charles 
VI. The Silesian war and the war of the Austrian succession. Maria Theresa. 
Joseph II. The North American Avar of independence. History of the revolu- 
tionary period from 1789 to 1815. 

c. Physics. 

The requirements are in — a. General k' owledge : a perfectly distinct under- 
standing of the fundamental principles of the science, and a knowledge of the 
most important phenomena in nature and of the laws that govern them, founded 
on experimental demonstration, and on elementary mathematical proofs. 

6. Special knowledge : knowledge of the general properties of physical bodies, 
of the different forces working in them, of the various forms of aggregation, of 
the different degrees of solidity, of the laws of elasticity, adhesion, decomposi- 
tion, crystalization. 

In general mechanics, determination and measurement, combination, and res- 
olution [zerlegung) of forces from a single point of attack or from several points, 
the momentum of revolution (Drehungsmoment) and its composition, the simplest 
and most important of the complex mechanical prin*>iples of the theory of mo- 
tion, uniform and irregular motion, velocity, combination, and resolution of mo- 
tion, curvelinear motion, centripetal and cen rifugal force, gravity, and the mo- 
tion produced by it, projectile motion, oscillatory motion, revolving motion, 
point of inertia, free axis of rotation, impingement of elastic and of non-elastic 
bodies, resistance of motion, motion of working power and of vital force. 

Theory of the balance, absolute and specific weight, influence of -the earth's 
rotation round its axis on its form, and on the intensity of gravitation in differ- 
ent geographical latitudes, ebb and flood. 

Fundamental principles of liquid bodies, form of the free surface and the con- 
ditioning causes, pressure on the bottom and the side walls of the containing 
vessel, and the practical applications to be deducted therefrom. Equilibrium in 
communicating vessels, the most important phenomena of capillary attraction, 
rising (Aiifireib) equilibrium of floating bodies, determination of density by 
means of areometer and water poise, velocity of outflow under a constant amount 
of pressure, re-action of the jet and its applications, the shock of fluids, and the 
most important applications to water-wheels, turbines, &c. 

General • properties of elastic fluid bodies, measurement of elasticity, atmos- 
pheric pressure, and the measurement of this by means of different kinds of 
barometers, its variableness at different altitudes above the level of the sea. 
Mariotte's law and its most important applications ; different kinds of air pumps. 
Determination of the specific weight of atmospheric air, and of the density of 
gases. Gay-Lussac's law : theory of the balloon, forcing pumps, siphons, &c. 
Laws of absorption, velocity of out-flow under constant uniform pressure. 

Principal phenomena of magnetism. Outlines of the magnetism of the earth, 
magnetic point, magnetic axis, laws of distant effects of magnetism, methods of 
magnetising, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism. 


PVincipal electrical phenomena, electrostatic induction, laws of distant action, 
and the production of such action by means of the revolving balance (Drehwage), 
the electrosco])e, tlie Leyden jar, and rlie condcnsator; elcctrophoricnl action, 
rapidity of the transmission of the electric condition, principal phenomena of 
contact electricity, laws of the gradation of tension, theory of the simple and 
complex voltaic julos, battery, current, physiological, thermal and chemical effects 
of the current. Principal features of electrolysis, the, strength of the current, 
and its measui-ement by chemical effects. Effects of the magnetic current, galva- 
nometers, multiplicators, &c. Electrodynamic and magnetic-electric induction, 
thermo-electricity, idea of the resistance of conduction, Ohm's law, and its most 
important applications, bifurcation of the current. The leading points in the 
applications of the laws of electro-magnetism to telegraphy and electro-magnetic 
motors. Atmospheric electricity. 

Leading points in the theory of undulation. Difi^^rent kinds of waves, reflec- 
tion and interference of waves, particularly of the waves of sound, rapidity of 
sound, conditions of sound, musical tones and determination of the number of 
their vibrations, tones of tightly strung cords, of bars, ot sound-boards (sound 
figures), and of columns of air, reverberation of sound, structure of the organ 
of hearing. 

Elements of the science of light. Elements of the theory of shadows, princi- 
ples of photometry, reflection by plane and curved surfaces ; simple refraction on 
plane and spherical surfaces (elements of the theory of lenses), distribution of 
color. Franenhofer's lines, principles of spectrum analysis, achromatic prisms 
and lenses, chemical effects of light, optical instruments of certain construction 
(camera-obscura, camera-chiara, telescope, &c. ), the eye and its structure, sub- 
jective phenomena of color, and diaphragmatic phenomena. Rapidity of the 
transmission of light, the most important phenomena of interference and refrac- 
tion, the fundamental phenomena of double refraction, polarisation by refraction 
and reflection, color of laminae, explanation of these phenomena by the theory 
of undulations. 

!E*rincip]es of the theory of heat ; expansion of bodies by heat, the thermome- 
ter, conduction of heat ; change of the state of cohesion, latent and specific heat, 
the elements of calometry, generation of steam, laws of the tension of steam, 
determination of the density of steam, vapor contained in the atmosphere, hy- 
grometry, the steam-engine. Radiating heat and the means of measuring the 
intensity of this, laws of radiation. Phenomena of combustion, heat caused by 

d. Natural History. 

Mineralogy. — The candidate should be acquainted with the most important of 
those properties of minerals by which they are characterized, and in accordance 
with these to determine and describe the most common minerals, or those which 
are most important as to their uses. But the knowledge of a definite scientific 
system of minerals is not required. 

With respect to the general portions of mineralogy (characterization, termin- 
ology,) the examination will eitend to : 

1. Crystallography, embracing the moi*phological properties of minerals. A 
knowledge of the- six systems of crystals according to the tises on which they 
are based, and according to their sample forms, as also of the most common 
combinations of two or more forms will be required. The knowledge of ciystal- 
lographic symbols, or of calculating and measuring crystallography, will not be 

2. Mineral physics embracing the physical properties of minerals : divisibility, 
hardness, and specific weight ; brightness, transparency, color (idiochromatic 
and allochromatic) minerals, veins (sfrich) ; diftlrence between minerals with 
simple and with double refraction, between magnetic and non-magnetic minerals ; 

3. Mineral chemistry, or chemical properties of minerals; elements, combina- 
tions, equivalents, chemical constitution ; difference betAveen metallic and non- 
metallic minerals ; definition of ores, (sulphurous, oxygenated, and saline ores,) 
of stones, (silicate,) and of salts, (carbonate, sulphate, tS^c.) 

A knowledge of the chemical reaction of minerals is not required. 


Among the most common, and most important minerals, as to their uses in 
special mineralogy are counted: 

1. From among the group of metallic minerals, 
a. The metals occurring in a pure form. 

h. The most important ores, such as iron pyrites, magnetic iron, iron glance, 
red oxide of iron, brown iron ore, sparry iron ore, manganese, red ore of nickel, 
shining cobalt ore, copper ore, variegated copper pyrites, copper glance, red cop- 
per ore, malachite, lapis lazuH, sulphuret of lead, white lead ore, green and brown 
lead ore, tin-stone, shining silver ore, gray copper, red silver ore, cinnabar, sul- 
phuret of zinc, lamellar calamine, sulphuret of antimony, arsenical pyrites. 

2. From the group of non-metallic minerals. 
a. Sulphur and graphite. 

h. The most important stones : quartz, opal, feldspar, analcime, staurolitc, mica, 
chlorite, talc, serpentiae, steatite, ho-rnb-lende, augite, granite, vesuvian, cyanite, 
olivine, tourmaline ; also the most important of the precious stones ; the diamond, 
corundum, (sapphire and niby,) topaz, spinel, zircon, beryl, (emerald.) 

c. The most important salts ; calcareous spar, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, 
ponderous spar, celestine, apatite, nitre, fluor spar, rock salt. 

The candidate must he able to indicate the most important morphological, 
physical, and chemical properties of all the^e minerals, as also their most impor- 
tant uses, and the localities in wdiich they are principally found. 

The knowledge of a systematic nomenclature (as for instance that of Mohs) 
is not required, nor either the chemical formulas. 

Botany and Zoology. — In botany and zoology the candidate is expected to he able 
to give a systematic sketch of each of the kingdoms, and to possess a knowledge 
of the most important plants and animals which enables him to distinguish and 
characterize them. By the most important plants and animals are meant such 
as are especially interesting on account of their frequent presence in our coun- 
tiy, of their application in arts and industry, of their usefulness, or their inju- 
riousness, of the conspicuous place which they occupy in the household of na- 
ture, or of their peculiar ge/)graphicnl distribution. 

Plants and animals of this kind will be laid before the candidate for him to 
classify and characterize. 

As more important subjects of examination may be mentioned : 

a. In Botany : principal organs of the phanerogamous plants; foiTns of the 
roots, the pedicels, and the leaves; blossoms; various parts of the fiow^er; outer 
circle of petals, anther, stamen, pistil, and seed bud; survey of the different 
kinds of fruits ; properties of the seed. 

Characteristics of the cryptogamous plants in general. Linne's system. 

Classification of plants according to the natural system. 

Characteristics of the various classes of non-floAvering plants, and the different 
orders of vasculiferous cryptogamia, {Gefafscrytogamen.) 

Characteristics, affinities, geographical distribution, and use of the toost im- 
portant families of seed-bearing- plants. 

b. In Zoology: the principal functions of animal life, motion, sensation, nutri- 
tion, and propagation; indication of the most important organs conv ected there- 
Avith ; the local position of the latter in the animal body, and their nature in 
general must be demonstrated on one of the higher (vertebrate) animals; influ- 
ence of climate on animal life ; division of the animal kingdom into classes, 
(vcrtcbrata, mollusca, &c.,) indicating the distinctive characteristic of each; di- 
vision of mammalia, birds, reptiles, and insects into orders. Distinctive charac- 
teristics of the various families of carnivora, of pachyderma, and of ruminata. 

e. Geometrical and Free-hand Drawing. 

Orthogonal projection ; representation of straight lines and planes ; graphic 
solution of problems relative to their mutual relations ; representations of bodies 
bounded by planes; intersections of their surfaces; representation of conic, 
cylindrical, and rotative surfaces ; their intersection with straight Tines and 
planes, and their mutual intersections, as also their points of contact Avith planes ; 
application of this to the determination of shadows. 
, Elements of the method of perspective projection. 

Free-hand drawing, to draw a head or an entire figure in correct outline from a 
model, and to draw an ornament with shading. 




The course of instruction consists of a preparatory division comprisinf^ two 
years, and four special divisions, viz : 1. Bridges and roads. 2. Architecture. 
3. Construction of machines. 4. Chemistry. The teaching commences on the 
1st of October and ends on the 31st of July. It is divided into courses of a 
year, and courses of half a year. The subjects taught are • 

A Mathematics, descriptive geometry, practical geometry, higher land sur- 
veying, spherical astronomy, technical mechanics, analytical mechanics, general 
physics, teclniical physics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical 
chemistry, mineralogy, geology, zoology, paleontology, and botany. 

B. Study of machines, general elements of maHiinery, construction of ma- 
chines, mechanics relating to construction, general elements of the construction 
of buildings, architecture and the art of building ; bridges and roads," railways, 
description of soils ; technical chemistry, knowledge of merchandise, agricultural 
and forest economy. 

C. General history, history of Austria, histoiy of the building art, history 
of the inductive sciences; German literature; esthetics, political economy, sta- 
tistics ; mercantile law, law of exchange, maritime law ; Austrian organization 
and administration ; book-keeping. 

D. Technical and free-hand drawing ; decoration, aijd drawing of ornaments ; 
landscape drawing ; modeling. 

E. French, Italian, and English languages; stenography. 

These subjects are distributed between the preparatory and special divisions, 
and nearly the same number of hours is allotted to each, as in the Prague Insti- 
tute just described. The lessons in botany, zoology, gco'ogy, mechanical and 
chemical technology, construction of machines, art of building, and in the agri- 
cultural sciences, are followed by excursions and visits to establishments. The 
practical course of geometry is also terminated by important field operations. 

The folloAviug are studies, with the hours per week allotted to each : 







of 1| hours 


devoted to 

Lessons Hours 
of 1 }; hours devoted to 
each. ( drawing. 


Mathematics, (1st course,) - - - 
Descriptive geometry, ... 
Inorganic chemistry, - - - - 



Technical and free-hand drawing, - 


8 , 




Total, - 



13 14 


Mathematics, (2d course,) - 
General physics, - - . . 
Technical mechanics, - - - 
Practical geometry, - - - - 
Technical and free-hand drawing, 













I. — Division of Bridges and Roads. 






Lessons Hours 

of li hours 

devoted to 

of li hours devoted to 






Stereotomy and perspective. 









Analytical mechanics, ... 




Elements of machinerv, - . - 





Construction, (1st course, ) - 











Technical phvsics, - . - - 





Applied mechanics, - - - - 










Land surveying, - - - 



1 4 

Bridges and roads, .... 




Projects and construction. 









History of constructive art. 





Organization of construction, - 





Construction of bridges. 





Construction of railways, 









Total, - - - - - 





II. — Division of Architects and Buildings. 


Stereotomv and perspective, 





Elements of machinerv, - 



3 ■ 


Constructive mechanism, - - - 





History of constructive art, 





Architecture, (1st course,) - 




, 8 

Total, - - - . - 






Technical phvsics, .... 





Applied mechanics, - - . - 





Elements of construction, ... 





Architecture, (2d course,) 





Architectural drawing and projects, - 











Organization of construction, 





Architecture, (3d course,) 















III. — Division of Mechanicians. 





Lessens Hours 

Lessons | Hours 

of 11 hours devoted to 

of labours devoted to 






Tecliiiical physics, ... - 





Elements of construction, 





Analvticjil mechanics, - - . 










Macliinc construction, . . . 



3 ' 


Manufacture of machines. 











Constructive mechanism, - ^ 





Applied mechanics, - - . - 





Apparatus for warming and lighting, 










Machine construction, ... 





Projects and manufacture, - - - 










IV. — Division of Applied Chanistry. 


General physics, - - - - - 





Applied mechanics, - - - 















Organic chemistry, . - - - 





Analytical chemistry, - . - 





Manipulation in the lahoratory, - 











Technical physics, . . - - 





Elements of construction, 




Technoloay of mechanics, - 





Acquaintance with raw materials, - 





Metallurgy and salt works, - 





Materials for heating and lighting, - 





Manufacture of salts, glass, &c.,- 





Manipulation in the laboratory, 











Elements of machinery, - - - 





Printins:, dyeing, bleaching, &c., 





Permented liquors, manufacture of sugar, 

soap, stearine, &c., - - - 





Manipulation in the laboratory. 











II. Commercial Section. — The course of instruction comprises the follow- 
ing subjects: 

1 . Commercial science, giving a complete exhibit of commercial economy, of 
arts and manufactures, commercial atiairs in relation to the statistics of the 
population and the commercial history of the world : 5 hours per week. 

2. Commercial law, legislation with regard to commerce, maritime law, &c. : 
3 hours per week. 

3. Commercial composition, ordinary commercial style and correspondence :' 5 

4. Commercial calculations, with special reference to the principal practical 
applications of political arithmetic : 5 hours. 

5. Book-keeping — book-keeping as a special science, and as apphed to com- 
merce and industry : 4 hours. 

6. Knowledge of goods ; the qualities and properties of different products, 
materials, and manufactures: 3 hours. 

7. Commercial geography : 3 hours. 

8. Statistics, from an industrial and commercial point of view: 4 hours. 

9. History of the Austrian constitutional law : 2 hours. 

10. History of the Austrian administrative law: 2 hours. 

III. Extra Courses. — Connected with the Polytechnic Institute, special 
courses are given in: 

1. Mechanical constructions, comprising the application of mechanics to arch- 
itecture and the art of constructions : 3 hours. 

2. National political economy, with special regard to arts and manufactures: 
2 hours. 

3. History of Austrian commercial law: 1 hour. 

4. Spheric astronomy: 3 hours. 

5. Science of the guarantee of capital and interest. This comprises an ex- 
hibit of the development of this science, its usefulness and its importance, and 
an exhibit of its theoretical basis. 

6. Instruction in first surgical aid to be rendered in cases of accidents result- 
ing from certain industries : 2 hours. 

7. Calligraphy: 2 hours. 

8. Stenography (Gabelsberger's system) : 3 hours. 

9. German literature ; Commentaries on the life and poetry of Goethe : 2 

"10. Organic chemistry ; Alcohols. 

11. General and microscopic vegetable anatomy, (during the winter half-year.) 

12. Vegetable physiology in its relation to agriculture, (during the summer 

IV. School of Languages. — Instruction is given in the following lan- 
guages: Turkish, 5 hours ; Persian, 5 hours ; Arabic, 6 hours ; Itahan Ifinguage 
and literature, 6 hours; English language and literature, 3 hours; French lan- 
guage and literature, 5 hours. 

V. School op Industrial Drawing. — 1. Elementary drawing, comprising : 
(a.) Drawing from nature: figures, plants, ornaments, &c. ; (6.) Descriptive 

geometry; (c.) drawing of projections and perspective. 

2. Technical drawing, comprising all the varieties of drawing applied to the 
designing and construction of models intended for spinning, printing tapestry, 

3. Drawing applied to the arts of construction and metallurgy. 

4. Popular course of machine-drawing, with explanations of the construction 
and the working of machines. 

The drawing-classes are open every day from 8 to 12, and on Sundays from 
9 to 12. ' 

The whole Institute numbers: 19 pubhc and ordinary professors ; 1 public 
extraordinary professor ; 1 assistant professor ; 7 tutors ; 6 private professprs ; 
2 extra tutors ; 18 assistants ; 3 librarians ; 2 superintendents of the techno- 
logical museum ; 2 superintendents at the astronomical observatory. 

The technological museum comprises more than 200,000 specimens of models, 
machines, &c., admirably arranged. 



(Extracts from Prof. Koristka's account of Fliyhcr Polytechnic Instruction in Get' 
many, France and Switzerland).* 

The Polytechnic schools are the creation of our own (Jay. Not one of them 
is a hundred years old, for the oldest, that in Paris, was founded in 1794. Then 
followed the school of Prague, 1806, (begun, it is tine, as a special school, in 
1765); Vienna, 1815; Berlin, 1821; Carlsruhe, 1825; the Paris central school, 
{ecole centrale,) 1829 ; Munich, 1827 ; Nuremburg, 1829 ; Augsburg, 1833 ; Stutt- 
gart, 1829, then Planover, 1831; in Belgium, Liege, and Ghent, 1835, and at 
length, within the last twenty years, the new polytechnic institutes in Austria, 
and also certain beginnings in England. At the same time, Ave must mention 
that only a few of these schools in Germany received in the begiiming the name 
or had the full character of polytechnic schools. They were founded under the name 
of Industrial Schools, extended their scope gradually, and at length received the 
new designation as well as their present internal organization. 

The first schools of this kind, both in Austria and in Gex-many, comprised all 
technical subjects which the scholai'S were obliged to learn in turn. In the be- 
ginning, while industry was little developed and technical knowledge little cared 
for, these institutions answered fully to the demand, and the schools of Vienna 
and of Prague Avere, at that time, considered model institutions. But through 
the rapid advances of art and industry in our day, these schools did not need so 
long a time, as did those of former times, to divide themselves into groups. In 
the course of twenty to thirty years followed the division of labor, and with this 
came the problem : how to extend the single schools so that those who desired 
it could carry on exhaustive studies on particular subjects, and on the other 
hand, to provide for a general course, taking up all branches as formerly. It was 
found impossible to unite these two aims. 

Necessarily, then, those schools, which wished to supply the new demands of 
technical knowledge and industry, were gradually obliged to alter their organi- 
zation ; to fulfil especially the chief requirements of the same ; to introduce more 
exhaustive courses, so that, far instance, a course which originally consisted of 
instruction in mechanics was divided into two parts, theoretical and practical 
mechanics, afterAvards into three parts, when the construction of machines Avas 
added to the two former studies, and later yet special instruction Avas given in 
the making of steam-engines and locomotives. 

It Avas the same Avith the art of building, and with technical chemistry. Almost 
all the schools in Germany, Belgium, and France, yielded sooner or later to this 
practical necessity, and so arose the organization of the so-called Fac/i-schools, i. e., 
schools in Avhich particular branches of biTsiness are taught. 

In Austria, however, and in some parts of Bavaria, the old order of things re- 
mained, for Avhich they offered as excuse the actual state of industry and the 
little need of a present division of labor ; but they Avere at length obliged to yield. 

True, Hanover did not accept the organization of schools for particular indus- 
tries (Fachsc/nden), but it has been found, on comparing the plans of their schools 
with those of Carlsruhe or Zurich that they differ only in name. Still, there was 
wanting in Hanover the plan of supervision adopted in the special schools, and 

* Der noehere polytechnische Untenicht in Deutschland , in der Schweiz, in Frankreich, BeU 
gien und England. Carl Koristka, Prof, am polytechnischen Landesinstitut zu Prague, &c. 


with this the conferences of the teachers seemingly so necessary tq their pros- 
perity ; but this also was not long wanting. Finally, we might add that ac- 
cording to the plan of education in Paris, there was no real division for special 
studies there also, but all that has been said of Hanover applies to Paris as well, 
and besides, there the lectures of the professors form but a part of the instruction. 
Instruction by recitation forms a feature ^f even more importance, and the pupils 
were certainly divided according to their intended pursuits. 

As for the number of the divisions, we find in all the schools at least four : chemi- 
cal, mechanical, architectural (the latter divided into two parts, that of building 
with especial attention to architectural ornament), and that of highways, rail- 
ways, bridges, &c., styled in France and Belgium des ponts et chaiissees 

These four groups form the principal divisions in most polytechnic schools ; 
only a short time ago, Berlin transferred the building department from the in- 
dustrial school to the academy designed for this special ' study, but in Dresden 
both branches of building are united. In Belgium the schools at Liege and at 
Ghent are connected with each other. 

The division of technical studies into these three or four distinct parts is so 
decidedly demanded by the nature and practice of technical science, that it is 
unnecessary to defend or support it here. 

Another question is, whether the whole field is occupied by these four groups, 
or if others are not necessary. It cannot be denied that there is a great number 
of branches, which it would have been better to confide to special schools : as for 
instance, mining, foundries, agriculture, forest culture, ship-building, &c., not to 
speak of military fortifications, There is no doubt that one might give special 
instruction in these in the polytechnic schools just as well as in mechanics, chem- 
istry, &c., provided thorough instruction in these branches is desired. Mean- 
while, at the same time with the polytechnic schools, even earlier there arose, 
at Freiburg, Schemnitz, Mariabrunn, Tharand, Altenburg, Hohenheim, &c., 
special schools where practical as well as theoretical instruction was imparted 
with great success. 

This further division has resulted only in profit to the polytechnic schools, their 
organization becoming more simplified, and united action being much facilitated. 
Some of them possess one or more of these special schools besides the before- 
mentioned, as, for instance, Zurich has a forest-school, Carlsruhe a forest, mer- 
cantile, and post school, Berlin a ship-building department, Liege a mining 
school, &c. 

No one will deny that almost all branches of science are in some way, more or 
less, connected, and that it is, without doubt, very necessary and desirable that 
the intelligent workman (techniker) should know something out of his own nar- 
row field. This argument was for a long time the chief weapon of the defenders 
of the old state of things in Austria ; according to their notions, the artist should 
have made himself thoroughly familiar with a course of general study. But cer- 
tain as it is, that a mechanic should possess sufficient knowledge of building as to 
be able to judge a plan accurately, so sure is it, that at present one no longer ex- 
pects from a machinist that he should be able to plan and superintend the build- 
ing of a railway, nor from an architect a chemical analysis ; and the change, 
moreover, is regretted by no one. In order to meet the real necessities of the 
case, lectures on the most practical and important parts of other branches of 
science should be judiciously given. 

In almost all the polytechnic schools, we find one or more general classes, in 


which those things are taught which form the common basis of all technical 
knowledge, or which give the pupils superior culture, Carlsruho has three, [Stutt- 
gart two, Dresden one, Berlin, Liege, and Ghent, one or two such general 
classes! ; in Paris the whole polytechnic school, consisting of two classes, is noth- 
ing more than a general preparation for tlic special departments. Even in Zu- 
rich, where there was formerly great opposition to this plan, a preparatory class 
has lately been formed, although these classes are very much opposed, there are 
certainly branches on which all technical science, in every department, is based, 
such for instance as higher mathematics, physics, with the geometry involved in 
it, which might be taught with advantage in one or two general mathematical 
classes, which all pupils, without exception, would pass through. We cannot 
demand of these preparatory schools that they give their pupils the pure disci- 
pline of science, so far as is necessary in the polytechnic schools, but on the other 
hand, since these subjects, which really demand a riper judgment for their com- 
prehension, are to be taught in the polytechnic school, this leaves time to the 
pupils during the one or two years they pass in the preparatory school, to choose 
their occupation or profession. 

Let us sum up in a few words the present organization of the polytechnic 
schools : First, one grand division consisting of one or two classes, and open to 
all scholars in common ; then four branches for the four technical divisions, for 
building, architecture, mechanics, and chemistry, to which special courses may be 
added with advantage. 


A preparation for entering the Polytechnic Schools, in both Germany and 
Switzerland, can be sought in private or even self-instruction, since examinations 
are always held on entering the schools, and it is not necessary that the candid- 
ate should have been through any particular school. Meanwhile, it is plain that 
this method is very uncertain and expensive, and therefore, in all countries, 
where polytechnic institutions have been established, preparatory schools have 
also been established wherever they did not before exist. 

These latter schools have, however, not the aim alone of preparing for the poly- 
technic school, but instruction for the middle classes of the industrial popidation 
is joined with it, is indeed for the most part, the real aim, preparation for the 
polytechnic school being only a mino" end. Many polytechnic schools of Han- 
over and Dresden give this preparatory instruction themselves, either in a pre- 
paratory course or in their lowest classes. 

The different names of these preparatory schools are : Trade (gewerbe) schools, 
(schools for artizans), real schools (schools where modern languages and the 
sciences are taught), real gymnasiums (corresponding to the American Pligh 
School), industrial schools, &c. These must be carefully distinguished from the 
secondary and other improvement schools mainly for mechanics, which admit only 
artizans and work-people as scholars, and give instruction mostly during the even- 
ing and on Sundays. As chief representatives of this class of schools, we would 
mention the " Canton schools for artisans" (Kanton-Industrieschulen), "the dis- 
trict school for artisans" (Kreisgeiverbeschulen), and the projected school of lan- 
guage and science (ReaJgymnasien) in Bavaria,'and the " provincial schools " for 
artisans (Provinzia/gewerbeschiilen) of Prussia. 

The chief branches of study everywhere are the elementary mathematics and 
drawing, further thorough instruction in the mother-tongue, physics, and foreign 


modern languages. In mathematics the course goes at least as far as the use of 
logarithms, equations of the second degree, plane trigonometry, and in the Swiss 
schools still further. We cannot of course dwell longer on these schools here, 
our only object being to see the requirements for entering the polytechnic 

The schools for artisans, of Switzerland, form generally a second division of 
the canton-schools, whose first division is the gymnasium. The case is the same 
with the industries-school at Zurich. It forms, together with the gymnasium 
there, the admirably organized canton-school, which is directly connected with 
the common-school ( Volkschide). The industrial-school has the work of prepar- 
ing the pupil directly for practical life or for admission to higher technical schools. 
It is divided into an upper and lower school, each of which has three sub-divis- 
ions. The hours of instruction, per week, are specified. In the lower industrial 
school are taught: religion 6 hours, German language 12, geography 5, history 
8, natural history 4, natural philosophy 4, practical arithmetic (including de- 
cimals and proportions) 9, mathematics, including fundamental rules and equa- 
tions of the 1st and 2d degree, 4, geometry (planimetry and measurement of 
bodies) 6, geometrical figures 6, French language 16, English language (not ob- 
ligatory) 8, (free-hand drawing) designing 8, calligraphy 4, singing 3, gymnastics 
6, use of weapons. 

In th<5 upper school all these branches (gymnastics and use of weapons ex- 
cepted) are not obligatory. Pupils can enter any one of the three principal 
departments, that of mechanics, of chemistry, or of commerce, into w'hich the 
instruction is divided. The rector is, however, required to see that in the choice 
of branches by the scholar, he does not take special studies alone and entirely 
neglect the general branches. Every scholar must be occupied at least thirty 
hours a week. In the upper school are taught : religion, only in the first year, 
2 hours, theoretical mathematics, continued fractions, logarithms, progressions, 
algebraic analysis, higher equations, plane and spherical trigonometry in full, 
analytical geometry 20 hours a week in all three year courses, geometry by 
figures 6, technical design 18, practical geometry, with simple field-measurements 
and designs, 7, theoretical mechanics, and mechanical technology, 6, chemistry 
and chemical technology with practice in the laboratory 10, lectures 8, exercises, 
botany and zoology, 3, mineralogy 2, knowledge useful to merchants, i» seven 
courses, 26, French 11, English 12, Italian 10, German 7, history 12, geography 

5, free-hand drawing 10, calligraphy 2, singing, gymnastics, and the use of arms. 
The canton-school at Zurich is admirably arranged. The total numher of 

scholars at the industrial school, in 1861, w^as 370.' As soon as tliere are over 
forty scholars in a class a division is made. 

The Provincial schools for artisans (Kreisgewerbesclmleti) and the gymnasium 
for language and science (ReaJgymnasien) of Bavaria, which we wish to bring 
up as a second example of the preparatory instruction, have the same double 
aim as the first mentioned example. According to the present organization 
these schools have a three years' course divided for industrial occupations and 
commerce. The follqAving branches are taught : higher arithmetic 5 hours, ele- 
mentary mathematics, including logarithms and plane trigonometry, 1 2, natural 
history and encyclopaedia of science 10, physics 3, practical chemistry 5, religion 

6, German 10, geography 6, sketching, projecting, and designing, 24, calligraphy 
2, modeling in clay 8, those who are to be merchants take, instead of the draw- 
ing and modeling, French and English, 10, mercantile, arithmetic, and counting- 


room knowledge, 15. An important reform is projected (carried out in 1864) 
for those autl all technical schools in Bavaria, so that the school of science 
is alone to fit this class of pupils, while the real gymnasiums are to take a 
middle place between these and the polytechnic schools. This is to have a four 
years' course, and to teach the following branches : mathematics, arithmetical 
equations, the study of functions, plane and spherical trigonometry, 25 hours, 
natural history 5, physics and chemistry 10, geometry by figures 6, designing 24, 
religion 8, German 9, Latin 10, French 16, English 4, geography and history 7. 

In several of the greater States of middle Germany already such real gymnasi- 
ums exist, and it is not to be denied that there are many good reasons for organi- 
zation. They give, in truth, a second drill, and are often used as a preparation 
for the polytechnic schools. The provincial schools for artisans throughout 
Prussia have a similar organization, and such ought really to be organized in 
every capital city. Each of these schools have only two classes and a one year's 
course. These are especially designed for boys of 14 at least, that they may 
there obtain that instruction necessary to them in their business, or prepare them 
to be received into the Trade Institute at Berlin. 

The following are the branches taught with the number of hours devoted to 
them : elementary mathematics, including logarithms, equations of the second 
degree and progressions, plane ti-igonometry and conic sections, elements of de- 
scriptive geometry, 21 hours, physics and chemistry, with experiments, 12, me- 
chanics and instruction on machines 3, instruction in building 3, mineralogy 2, 
designing and modeling 14, sketching 18. The lower class is chiefly for theo- 
retical instruction and drawing, the upper for the practice of what has already 
beenf learned. 

Besides these there are, in Germany, a great number of similar schools under 
the name of real schools, as at Darmstadt, &c., or higher district schools, people's 
schools, as at Hanover, which undertake, also, the courses of a gymnasium, and 
usually accomplish the whole in from six to seven years. 























Dresden, - - - 












Hanover, - 






Paris, (Central School) 
Liege, (School of Arts) - 
Prague, (old plan) 
" (new plan) 










In no field of technical science has such great progress been made in the last 
thirty years as in that of mechanics. In no branch of study, therefore, is the 
difference between our Austrian and foreign institutions of learning so great as 
in this, and that also as much in the manner of teaching as in the arrangement 
of the subjects taught and the helps used. 



While with US, iu Prague and in Vienna, last year [1862] the whole subject, 
excepting mechanical technology, was taught by a single teacher in a single 
course of a year with from five to ten weekly hours of instruction, the same sub- 
ject has been divided in Germany into three individual branches with at least 
one teacher for each branch. 

Theoretical and analytical mechanics, and machine construction, are the chief 
branches taught at every good polytechnic school, and the last mentioned is even 
dfvided into two or more branches besides the necessary instruction in drawing 
and construction. We need only to glance at the figures of the foregoing table 
in order to see how far behind the others we are. Certainly, it heightens the 
merits of the Austrian teachers of mechanics, who thus, in the short time granted 
them by the school-programme of instruction, must go over the whole extended 
subject with its branches, and every unprejudiced person will acknowledge that 
they have accomplished much under the unfavorable circumstances. 

As for the division of the subject, this is described in the account of the schools 
at Carlsruhe, Zurich, Dresden and Berlin. We will only add a few remarks ; 
and first, the school at Zurich differs from most others, in the opinion that differ- 
ent courses of lectures shall be given on the theory of machines (maschinm-khre) 
and on their construction (maschinen-bau) but that these lectures shall be given 
by separate professors, while other schools, particularly Carlsruhe, consider this 
impossible, or, at least injudicious. 

It is certainly true that the theory of machines differs from machine-building, 
and that, since Rcdtcnbacher, Weissbach, and especially Reuleaux, have brought 
the latter to an independent art, a union of these two subjects under one teacher 
can scarcely exist v/ithout more or less neglecting one or the other. On the 
other hand, we must also acknowledge that, since both subjects complete each 
other, the lectures must be so arranged that this difiiculty can only be overcome 
by the most friendly understanding between the two professors, as happily is the 
case in Zurich at the present time. 

In France, it is only lately that the new opinions have been adopted. By the 
old plan mechanics v/ere taught in two branches : theoretical and practical, the 
latter being divided into several courses, as hydraulic machines, steam-machines, 
&c. With their excellent mathematical apparatus, the French technical teachers 
explained with ease the general principles involved in every machine, regarding 
each as an independent example, but their defect lay in paying little regard to 
empiricism, while the English fell into just the opposite mistake, and devoted 
themselves exclusively to proportions and to innumerable exjjerimeitts and 

A second remark has reference to machine shops as to whose introduction into 
the Austrian schools there is such difference of opinion ; the call from business 
men (industriellen) being so loud for such workshops, that to appease them the 
scholars should become finished mechanics before coming to them. 

It would be well to take counsel from the experience of the schools mentioned 
in the first part of this report. The institute at Berlin has the greatest and old- 
est arrangement of this kind. The work-shop costs over 9,000 thalers yearly, 
but the interest shown by the scholars is very little, and all competent judges at 
Berlin desire it to be discontinued or greatly limited. Then come Augsburg 
and Nuremburg, where the work-shops are on a more modest scale, but where, 
'on account of the severe discipline and the small number of scholars (not over 
twenty), the results have been most favorable. Then we must mention Liege, 


where the work-shops nre leased to a macliinist, and where, also, a very practical 
arrangement is made with regard to ngrieulturc. In our oj)inion, although the 
number of scholars is even smaller, the results arc even more favorable. In all 
other schools the machine-shops, whenever there are any, are considered as side- 
affairs, as in Carlsruhe and Zurich. In Hanover, Dresden, and the central 
school of Paris there are no such work-shops for scholars. Dresden gives the 
most instruction in this respect. True, there were no machine-shops arranged 
for the school, but the government had made a contract with one quite celebrated, 
by which the scholars were permitted to work there a certain number of hours, 
weekly, during the whole course, and to receive instruction there. In the year 
1829, these hours comprised 48 per cent, of the whole time of instruction, but it 
diminished yearly, the lectures and exercises in designing being increased at its 
expense, so that, in 1835, it was only 35, in the year 1838 only 26, in 1849 only 
14 per cent., and in 1852 was wholly discontinued. 

All these results speak in no way favorably for the work-shops. It is also in 
the nature of the case that their establishment can never have the exj^iected re- 
sults in most polytechnic schools; for, in the first place the costs of such a work- 
shop, and its yearly support, is very considerable. Secondly, only a few scholars 
can be taught, for it is impossible to instruct 60 to 80 scholars, which is the 
number at Vienna and Prague, without enormous outlay. Thirdly, the matter 
must be regarded in an economical point of view, as it is plain that in a private 
machine-shop much more economy of time and work can be practiced than at 
such a public school Finally, the milder discipline of a polytechnic school is a 
hindrance to success, since the pupils are under no more strict regulations in 
their practical work than in their theoretical studies, and yet, as every one knows, 
the severest discipline, the most exact observance of the hours of labor, is neces- 
sary in a machine-shop (fahrik) if anything- is to be accomplished, and order to 
be sustained. The opinion of those who think that young men are only spoiled 
in the shops is therefore not wholly without reason. But should a school which 
has large means and few scholars wish to establish such work-shops, we would 
recommend the method of Liege, or that of Augsburg and Nuremburg. 

But what shall we do then ? How shall young mechanics fit themselves, prac- 
tically, for their work ? 

We reply, that a part, and that a very important one of the practical education, 
consists in a systematic study of machine-building, as that, at present, is taught 
in the better polytechnic schools, the great industry in the construction and de- 
signing of machines in th£i school itself But we can never demand from a 
school that it should instruct the pupil in all the practical points relating to 
machine construction as thoroughly as the work-shop can do with regard to the 
single machine, to whose construction it has been dedicated for years. If, how- 
ever, we demand this kind of practice, it can be obtained only b}' the pupil's 
taking practical lessons in a machine-shop either before his entrance into the 
school or after he graduates. The easiest method, and the one we would recom- 
mend, is the one in present use in Dresden and proposed at Stuttgart, namely, 
that the scholar enter upon this practical part after the first year passed at the 
school, for reasons previously given. In Austria little attention has as yet been 
given to this branch, and provision for the scholars in home institutions, since 
many of these are in the hands of foreigners, is extremely difficiilt. To help the 
scholars in this respect, the school-committee should make a contract with the 
best manufactories (Fabriken) to receive yearly, for a specified sum, a certain 



number of young mechanics as apprentices. The scholars should pay this sum 
to the school and the school to the factory. Those of the best scholars who have 
no means should receive assistance, the school paying for them out of its own 
funds. We are convinced that the best factories would consider this an honor, 
and that this branch of manufactures in Austria would thus be so raised, that in 
twenty years all such aid would be imnecessary. This plan h*as been tried in 
Hanover, and in a very short time obtained the best results. Naturally, we hold 
the establishment of a small work-shop, with an experienced superintendent at 
its head, as very desirable for every polytechnic school. The chief aim of such 
work-shops should be to keep in repair the models it already possesses, to invent 
new according to the directions of the teachers, and to reserve a few places for 
such scholars for whom it had previously been impossible to visit a machine-shop 
in order to instruct such in the more common practical parts of working in metals, 
and to prepare them to attend a larger work-shop. A small number of places 
would answer for a large number of scholars by letting them take turns, and 
great care is to be taken that this instruction be kept in the background, and at 
the same time that it do not degenerate into a mere pastime. 











Zurich, - - - - 






Carlsruhe, - - - 






Stuttgart, - - - - 






Munich, (Engineers' School,) 






Dresden, - - . - 






Hanover, - - - - 






Paris, (Central School,) 





Ghent, (Civil Engineering,) 




■ . , 


Prague, (old plan,) 






" (new plan,) 






From this table we see that the greatest number of courses and lectures on this 
subject are given in the school at Carlsruhe. As for the lessons of design, we 
must remark that here in mechanics, as well as in the making of bridges and 
roads, the number of hours given in the plan is only the minimum. In reality, 
the industrious student must, in order to satisfy his teacher, devote much more 
time to construction and designing. The chief difference betAveen the Austrian 
and other schools is, that in ours the constructive part (chiefly at least) is taught, 
while the architectural part is left in the hands of the art academies, (not to be 
confused, however, with special schools, like that of the Berlin Building Acad- 
emy,) Avhile in all the foreign schools, with exception of the Parisian, several 
terms are devoted to this ; sometimes, also several teachers demanded. And, in- 
deed, one cannot understand why it should not be possible to give a thorough 
education to architects of the highest grade at our polytechnic schools. The 
building of houses is indeed a branch in itself, and the desire to separate the 
practical from the esthetical part of planning a building, and to establish diiFer- 
,ent schools for each, seems to us unnecessary, and moreover, directly opposed to 
a harmonious union of both aims. Besides this, the pupils after leaving the school 
will be much governed in their future course by inclination. If one, however. 



grants to the polytechnic school the right of educating professional architects, 
one should not take from it the right to form the taste of the pupils, and their 
appreciation of the beautiful, at least as much as is now done in the Austrian 
schools, for under present arrangements, the pupil would find it much more use- 
ful to travel for one year, than to spend three there. 

For this reason, we find lectures on building materials and building, as well 
as those upon style, history of architecture, &c., given in great numbers at for- 
eign schools, as is also intended by the new plan at Prague. 

In the best schools, the demands upon the scholar in the highest course (last 
term) are very great. We have had opportunity to see in Carlsruhc and Zurich 
great and detailed designs, made by scholars, of which many skilled architects 
need not have been ashamed. There is difference of opinion, as to Avhether at Carls- 
ruhe and Zurich there should be one general course of study for all the scholars, 
or whether one should adapt the studies to each individual scholar, as at other 
schools. Those persons who superintend special schools are really the only ones 
who should decide here. 

In all schools, for the purpose of illustrating the courses, models in wood, clay, 
and plaster of Pai-is, are furnished. We do not" contradict ourselves in the 
opinion given in the previous article, by recommending the establishing of such 
workshops as these everywhere. Their cost is not great, the interest of the pupils 
is kept awake, and leads soon to the wished-for result ; a thing not always to be 
affirmed of the machine shops. The reparation of wood models, the modeling 
of ornaments in clay, stone, and the forming of objects from drawings, are 
excejlent exercises for the pupil. That here too, a previous practical experience 
is very useful, and in many schools is understood to precede these, we do not 
need to state. Excursions to interesting buildings in process of construction, 
accompanied by the professor, are at all times to be recommended. 










Zurich, . . - - 






Carlsruhe, . - - 






Stuttgart, - - - - 






Munich, - - - - 






Dresden, - - - - 






Hanover, - - 






Paris, (Roads and Bridges,) 





Ghent, ( Civil Engineering, ) 





Prague, (old plan,) 






" (new plan,) 






This subject is, without question, best provided for, as the table shows, in the 
school des ponts et chaussees in Paris, which school is entirely devoted to this 
branch. We should also remark that one or two courses and one teacher might 
in this table be added to the German schools. We have already mentioned them 
in the article on building. They comprise instruction on building materials, and 
carpentry and masonry, but belong equally to the construction of streets and 
bridges. That which has been said in the previous article about workshops for 



modeling in wood, clay, and plaster of Paris, applies perfectly to this subject. 
It is acknoAvledged in all schools that pupils in this branch need the most thorough 
and exhaustive mathematical instruction, as well as that instruction on machines, 
at least belongs to the preparatory course. On the other hand they are, in gen- 
eral, excused from the greater part of the architectural branches. We have 
already given the programme of instruction in Carlsruhe and at Paris. It only 
remains for us to express the wish that the professors of the technical schools 
should join with those of the building and railway department, in order that the 
students in this branch may have the opportunity of prolonged practice, for the 
simple visiting of a building in process of construction Avith the professors, as is 
the custom in many schools, cannot suffice. 



Zurich, - - , 
Carlsruhe, - - - 

Dresden, ... 
Berlin, - . - 
Hanover, - . . 
Paris, (Central School,) 
Liege, (School of Arts,) 
Prague, (old plan,) - 
" (new plan,) 







The practical exercises of the scholars in the chemical laboratory are not given 
here, since in most schools no regular time, but often a whole day, on which the 
lectures are suspended, is devoted to them. There is only a very small difference 
in this respect between foreign schools and ours. Everywhere there is the same 
division into general, analytical, and special chemistry, Avhich latter division has, 
in general, four or five subdivisions. It is to be wished, first, that the laboratories 
were at least twice as large, in order to satisfy present needs, and to accommo- 
date all capable scholars with practical work ; in the second place, that the labo- 
ratories Avere better endoAved and arranged, since they are very poorly furnished, 
that of Vienna excepted ; and. thirdly, that there might be more teachers, in 
order, to take up the subjects more in detail. The school course of Zurich, Carls- 
ruhe, and the Central School at Paris, show the division of instruction, and at 
the last school the comprehensiA^e analytical method of treating the most impor- 
tant inorganic and organic compounds is especially interesting. The schools 
of Zurich and Carlsruhe have perhaps the best laboratories ; those of Stuttgart, 
Berlin, HanoA^er, and Dresden are good. 


We have already remarked that the proper organization of a technical institu- 
tion is veiy essential to its success. Even more important is the method of teach- 
ing, for it is possible that a school under the old system of things might accom- 
plish much, if possessing some superior professors ; but it is completely impossi- 
ble that a school sbould ansAver the Avants of the age, if it possesses inferior 
teachers, even though it have the best possible organization. 

It is thus a natural question, in Avhat way and by what means a school is to 
obtain a superior class of instractors 1 Before ansAvering that question, we must 


mention another important point connected with this. In most schools the 
chief professors form a corps of instructors, the faculty, which has certain rights, 
and upon which falls directly the discipline and direction of the school, Berlin 
being the only exccj)tjpn. The present arrangement at the Austrian Universi- 
ties, which is projected in Prague, is convenient, namely, that the assistant 
teachers, tutors, resident graduates, &c., vote certain ones among their num- 
ber into the faculty. The system of tutors is indeed as yet allowed only 
in the polytechnic school at Zurich, but we cannot see why this plan should 
not work as well elsewhere. In the Austrian schools there is more liberality. 

At the head of the faculty, and hence of the school, in all schools is a director 
(president). He is either chosen yearly and approved by government, or is ap- 
pointed directly by government, as at Dresden, Berlin, Hanover, and of course 
at Paris also. Tbis circumstance, the yearly choice of a director or his appoint- 
ment by government, is of great importance for the progress of each school, for 
it is sure that in the first case this, as well as the direct guidance of the school, 
is in the hands of the faculty, while in the second case, Avhatever rights may be 
granted the faculty, they arc really vested in the hands of the director. It is 
rather a delicate point for us to endeavor to express the different views held in 
Germany on this subject, since, however much Ave may guard against it, we may 
be accused of seeking our own interests. Notwithstanding, we hold it for our 
duty, here where a principle is in question, and where we are not sure that any one 
director will agree with us, to pronounce our opinion, that under the present cir- 
cumstances in the higher technical institutions, we Avould much prefer the periodi- 
cal choice of a director (we state no term of service), and that by choice of the 
faculty. The most weighty arguments against the choice are the greater author- 
ity of a constant director, his influence upon the instruction that it may be well- 
ordered, the more severe discipline Avhich he could enforce, the avoiding of quar- 
rels and jealousies among the professors, as is the case at a yearly choice. These 
advantages have not always been obtained, for the authority of the (public school) 
teachers from among whom the director should be chosen, rests only upon their 
ability and success. Careless teachers would certainly be corrected sooner by 
the disapproval of the faculty, than by the director alone, for in quiet 
times good discipline depends upon the individual teachers, and in disturbed 
years severe discipline can be carried out least of all by a director who does not 
always possess the confidence and support of the faculty. Certainly any of us, 
who has lived the last twenty years, can cite examples of this. Finally, there are 
parties in every corporation, to avoid which, one must have no faculty at all. 

On the other hand, a yearly choice has the advantage, that only a very worthy 
member of the faculty will be chosen. This director, clothed with the whole 
moral power of his brother professors, the man in whom they place full con- 
fidence, has thus great influence on the students. The faculty will choose 
only such a man as will work energetically to further the interests of the school, 
and who will not pursue his own department of science to its injury. 

In places where the director is chosen yearly, the practical instruction must 
naturally be separated from the scientific,, and be entrusted to a teacher or other 
officer. In the universities this method has so far succeeded admirably. 

But certainly the worst method is that adopted in some of our neighbor States, 
where the direction of technical institutions has been put in the hands, not of 
former teachers, but of officers of the ministerial department, and no influence 
at all, in the direction of the school, granted to the faculty. 


If we come now to the rights of the faculty, the one above-named is certainly 
the most important, namoJy, the choice of a director, since the whole tone of the 
institution, and its attitude towards the world, depends directly upon this, and in 
this Avay is directly countenanced by the faculty. The other most important 
rights ai*e those of discipline, which all faculties possess, that of making sugges- 
tions as to endowments and stipends, as well as suggesting reforms of individual 
branches of instruction, which right appertains to most faculties in GeiTnany, 
but those of France do not possess it. Finally, the right of making suggestions 
when a vacancy in the faculty is to be filled. This is a privilege which only the 
Austrian schools enjoy, but one to be wished most heartily to others. The ob- 
jection has been raised that in such case, out of desire to aid friends, quite other 
than pure scientific merit may procure the appointment, and this objection is not 
wholly ■without grounds. It would, however, never be dangerous, since the fac- 
ulty has only the right of proposing tAvo or three candidates, not of appointing 
them, this right remaining in the hands of the supreme authority under which 
the school stands. "We could, however, wish that the faculty might possess more 
rights than are commonly possessed by it ; and thus w^e come again to the ques- 
tion with which we started in this article, namely, how a technical institution 
may secure for itself and maintain a thorough system of instruction 1 

In the German schools it is not a matter of so great importance that the fac- 
ility has no influence over the filling of vacancies' in the school, since it has al- 
ways been a point of honor in the middle and smaller States to obtain the great- 
est possible reputation for their own university and polytechnic school. We 
have seen how even ministers of state have not scorned to make a journey and 
to negotiate personally with the persons devoted to this or that science. In 
Austria this is quite different, for by the system of salaries, a kind of regular 
advancement takes place when vacancies occur, so that worthy scientific men 
have no hope of rising through their talents. In Prague the salaries have been 
very considerably reduced since 1806. In many institutions of Austria they are 
less than are given to an overseer in a factory. How can we demand men to 
give a young man the education of an engineer, or of a superintendent of a fac- 
tory, for the purpose of teaching, when he can at once get three times as large a 
salary in the workshop as in the school. Notwithstanding we hear complaints 
that so few talented men engaged in industrial pursuits, and devote themselves to 
technical instruction, while the very best teachers in the technical schools in Ger- 
many, as Karmaroch in Hanover, Redtenbacher (now dead) m Carisruhe, Schnei- 
der in Dresden, &c., are Austrians who have deserted their own country because 
it offers them no situation befitting their talents. 

Wherever the school is divided according to the different branches, as at Zurich, 
Carisruhe, and Stuttgart, frequent meetings are evervwhere held by their pro- 
fessors, who watch over the progress of instruction at the special schools ; and 
choose from their own number a president of these meetings. 

In the French schools, as well as at Zurich, Berlin, and Hanover, a special 
committee is appointed to watch over the progress of the school. This com- 
mittee consists of a director and two or three professors, besides several distin- 
guished scientific and business men, and the higher ministerial authority. These 
are appointed by government, which then makes directly on it all calls for ad- 
vancement in instruction, and for filling vacant professorships. It is evident that 
this superintendence of government must be granted in concuiTence with the 
professors and the director. 



The division of the pupils, the method of admission, fees of tuition, discipline 
and examinations are to be considered under this head. 

In almost all the schools of Germany and Switzerland there are two classes 
of scholars: One of them, which is the principal one everywhere, has the name 
scholar or student, (in Austria, audience) ; the second ciitegory has in Zurich 
and Hanover, the name " hearers ; " in Carlsruhe and Dresden, " transient aud- 
itors" (hospcs) ; in Stuttgart, and also in Austria, "special hearers or scholars." 

The first class bind themselves to go through the whole course, prove their 
preparation on entering, and conform to the customary reviews, examinations, 
and written work. The latter class are not bound to any of these things. They 
are men in an independent position, or with regular employments, hearing only 
certain lectures without being obliged to pass an examination on them. In the 
French schools, in that of bridges and highways, as well as in the mining school, 
there are also two divisions, the eleves ingenieures and the eleves eoctet-nes, but the 
only difference here is that the first are graduates of the polytechnic school, who 
have to submit to no entrance examination, and who will be received into the 
service of the state, while the second class have none of these privileges, and 
must go through the whole course. In the Central School at Paris, and at the 
Belgian schools, there is only one class of pupils. 

At all the polytechnic schools it is required that the pupils shall be of a certain 
age on entering ; at Zurich and Berlin, 17 years old ; at Stuttgart, Dresden, and 
Haijover, 16 ; the Paris schools alone demand no particular age. Further, an 
examination is required in all schools on entering ; but in Berlin and Dresden 
the certificate of a gymnasium or of an industrial school is accepted. At all 
these examinations, mathematics and designing are the principal requirements, 
but some knowledge of physics, natural history, and style, is required. These 
examinations are most severe in France, where a list of questions is made out 
for every subject, and an examining committee are appointed who are exceed- 
ingly conscientious in their duties. In the German schools these examinations, 
from the desire to fill up the schools, are unfortunately not as severe as they 
should be for the good of the schools. The introduction of such examinations 
would be of great advantage to the schools of Vienna and. Prague, since this 
would bring all the scholars, so differently prepared at different schools, up to 
one level, leave the poorer scholars to the industrial schools, and picking out 
only the best, would at once reduce the number, and bring together a more intel- 
ligent and energetic class of students. 

The tuition varies exceedingly at the different polytechnic schools. The 
smallest tuition fee is that paid at Stuttgart, 15 florins; next year this is to be 
doubled. Then follows Zurich, 50 francs ; this also is to be doubled ; then Han- 
over, from 24 to 36 thalers ; Berlin and Dresden, 40 thalers ; in Dresden, for 
natives only, foreigners pay 60 ; and finally, Carlsruhe, 66 florins. The most 
expensive school is the ecole centrale of Paris, where the annual tuition is 800 
francs. In all these schools, practice in the chemical laboratories is extra ; in 
Zurich, it is 40 francs ; in Carlsruhe, 44 florins ; in Berlin, 50 thalers. In almost 
all schools, industrious and poor scholars are released from these expenses, but 
this for only a fcAv at a time ; for instance, in Hanover, generally only 4 or 5 per 
cent. ; in Zurich, 6 ; in Carlsruhe, 10 ; in Dresden, at the most, 20 per cent. 
We are pleased with the two conditions, high tuition fees and few exceptions to 


their payment. In the higher institutions of learning, the tuition should not be 
merely nominal, even though the State itself be bound to render assistance to 
the institution. Rather help the poor student with stipends sufficient to obtain 
him his daily bread, and to permit him to devote himself exclusively to his 
studies. This is the method at the industrial institute at Berlin, and at both the 
polytechnic and the central school of Paris. The tuition fees in all the pol;f- 
technic schools come into the school fund, with the one exception of Zurich, 
where two- thirds of it is divided among the professors. 

In order to give a fair judgment upon the discipline of all the schools, it would 
be necessary to make quite a stay at each, since the practice is generally milder 
than the rule would indicate. The French schools are certainly the most severe, 
confinement {career) being among their punishments. For the rest, in some 
German schools, as at Dresden and Carlsruhe, conduct while out of the school is 
watched, and irregularities censured, but in most schools, conduct during session 
hours alone is regarded, and whatever misdeeds occur out of these hours are left 
to the police. In Stuttgart the pupils of the mathematical department are sub- 
ject to severer discipline than those of the special departments. On the other 
hand, in Berlin, where a few years ago such extremely severe discipline was 
practiced, they are fallen now into the opposite extreme. 

In our opinion, severe discipline is of little avail. This is proved in the 
Parisian schools. If the students are intelligent and ambitious, the discipline 
will be good without rules. Whenever admission examinations are demanded, a 
sure means of discipline is secured. A second means seems to lie in the hands 
of the individual teachers, who by frequent association with the students, Avill 
inspire them with zeal, and awaken intellectual activity within them. Should 
there, notAnthstanding, be some unruly spirits, a fifteen years' experience has 
proved to us that in most cases, a careful examination by the faculty will accom- 
plish much more than severe military rules. 

The greatest difference between the Austrian schools and those of other coun- 
tries we find to consist in the way in which the progress and industry of the 
scholars are judged. In the French and Belgian schools, even when the student 
does not board in the school, he is required to pass his time there fi-om eight in 
the morning to six in the evening, one hour only being taken out for dinner. 
The lectures themselves occupy little time ; during the greater part- of it, the 
scholar must occupy himself with his studies in the school-room, where he is un- 
der the constant surveillance of the repeators (repetiteurs) . In Germany this 
surveillance is not so severe ; home study is more recommended to the scholar. 
In other schools more time is given to repetitions and to written work than in 
Austria, for these alone determine the ability and knowledge of the student, and 
that much more surely than the final examinations in the letter country, to 
wliich all students, who desire a certificate at the end of the year, have to subject 
themselves. That these final examinations are in reality no sure proof of the 
industry and ability of the student, all Austrian technical teachers are agreed, 
but also they agree as fully that in those of our technical institutions, which like 
Vienna and Prague, are so overfilled, so long as this lasts, without at least the 
doubling of the number of teachers, the abolition of the final examinations and 
the introduction of the other method is a pure impossibility. In Germany, the 
ratio of teachers to scholars is 1 : 8 to 1 : 1 8 ; in Prague and Vienna, 1 : 25 and 
I : 30, and in some years even greater. 


There are three kinds of institutions designed to give special instruction in 
ao-riculture and kindred industries, viz : 1. Scliools of Agriculture, which are 
of three grades; 2. Schools of Forestry, which are likewise classiiic^d into supe- 
rior, middle, and lower oradcs ; 3. Veterinary Schools, of which there arc 6 -with 
21 professors, and 391 pupils. 


The Special Schools of Agriculture, of which there are seventeen, may be 
classed as follows : 

1. The superior agricultural schools of Austria are among the oldest and best 
in Europe, that at Krumman in Bohemia, having been founded in 1799, and that 
at Graetz, Trieste, Lomberg, and Trutsch, in 1809. 

The school at Graetz has nine professors, a model farm, a botanical garden, 
rich collections in natural history, and an establishment for silk worms. 

The superior school at Krumman in Bohemia, founded by Prince Schwart- 
zenberg in 1799, is located on an immense domain, and is conducted with every 
appliance of botanical gardens, model farms, stock, illustrative collcc^ons of imple- 
ments and machines, laboratories, herbarium, and numerous and able professors. 

The superior school or academy at Altenburg in Hungary, provides for the com- 
plete study of agricultural science. It has nine professors and 147 pupils. The 
school fee is 63 florins ; the total yearly cost 19,400 florins. It is a government 
establishment, possessing collections of all kinds, a chemical laboratory, a tech- 
nological gallery, a library, and a botanical garden. It gives instruction in ar- 
boriculture and in rural and forest management. The exhibition of samples of 
the grain cultivated, and models of the implements used on the model farm, of 
the insects and animals w^hich injure the plants, the herbals and soils, the copy- 
books, and drawings by the students, exhibited at Paris Exhibition of 1867, re- 
ceived the special notice and award of the jury. 

2. Middle agricultural schools have been founded at Grossau, in Lower Aus- 
tria ; at Teschen-Liebwerd, in Bohemia ; at Kreutz, in Ci'ontia, and at Dublany, 
in Gallicia. The studies occupy two years. There ai'e 27 professors, and 164 
outdoor pupils. The school fee is from 30 to 52 florins. The yearly expendi- 
ture amounts to 9,200 florins. They are maintained by local resources and agri- 
cultural societies. 

3. There are seven lower agricultural schools : at Grossau, in Lower Austria ; 
at Liebejei-Rabin ; at Teschen-Liebwerd, in Bohemia ; at Gratz, in Styria ; at 
Kreutz, in Gallicia ; at Ezernichow% in Gallicia ; and at Laybach, in Carinthia. 
These schools have 23 professors and 230 pupils. The school fee varies from 30 
to 40 florins, partly met by the work of the pupils. 

4. Besides the above, there are several schools devoted to special departments 
of rural economy, such as raising of bees, &c., as well as chairs of agriculture 
in 13 higher literary institutions. 


The Schools of Forestry, (9, with 36 professors,) are classified as follows : 
1. Superior forest academies are established at Mariabrunn in Lower Austria, 
and at Schemnitz in Hungary. The studies extend OA'er from two to three 
years. The qualification for admission is a certificate of studies from a gymna- 


sium or a superior practical school These establishments have a museum, col- 
lections, a botanical garden, and a laboratory. They have 14 professors and 160 
pupils in the two together. The school fee is 10 florins. There are some gratu- 
itous pupils. Both schools are maintained by the government. 

2. The middle forest schools are situated at Wiessewasser, in Bohemia ; at 
Aussen, in Moravia ; at Kreutz, in Croatia. The studies occupy from two to 
three years. The primary school preparation only is required. These schools 
have 12 professors and 100 pujiils. The gratuitous admission is compensated by 
the work of the pupils. 

3. At Pibram, in Bohemia ; at Windschacht, in Hungary ; and at Nagnay, in 
Transylvania, there are lower Forest Schools. The courses extend over two or 
three years. The preparation required is the primary school and the habit of 
working. There are eight professors and eighty-seven pupils, all gratuitous* 
These establishments are maintained by the State. 


The Imperial Forest Academy at Mariabrunn passed through various phases 
before it was reorganized in 1866. Formerly the Minister of Finance had the 
general supeiwitendence, but at present it is assigned to the Minister of Com- 
merce and Political Economy. Its aim is to impart a thorough theoretical and 
practical instruction in forest economy, for which purpose the large imperial 
forests in the neighborhood are placed at its disposal. The course is of three 
years duration, and consists partly of class lectures, and partly of scientific ex- 
cursions and studies in the surrounding forests. 

The students are either regular, who go through the complete course, or extra- 
ordinary, who take only a partial course. Students are admitted on presentation 
of a testimonial certificate of satisfactory scholarship in a real school or gymna- 
sium ; if from the latter, they must give additional evidence of proficiency in 
geometrical drawing. Since "maturity examinations " have not been generally' 
introduced in the real schools, those students who cannot present a testimonial, 
have to undergo an examination extending over all those subjects which are re- 
quired for admission at the polytechnic institute in Vienna. As a general rule 
all candidates must give proof that for one year they have been engaged in prac- 
tical forest economy. To be admitted as an extraordinary student, the candidate 
must have completed the 18th year of his age, and be sufficiently versed in the 
preliminary studies. 

Formerly students were obliged to live in the academy buildings, which condi- 
tion has been lately abolished. Ordinary students, who have gone through the 
complete course of instruction, may be admitted to a rigorous examination, (for 
a diploma,) the conditions of which are prescribed by an imperial resolution of 
January 16th, 1850. This examination is held by a special examination com- 
mittee, and consists of two divisions : Fii'st, mathematics, geodesy, forest sur- 
veying, mechanics, construction of machinery, architecture, chemistry, forest 
botany, geology, climatology, forest entomology. Second, forest economy in all 
its various branches. This examination is both written and oral. 

The director of the academy is chosen by the ministry, who at the same time has 
the functions of a professor, and is assisted by four professors and three assistants. 

The salary of the director is 3,000 florins ; that of the professors, 1,500 ; 2,000 
after ten years' service, and 2,500 after twenty years. The assistants' salaiy is 
500 florins. The director, professors, and assistants live rent free in the academy 



"We find in Austria the earliest efforts to adapt scliools and instruction to the 
needs of a commercial career. Tha plan drawn up by Wolf of Baden, and ap- 
proved by the Empress Maria Theresa, (who had authorized instruction in book- 
keeping in the Piarist schools in 1763,) for a Commercial Academy in Vienna 
in 1770, was intended "to offer to young men who intend to devote themselves 
to commercial pursuits, a fundamental knowledge of all that distinguishes a skil- 
ful commercial man from a shop-keeper." The number of pupils was limited to 
sixty, and the course embraced, besides other studies, the German, French, and 
Italian languages, general and commercial geography, commercial and maritime 
law, book-keeping, and drawing. In 1799, the plan of this academy was re- 
modeled, and again in 1808, making the studies more scientific, as well as more 
practical. On the model of this school, institutions were founded at Brunn in 
1811, at Brody in 1815, and at Lemberg in 1817, and a commercial class, in 
the same year, was added to the navigation school at Trieste. In all the modifi.- 
cations of the real schools, the commercial classes have been provided for. 


1. In 1857, the Academy of Commerce at Vienna was founded for young men 
intending to follow commercial pursuits. A capital of 400,000 florins was sub- 
scribed, and suitable premises built for the purpose. The school is provided 
with technological collections, a museum of natural productions, and complete 
chemical laboratories. A committee composed of nine members presides over 
the general management. The instruction is given in two divisions, one of them 
preparatory, requiring two years' study, the other technical, occupying tbe same 
length of time. The number of hours per week devoted to the different branches 
of instruction is shown in the following table : 




No. of hours. 



No. of hours. 







Religion, - 
German, - 
Geography, - 
History, - 
Natural history. 
Piiysics, - 





Commercial calculations. 
Book-keeping, - - - 
Commercial correspondence. 
Political economy, - 
Commercial law and exchanges, 
Geography, commercial and 

statistical, ... 
Commercial history, - 
Chemistry, - - - - 
Physics, - - - - 
Study of merchandise and tech- 
nology, - - - - 
Austrian commerce and manu- 
factures, - . - 
Model counting-house, - 














Totals, - 




Totals, - - - - 




Besides this compulsory curriculum there are French, English, and Italian 
classes, one or other of which every pupil must attend, or tv^^o, or all, if he 
pleases. There are excellent laboratories for those pupils who wish to learn 
how to analyze different kinds of merchandise. This study is altogether op- 


tional. In winter, qualitative analysis is taught, and quantitative in summer. 
The school fee is 157 tlorins, 50 kr. a year for all the courses. 

Into the first class of the academy are admitted : those youths who have satis- 
factorily finished a higher real school, or higher gymnasium, or the preparatory 
class of some commercial academy ; furthermore, those who in a rigorous exam- 
ination for admission give satisfactory evidence of possessing the degx-ee of gen- 
eral knowledge acquired usually in the preparatory course of the academy. As 
a general rule, only such are admitted to this examination as have entered their 
16th year. For entering the second class of the academy, it is necessary either 
to have gone through the first class, or pass a rigorous examination. 

To tiie first year of the preparatory course are admitted : youths who have 
absolved a three years' class, lower real school or lower g\Tiinasium ; those who 
(wherever they may have received their previous instruction) by a rigorous ex- 
amination show the degree of knowledge usually acquired at the schools. 

To the second year of the preparatory course, those are admitted who have 
either gone thi'Ougl.^;he first class of the same course, or (wherever they may- 
have been educated) show that degree of knowledge which is necessary for un- 
derstanding the subjects taught in the second class. Only such are admitted to 
an examination for this class as have entered the 15th year of their age. Every 
scholar is obliged to attend all the recitations marked obligatory in the plan of 
study. Extraordinary students are only admitted in the higher classes. 

At the close of the courses there are examinations for those who please to pre- 
sent themselves, and certificates of capacity are given to all who pass satisfacto- 
rily. Among the optional branches of instruction are stenography, to which 
some importance is attached, and drawing, which is cultivated both artistically 
and for its commercial uses. 

Besides the regular classes during the day, there are evening classes for per- 
sons already engaged in business. These are held from 7 to 9 o'clock from Oc- 
tober till Easter, and are attended by about 250 persons who pay four florins 
for each course, with the exception of the living languages, which are only two 
florins, and stenography, fixed at one florin. The subjects taught in these 
classes are commercial arithmetic, book-keeping, commercial correspondence, tho 
rules of commerce, and exchange, &c., the living languages, and stenography. 
The majority of the persons attending the evening classes present themselves for 
examination to obtain certificates. 


2. The Academy of Commerce at Prague was founded in 1826. It has a three 
years' course, in addition to a certificate of studies completed in the trade school, 
or the real gymnasium. The French language is obligatory ; English and Italian 
are optional studies. There were in 1867, 204 pupils. 


3. The Academy of Commerce at Pcsth was founded in 1859, by the Chamber 
of Commerce, and in 1867 had 136 pupils, distributed through a three years' 
course, which was founded on the basis of the studies of the real school com- 
pleted. It employs 29 professors, a portion of whom are attached to other insti- 
tutions of the city, giving special instruction in this academy. 

The commercial academies at Graetz and at Reichenberg (Bohemia) has a 
gimilar organization. 


The following are tlie schools of art, as applied to painting, sculpture, engrav- 
ing, and music, in Austria : 


1. The Imperial Academy of the Fine Arts in Vienna was founded hy Joseph 
I, in 1704, and completed by Charles V, in 1726. It is a State institution, as a 
gallery, a body of artists, and a school of instruction in art having 1 1 professors 
and an average of over 200 pupils. It has a valuable collection of pictui'cs, 
several of them by the first artists, such as Claude, Murillo, and Titian. 

2. At Gratz, there is an Academy of Painting, maintained by the province, 
with 30 to 50 pupils. " 

3. At Prague, the Academy of Arts is maintained by the " Patriotic Society 
of the Friends of Art," with Rn average of 61 pupils. 

4. The School of Fine Arts at Cracow is maintained in connection with the 
Technical Institute, Avith 5 professors and 24 joupils. 

5 Drawing is taught as a regular and indispensable branch in all technical 
schools, and in fifty-two art schools so designated. 


1. The Conservatory of Music at Vienna originated Avith an association, but 
receiA'cs an annual subsidy from the government. It has a six years' course ; 
fees, 4 to 6 floi'ins per month. It has a director, 20 professors^ and an average 
of OA'er 200 pupils of both sexes. 

2. The Conservatory of Music at Prague is supported by the " Society for the 
Improvement of Music," Avith aid from the government. It has three depart- 
ments : one for instrumental music, Avith a six years' course ; one for singing, 
W'ith a tAvo years' course ; and one for the opera, with a tAvo or three years' 
course. The teaching is gratuitous for natiA^es. There is a. director, a sub- 
director, and 19 professors. 

3. The fifty-two art schools mentioned above, are also schools of music. They 
are partly organized by associations, partly by professors, and number in all, 231 
professors, and 3,973 pupils of both sexes. 

There are several institutions of special and professional instruction for Avomen, 
of which we giA'e a brief notice. 

1. There exists in Vienna an Institute, Avhere the daughters of ofHcers with 
limited means and large families are educated so as to be able to take situations 
as governesses in Avealthy families. 

The pupils are 78 in number, and the expSnse of the establishment is defrayed 
by the government and private benefactions. 

Girls are admitted from six to eight years of age, and remain till they are 20. 
The pupils are distributed into four classes, and each class has two divisions. 

The directress of the establishment has imder her orders four sub-directresses, 
a mistress for needlework, and a mistress to teach housekeeping. 

2. There are 8 schools for mid wives :. at Linz, Klagenfurt, Laybach, Trieste, 
Allc-Laste near Trent, Zara, Venice, Czernovicz. Instruction of the same kind 
is also given to Avomen at the faculties of medicine and surgical establishments , 


A large number of apprentice-mid wives receive considerable pecuniary assistance 
during their studies from the provinces and townships. 

Candidates must be at least 24 years of age, and less than 50, must be able to 
read and write, be of good reputation, and of healthy constitution. 

The course of instruction occupies, according to circumstances, four, five, or 
six months. It is both theoretical and practical, and is given by a professor of 
obstetrics, aided by a midwife and a nurse. 

In most of the schools there are two promotions yearly. On leaving, the 
pupils have to undergo a severe examination, for which those who have the 
means pay a fee of 30 florins. 

There are ten professors engaged in these schools, with a like number of mid- 
wives and nurses. The professor's salary is from 420 to 630 florins. More than 
1,200 midwives are instructed every year in these establishments. The expen- 
diture amounts to 9,815 florins. 


Austria was one of the earliest to establish courses of instruction in the 
sciences connected with the profitable exploration of mines, and the smelting 
of ores. The Academy at Schemnitz was founded in 1763, lectures having been 
given at even an earlier period to a class of men charged with the superinten- 
dence of the salt-works, mines, collieries, and furnaces belonging to the crown. 


Mining academies exist at Schemnitz, in Hungary ; at Leoben, in Styria ; and 
at Pibram, in Croatia. 

The courses last from two to four years. The qualification for admission is a 
certificate from a gymnasium ©r a higher practical school. There are 23 pro- 
fessors and 255 pupils. The school fee is 10 florins, and many pupils are ad- 
mitted without payment. The total expense is 14,700 florins. These establish- 
ments are supported by the State. 

In addition to these special schools of mining, the sciences which belong to 
the subject are thoroughly taught at the Polytechnic School, and iDustrated in 
the collections of the Geological Institute, at Vienna. 


The Mining Academy at Schemnitz was founded during the reign of Maria 
Theresa, to aid in tKe developing the mines adjacent to that town, and distrib- 
uted through the surrounding district, and in training engineers and overseers 
of the imperial mines in other parts of the empire. 

The institution is well endowed, and well equipped with a laboratory, and all 
the facilities of assaying and smelting. The course extends through three years. 
First year. — Geometry, algebra, tngonometry, and conic sections, physics, me- 
chanics, crystallography, and drawing. Second year. — Chemistry, mineralogy, 
metallurgy, and geology. Third year. — Surveying, machinery, art of mining, 
with practical exercises, dressing of ores, smelting, construction of machines and 
buildings, mining accounts, &c. A fourth year is given to additional practical 



The Grand Duchy of Baden had, in 1861, on a territory of 5,904 
square miles, 1,369,291 inhabitants, of whom 896,683 were Catholics, 
24,099 Jews, and the rest Protestants. 

About two-thirds of the population are engaged in agriculture, and 
the industrial acdvity of the other third is turned to ribbons and cot- 
ton fabrics, clocks and fabrics of straw, toys and trinkets. There 
are over 300 lar^je manufacturinoj establishments. The income for 
1862 was 17,140,192 florins, (about $7,000,000,) and the state budget 
for public instruction, in 1863, contains the following items: 

Popular schools, ------ 86,084 

Normal schools, .... - 30,086 

^ Special aid to teachers in primary schools, - - 56,000 

Higher burgher schools, . . . _ 31,000 

Secondary schools, . . - - - 68,838 

Teaching of gymnastics, - - - - 8,250 

Universities, - - - - - - 178,087 

Technical or professional schools, - . - 18,025 

Cabinets of physics, collections of natural history, &c., at 

Carlsruhe, ------ 3,279 

Aid to savants, artists, museums, &c., - . - 5,677 

Total, -----. 485,326 

The supervision of public instruction, and of all institutions of 
education aided out of the budget, belongs to the Ministry of the 
Interior, who acts through a Council of Education, which is com- 
posed of a member for each of the four circles, or districts, into 
which the kingdom is divided, and a representative of each of the 
highest authorities in the evangelical, Catholic, and Jewish church 

The system of public schools* embraces: 

I. Primary Schools, — which, in Baden, are denominational in 
their local management, but which must be attended by all children 
over six and under fourteen years, unless excused. There were in 
1866, 2,157 primary schools, of which 1,389 were Catholic, 740 
Protestant, and 28 Jewish, with an aggregate attendance of 200,000 

*See Report on National Education in Europe, Part I, Germany. 



pupils. Eveiy parish must provide in winter, in the primary f chool- 
house, for a class of girls in sewmg, knitting, and other horae-Avork, 
for one hour after the boys are dismissed. An evening class is main- 
tained twice a week, for young persons (whose attendance is optional,) 
who have left school, for further instruction in penman-hip, letter 
writing, and the elements of natural history, and the industries of 
the locality ."* 

II. Secondary Schools, — including 28 burgher scliools, (superior 
]6rimary schools.) with 2,154 pupils; 5 high schools for girls, with 
280 pupils ; 3 pedagogiums, with 382 pupils in a course of 6 years ; 
8 lyceums, wdih 2,108 pupils in a course of 9 years ; and 5 gymna- 
siums, with 652 pupils in a course of 8 years. 

III. Superior Schools, or Universities, viz : One at iHeidelberg, 
founded in 1386, with a faculty of theology, philosophy and philology, 
medicine, and law, and an aggregate of 752 students ; 1 at Freiburg, 
founded in 1454, with a faculty of Catholic theology, law, medicine, 
and philosophy, and an aggregate of 356 students; 1 Cathohc archi- 
episcopal seminary, with 35 students. 

IV. Special and Professional Schools, viz : 3 primary normal 
schools, with 170 pupils ; 3 superior normal schools, (connected with 
the pedagogiums,) with 50 pupils ; 2 agricultural schools, with 80 
pupils ; 1 veterinary school, with 10 pupils ; 2 military schools, (one 
a review school for staff officers,) with 60 pupils ; 1 normal school 
for gymnastics, with 35 pupils ; 1 school of the fine arts, with 35 
pupils ; 41 schoo'S of arts and trades, with 4,803 pupils ; 1 poly- 
technic school, with six sections, (1 for mechanics, 1 for engineers, 
1 for builders, 1 for foresters, 1 for chemists, 1 for constructors of 
machines, 1 for post office and other public service,) and 589 pupils ; 
1 watchmaking school, with 80 pupils ; 3 straw-plaiting schoolf=, 
with 120 pupils; 1 workmen's society industrial scliool, with 80 
pupils ; 1 institution for deaf mutes, with 30 pupils ; 1 institution 
for the blind, with 25 pupils. 

V. Associations for the Adrancemeni of Literature, Science, and 
the Arts. — Under this head there are: 1 museum of natural history; 
1 gallery of paintings and statuary ; 5 public libraries, with an aggre- 
gate of 200,000 volumes, &c., &c. 

* By the law of 1864, the primary schools are divided into elementary and superior ; the ele- 
mentary are confined to the rural districts which can maintain only one teacher, and the mini- 
mum instriaction fixed by law , the superior primary schools are taught by two or more teachers, 
each of whom must give thirty-two lessons a week. When a school exceeds sixty pupils, there 
must be three classes. The schools are to become less denominational, and each commune can 
elect its own committee, one of whom must be the teacher, and in the /arger communes, a 
physician, as well as the pastor. 


Out of the many excellent institutions for special instruction in 
the Grand Duchy of Baden, "vve select for particular descnption, two 
which have attained great reputation.* 


The PoLYTECHXic School of the Grand Duchy of Baden is located at 
Carlsnihe, the capital of the duchy, a city of 25,000 inhabitants in 1860. The 
germ existed in a school of engineering founded in 1814, which was expanded 
into a h\rge scientific school in 1825, by Prof. "Winter, under tlic encouragement 
and aid of tlie Grand Duke Louis, receiving a building, and a forest school in 
1832, and a chemical, a machine construction, and a commercial department in 
1836, and then attained, by steady growth, the proportions of the most complete 
polytechnic school in Germany. Without large or diversified industries in the 
city of its location, and with several competing institutions of the same charac- 
ter in close proximity, (Stuttgart, Darmstadt, and lately Zurich,) the number 
of scholars has steadily increased, and its range of instruction has kept pace 
with the demands of the age, because its managers have been successful in ob- 
taining and retaining an able corps of professors, and have provided them with 
suitable class-rooms, lecture-halls, laboratories, workshops, and aH the material 
aids of technical instruction. 


This establishment is a kind of technical university, which, in addition to 
scientific studies of a high order, comprises in its organization several special 
divisions. The first of these is devoted not merely to mathematical science, as 
its name would seem to indicate, but also to the general scientific knowledge 
necessary for the other technical divisions, and which the pupils may acquire by 
following the particular courses relating to those sciences. This institution was 
the first of its class to introduce the system of independent schools, or divisions 
in the several great departments of industry, foimded on a commoa scientific 

The technical divisions, or schools. 




requiring 2 

or 2^ years. 

Architects. liSX " 


2" " 
4 " 



' t€ 






Constructors of machines, - 











1 " 

The only qualification for admission is that the candioate shall possess the 
requisite instruction to enable him to folloAV one of the divisions. There is no 
absolutely compulsory series of study; the examinations alone impose on the 
pupils the necessity of acquiring the necessary instruction, and thus indicate to 
them the courses which are indispensable. 

♦Compiled from Programmes of Institutions, Report of French Commission, and Report of 
Hamburgh. Committee, and memoranda of a visit. - , 


Mathematical Division. 
The studies of this division extend over two years. For admission to the first 
year's course the candidate must be above 17 years of age, and must prove that 
he is sufficiently acquainted with elementary mathematics, and can treat of a 
given subject in the German language. A candidate may enter the second year's 
course at once on showing that he knows the subjects taught in the first year, 
and that he is 18 years of age. The following is the progranmie of studies: 

First Year: ■ 

Differential and integral calculus, - - - - 5 

Plane and spherical trigonometry, - - - - 2 

Analytical geometry of two dimensions, - - - 2 

Descriptive geometry, - • - . _ g 

Elements of mechanics, - - - - - 5 

Experimental physics, - - - - - 4 

(And one hour of repetition.) 

German language, - - - - - - 2 

Erench language, - - - - - - 3 

Eree-hand drawing, - - - - - - 2 

Modeling, - - - - - - - 4 

Second Year: 

Differential and integral calculus, - - - - 4 

Analytical geometry of three dimensions, - - - 2 

Analytical mechanics, - - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, - . ... 4 

Technical drawing, (summer,) - - . . - 4 

Practical geometry, - - - - - - 4 

Higher physics, (winter,) - - - - - 3 

Physical experiments, (summer,) - - - -6 

General chemistry, (course of the chemical division,) - - 4 

Mineralogy and geology, - - - - -3 to 4 

German literature, - - - - - - 2 

Erench language, - - - - - - 3 

English language, - - - - . . - 3 

Eree-hand drawing, - - - - - - 4 

Modeling, - - -'- - - -4 

Division of Engineers. 

This division prepares for all the branches of the profession, military engineer- 
ing excepted. 

To be admitted, the candidate must possess the knowledge acquired in a' gym- 
nasium or lyceum as far as the second class, and that of the two years' mathe- 
matics of the preceding school In the absence of certificates, the candidate 
must pass an examination. 

The studies occupy two years, according to the following programme : 


First Year: 

Calculation of variations, (winter,) - - - - 2 

Surveying, -•- - - - - - 2 

Method of least squares, - - - - - 1 

Applied mechanics, - - - - - - 3 

Technological chemistry, - - - - - 3 

Eoads, hydraulic constructions, (with three afternoons of ex- 
periments,) - - - - - - -5 

Construction of machines, - - - - - 12 

Grerman literature, - - - • - - 1 


Ancient and mediaeval literature, - - • - 5 

Practical construction in wood and stone, - - 4 to 6 

Free-hand and landscape drawing, - - - - 4 

English language, - - - - • - 3 

Second Year: 

Bridges and roads, ------ 6 

Construction of railways, - - - - - 2 

Exercises in practical building every afternoon in winter, and 

both morning and afternoon in summer, - - - 

Construction of machines, ----- 6 

Questions in mathematical physics, (summer,) - - 2 

Popular law, .._... 2 

German literature, - - - - - - 5 

Ancient and mediaeval history, - ... 5 

Free-hand and landscape drawing, - - - - 4 

Third Year ; " 

This course, which is one of six months only, is intended for engineers who 
intend to practice' in the Grand Duchy. They have to familiarize themselves 
with the regulations and usages as to contracts for public works, as well as to 
price currents (two hours per week.) 

Drawing up of projects, specifications, estimates, - - 8 

Higher architecture, ------ 3 

The pupils are taken out for excursions to building yards and works in course 
of execution ; in this case the lessons are interrupted. 

Division of Builders. 

This division is subdivided into two parts ; the lower section is intended to 
train builders, (werJcmeister,) capable of projecting and executing all ordinary 
buildings for dwellings and manufacturing purposes. The higher division is 
meant to train architects in the higher sense of the Avord, and those who pass 
through it are expected to improve themselves subsequently by traveling to study 
the more remarkable creations of their art. 

This division requires four years' study ; the qualifications for admission are 
tlie same as for the engineering division, except that only the first year's course 
of the mathematical division is necessaiy. 

First Yea 

1st division,) . - - 

Mineralogy and geology. 
Building materials, 
Descriptive geometry, - 
Statics of buildings, 
Architectural drawing from copies, 
Drawing of plans, - - - 

Landscapes, . - _ 

Drawing of ornaments, 
Modeling in plaster, 
Building arches in the yard. 
Modeling in wood, 
Ancient and mediaeval history, 
German literature. 

Hours in 

Hours in 









3 to 4 

3 to 4 
































Hours in 

Hours in 
















- — 






Second Year. 

Knowledge of machines, - - - 

Bridges and roads, - - - 

Technical architecture, - - . - 

Elementary studies of projects. 
Architectural drawing from models and copies, 

projects, - ■ - - . - 

Projects of dwelling houses. 
Landscape drawing, - - - 

Drawing ornaments from copies, - 
Modeling in plaster, . - - 

Building arches in the yard, 
Modeling in wood, - . - 

Ancient and medieval history, - . - - _ 

Literature, -----_ „ 

Third Year : 

Technical course of architecture, 2d part, - 3 3 

Higher art of building, - - - 3 3 

History of ancient architecture, - - - 2 ' 2 

Plans of dwelling houses, - . - 6 9 
Graphic studies on the more remarkable orders and 

edifices, - .... 2 3 

Aerial perspective, - . - - - 2 3 

Drawing ornaments from models and nature, 3 3 

Drawing of figures, .... 4 4 

Free-hand draAving, - - - - 4 4 

Modeling from models, - - - - 5 4 

Ancient and mediaeval history, - - - - 

German literature, .----- - 

Fourth Year: 

Popular law, - - - - - 

Higher art of building, - - . - 

History of medi£eval and modern architecture. 
Projects of great public buildings, 
Study of the architecture of the middle ages, and 

copying of the principal monuments, - 
Perspective views in Avater colors, - . - 
Drawing of ornaments, . - . - 

Pigure drawing from plaster models and nature, 
Pree-hand drawing, . . . - 

Modeling from nature or fancy. 

Ancient and mediaeval history, - - - - - 

German literature, --.-_. - 

The mornings left free are devoted to graphic studies, and, at the end of the 
school year, there is a competition for the fourth class. A gold medal is given 
for the best project. 

In these programmes for the architectural division, it is worthy of remark that 
there is no mention of mathematical instruction with regard to the stability of 
buildings, the strength of materials, «S:e. Such being the case, it is not easy to 
see the utility of the high mathematics and mechanical analysis required for ad- 
mission into this division, the first two years of which are intended to form 
builders and overseers of works. It would, perhaps, be better to require less of 
the higher mathematics and more of the applications of the principles of science 
to the art of building. The practice of exercising the pupils of this divi'sion in 
the actual construction of various arches appears to be excellent. But as this 






















can only be done with bricks, it should not set aside that of makinf^ vaults and 
other constructions in plaster on a reduced scale, which oblige the pupils to trace 
all the panels and completely realize the different parts. 

After the first two years' studies, the pupils who have no higher ambition 
than to l)ccomc builders or overseers of works have acquired sufficient theoreti- 
cal and practical instruction. 

Division of Foresters. 

The instmction of this division consists of: 1. A preparatory course; 2. 

Two years' studies. To enter the preparatory course, the qualification required j 

is proficiency in the subjects taught in a lyceum as far as the second class, or > 

else in all the classes of a gymnasium. The following is the programme : 

Preparatory Course: 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - 3 

Plane and solid geometry, ----- 3 

Experimental physics, - - - - - - 4 

General and special botany, - - - - 4 

Zoology, - - - - - - - 3 

Botanical excursions and observations once a week in summer. 

History of German literature, - - - - - 2 

Popular law, - - - - - - 2 

Rudiments of forest science, - - - - - 2 

Practical instruction in forest questions and in the accounts of 

forest administration, - - - - - - 

First Year: 

General arithmetic and algebra, - - - - 2 

Plane polygonometry, spherical trigonometry, - - - 2 

Mathematical forest exercises, - - - - 4 

General chemistry, - - ' - - - - 4 

Mineralogy, (winter,) - - - - - 3 

Geology, (summer,) - - - - - - 4 

Practical mineralogy, - . _ . _ 2 
General botany, anatomy, chemistry, physiology, geography, 
(winter,) -..----4 

Climate, meteorology, knowledge of soils, - - - 3 

Natural history of timber trees, - - . - 2 

Forest management, (winter,) - - - - - 3 

Forest dues, ------- 2 

Practical geometry, - - - - - - 4 

Excursions and explanations in the forest, - • - - 
Botanical excursions, - ----.-. 

Second Year: 

Solution of problems, - - . - . 2 

Agricultural chemistry, - - - - - 2 

Administrative science, political and financial economy, - 2 

Roads and hydraulic constructions, (elements,) - - 2 

Guarding and protecting of forests, - - - 2 

State of foi-cst science, - - - - - - 2 

Working and valuations after rational methods, - - 4 

Valuation of the soil and produce of the forest as the basis of 

their real worth, ------ 2 

Notions on the chase, - - - - - - 2 

Forest administration, ----- 2 

Forest police, - - - - - - - 3 

Forest laws and those of the chase, - - - - 2 

Excursions and journeys Avith applications. 



Division of Chemists. 
This division is especially devoted to young men who purpose following careers 
in which a knowledge of chemistry, physics, and natural history may be useful, 
whether they intend to devote themselves to chemistry or to engage in mining 
or metallurgical works. Admission is free to all who possess the instruction 
necessary for following the courses, and are full 1 7 years of age. The subjects 
taught are summarily stated in the following programme : 

General chemistry, 1st course, inorganic part, (winter term,) - 
Organic chemistry, (summer term,) ... 

General chemistry, 2d course, history and philosophy of chem- 
istry . (one year,) - - - 
Repetition of chemistry, (winter,) - - . . 
Conference on chemical analysis, (summer,) 
Art of assaying metals, . . . . _ 

Manipulations in the laboratory, - - . _ 

Qualitative and quantitative analysis, - - - - 

Agricultural chemistry, (winter,) - - 

Chemical technology, organic and inorganic, various manu- 
factures, (one year,) 
Metallurgy, (one year,) ------ 

Experimental physics, 

Repetitions of physics, ------ 

Higher physics, ------ 

Botany and geology, ------ 

Mineralogy, (winter,) - - - - . 

Physical geography, (summer,) . - - - 

Knowledge of useful minerals, (winter,) - - - 

Practical mineralogy, excursions, &c., (summer,) 
Crystallography, (winter,) - - . - - 



This very extensive curriculum constitutes a series of courses which may be 
followed, not only by the pupils more Especially destined for the chemical arts, 
but also for those of the other divisions. To take part in the chemical manipu- 
lations, the pupils pay 44 florins a year, and are supplied with all the needful 

Division of Constructors of Machines. 

The qualification for admission is the instruction acquired by a pupil during 
the first year of the mathematical division. The whole course takes two years. 
The number of hours per week devoted to each subject is indicated in the follow- 
ing programme : 

First Year: 

On machines, - - - - 

Construction of machines, - 

Arrangements of machines. 

Experimental physics, 

Applied mechanics, - 

Practical geometry, - - - 

Mechanical technology, - 

Chemical technology. 

Metallurgy, ... - - 

Knowledge of useful minerals. 

Roads and hydraulic constructions. 

Free-hand di'awing, - - - • 

Ancient and medieval history, - 

Practice in workshops from 4 to 6 p. m. 

German and French literature, - 




Second Yem- : ^ 

On nuii'hines, ... 

Coustruetioa of machines, 

Putting- up machines, 

Mechanical technology, - 

Select questions of mathematical physics, 

Higher physics-, - - - - 

General chemistry, - - - 

Itl. repetitions, (winter,) - 
Road and Ixydraulic constructions, 
Kiiihvays, (summer,) - - - 

Chemical technology, 
Metallurgy, . . - - 

Ancient and mediaeval history, 
German literature, - . - 

Free-hand drawing - - - 

English language, ... 

Practice in workshops from 4 to 6 p. m.. 



Commercial Division. 

The qualification for admission to this 
acquired in an upper middle class school. 
the following programme : 

On commerce, - - - 


Commercial correspondence, 

Commercial arithmetic, 

Knowledge of merchandise, 

Commercial geography, 

Commercial liistory, 

( German, 
Languages. } French, - 

( English, 
Drawing, - . - 

division is the instruction that can be 
The instruction is given according to 

- - - - 5 

Post Office Division. 
The qualification for admission is the degree of instruction acquired on leaving 
the upper class of a gymnasium or the higher division of the fifth in a lyceum. 
Two years are required to complete the courses which are arranged as follows : 

First Year: 

Arithmetic, - - - - - 

Mechanics, - - - - - 

Experimental physics, - - - - 

French language, . - - - 

German language, , - - - 

Calligraphy, - - - - - 

Second Year: 

Political arithmetic, - - - - 

Geography, ----- 
General notions of political economy, (summer,) 
Popular law,- .... 

Commercial law, .... 

Application of mechanics to conveyance, - _ 





















- 9 




- 1 




Ancient and mediaeval history, - - . - - - 5 

German literature, - - - - - . 2 

French language, - - - - . - 3 

French littraiure, . - - - . - 2 

English language, - . - - - - - 3 

Calligraphy, -------2 


The committee of management consists of a director, two councillors, the 
librarian, the secretarj^, and an accountant. The staff of teachers, professors, 
assistant professors, .and masters is arranged as follows : 

Mathematics, - - - - 

Natural sciences, - - - 

Architecture and building. 

Bridges and roads, - - - - 

KnoAvledge of machines. 

Forest sciences, . . _ _ 

Commerce, - - - 

General courses, (languages and literature,) 
Sculp tui-e, . - - - - 

Calligrajihy, - - - - - 

"Workshops, - 

The professors are appointed and paid by the government. The director is 
elected for one year, by the heads of the several divisions. 

The students are classified as regular or irregular. The latter are persons of 
ripe age, and generally graduates of other technical schools, and attend only 
special courses of lectures, by permission. The regular students must be mem- 
bers of some particular division, and pay an admission fee of S3. 00, and an annual 
tuition of 66 Rhenish florins. The tuition covers more than half the expendi- 
tures of the institution. The rest is paid by the government. 

The discipline of the institution is strict, and the head of each department is 
charged with the supervision of his pupils. 

The number of pupils, regular and irregular, in 1861, was 826, and the age 
ranges from 18 to 22 years. 

Buildings and Material Equipments. 
The building, laboratories, and collections for illustrating the studies of the 
several divisions, are among the best in Europe. The main building is 406 feet 
(Bavarian) long, and 42 feet deep, with wings 100 feet long, by 40, in the rear. 
The laboratory of the chemical department is in a separate stmcture, (220 feet 
long, by 50 deep,) and will accommodate 100 students at their manipulations, 
with separate rooms for distillation, and other processes. There is a separate 
building, of the same size, for the lectures, models and designs for machines, in 
which the collections are very large and complete. The workshops, three in 
number, are not large, and the only one appropriated to students is not largely 
resorted to. The cost of the buildings was about $250,000. The collections 
and instruments, for illustration in each division, are large and admirably selected, 
or constructed on the premises for use. 



The object of the trade schools [gewerbe schiden,) of Baden, as expressed in the 
words of the hiw, is " to afford to young persons .who propose to follow a trade, 
or mechanic art, which requires no liigh grade of technical or scientific training, 
and who have already acquired a practical knowledge of its rudiments, such 
Jcnowledgc and skill as will make them capable of an intelligent pursuit of it." 

The scliools are open to apprentices, or those about to become apprentices, 
above the age of fourteen ; to journeymen, of good character, possessing suffi- 
cient preparatoxy knowledge, and to any one who may Avish to attend any single 

Attendance upon them Avas, until recently, obligatory upon all apprentices, 
but the regulation was found to bring in pupils who felt no interest in the studies, 
and did not profit by the instruction, but disturbed those who were studious. 

There were 4,920 pupils in all the schools, (forty-one in 1868,) of w^hich about 
600 Avere journeymen, and 800 pupils not yet connected Avith any trade. 

The number of professors Avas, in 1862, thirty -four, Avith thirty-six assistants, 
and the total of their salaries Avas 30,533 florins of the Rhine. The expenses are 
defrayed in part by the state, in part by the parishes, and a small tuition fee is 
charged, Avhich may be remitted, in case of inability to pay. 

The school is held, during the Avinter, from seven to ten in the morning; during 
the summer, from six to nine, and on the afternoon of Sundays. The Avhole 
course lasts three years, and is preceded by a preparatory course. Pupils are not 
obliged to pursue those studies Avhich haA-e no reference to their future occupation. 

The best of these schools, although not the one numbering the most pupils, is 
that at Baden-Baden. Its curriculum, which Ave take as an example, is as folloAVS : 


Commercial course, 1st class, (1 hour per week,) keeping accounts, drawing up 
bills, letters of credit, bills of exchange, notes, receipts, &c. ; 2d class, (I hour,) 
certificates, forms conferring poAvers of attorney {fonnules de pleins pouvoirs,) ad- 
A-ertisements, letters of credit, &e. ; 3d class, (1 hour,) bills of exchange, princi- 
pal documents made valid by the mere signature of the individual putting them 
forth, { principaux actes sous seing price,) petitions to the government, commercial 
letters, &c. 

Course of arithmetic, 1st class, (2 hours,) simple fractions and decimals, com- 
parison of the Aveights and measures used in France and Baden, proportions, rule 
of three; 2d class, (1 hour,) rcAicAv of AA'liat Avas taught the first class, rules of 
interest, alligation, partnership, extraction of square root; 3d class, (1 hour,) 
equations of the first degree and several unknoAvn quantities, continuation of the 
rules of partnership and of interest, extraction of cube root. 

Course of geometry, 1st class, (1 hour,) triangles, squares, and polygonal figures ; 
2d class, (1 hour,) mensuration of surfaces; 3d class, (1 hour,) mensuration of 
the volume and Aveight of regular bodies. 

Course of industrial economy, 2d class, (1 hour,) connections between workman 
and employer; 3d class, (I hour,) connections between employer, master Avork- 
man, and workman. 

Course of hook-heepirig, 3d class, (1 hour,) drawing up of inA^entories, transac- 
tion of fictitious business. 

Course of natural history and mechanics, 2d class, (1 hour,) considerations upon 
the general qualities of bodies, centres of graA'ity, stability, parallelogram of 
forces; 3d class, (1 hour,) hydraulic press, pumps of various kinds, heat, and 

Course of geometrical drawing, includes a course of free-hand draAving and 


Course of free-hand drawing, 1st class, (1 hour,) regular plane figures ; 2(1 class, 
(1 hour,) regular solids; 3d class, (3 hours,) machines, plans, subjects, &c. 
Course of modeling, the 3 classes, (4 hours,) turning, metal and wood work. 

To the practical course are assigned five workshops, in which the pupils work 
from half past seven to nine. ' The number of pupils in this school is 200. 

The other leading trade schools are at Constance, 233 pupils ; Freiburg, 361 ; 
Carlsruhe, 304 ; Pforzheim, 483 ; Heidelberg, 424 ; and Mannheim, 282. 


Since the sixteenth century the manufacture of clocks has been one of the 
staple trades of this part of Germany; and in 18^7 it is estimated that there 
were more than 4,000 persons employed in watchmaking. In the year 1849 a 
special school for this branch of industry was established, and the place selected 
for its seat was Furtwangen, in the canton of Freiburg, the old centre of the 
clock manufacture in the Black Forest. 

This school now comprises : 1. A general trade school ( Gewerheschule) teach- 
ing more especially everything connected with clockmaking. 2. A purely prac- 
tical school, with workshops for improving Avorkmen in the diiferent branches 
of the art, and provided with everything required for promoting the progress of 
horological manufactures in Baden generally. 

Industrial School. — The instruction given here consists of three courses, each 
occupying a year. The classes are always held in the morning, beginning at six 
o'clock in winter, and at five in summer, and vary from seven hours to fifteen 
and a half hours per week for each class of pupils. Moreover, seeing the gen- 
eral importance of free-hand drawing, three hours are devoted to it every Sunday 
for apprentices and workmen. The clockmaking school even supplies pupils of 
insufficient means with all the necessary material. 

For children of either sex, between the ages of eight and fourteen, there are 
three courses of drawing. Instruction in modeling is given to joiners, sculptors, 
and painters, if they desire it. Besides, pupils are also taught moulding, the art 
of casting, of taking impressions on various materials, gilding on wood and 
stone, burnishing, varnishing, polishing, copper plate printing, &c. 

In 1861 this school had 49 pupils and seven free auditors. 

There are : 1 . A principal professor of special drawing, of mechanics, of the 
knowledge of machines, of applied physics and chemistry. 2. A professor of 
free-hand drawing, of oniaments, modeling, and decoration. 3. An assistant 
master for German, arithmetic, geometry, geometrical constructions, and com- 
mercial accounts. 

The instruction is thus distributed among the three classes : 


First Class: 

Arithmetic and plane geometry, - - - - 3 

German language, - - - - - - 2 

Geometrical constructions ; drawing applied to clockmaking, 2 to 3 
Free-hand drawing, - - - - - -lto3 

Second Class: 

Arithmetic and geometry, surfaces, volumes, curves, &c., - 2 to 3 
German, contracts, commercial correspondence, - - 2 

Book-keeping, ------ 1 

Applied mechanics and physics, power and work, centre of 
gravity, the pendulum, simple machines, lever, wedge, 
screw, pulley, -•- - -.- - '.^ 


Motions of clockwork, generalities on the measure of time, 

constituent parts, and their relations, - - - 1 

Drawing geometrical constructions, penetrations, curves for 

the teeth of wheels, tools, - - - - 2 to 3^ 

Free-hand drawing with the pencil, shading, - - 1 to 3 

Third Class: 

Arithmetic and mechanics, problems in clockwork, transfor- 
mation of movements, - - - - -lto2 
Motions of clockwork, calculation of wheels, the different 

kinds of clocks, the best escapements, tools, and machines, - 2 
Applied physics, especially with relation to clockwork, - l|- 

Special di-awing for clockwork, - - - - - 4 

Free-hand drawing, shading, - - - . i^ 

Workshops for Improvement. — There are at present three of these v/orkshops, 
two for watches and one for clocks. 

The first watch workshop admits young men who intend to follow the trade, 
and gives them all the means of becoming expert workmen. The second shop 
is a continuation of the first, that is to say, as soon as a young man has acquired 
in the first sufficient skill to take part in the manufacture of watches, he is at 
liberty either to enter any private manufactory or to pass into the second shop, 
where he continues to work under the direction of the professor, at the same 
time receiving wages. Skilful watchmakers are also received in this second shop 
to work by the piece. Both these shops are under the same roof as the school. 
The workshop for clocks is, on the contrary, owing to want of room, in the resi- 
dence of the professor, and as he keeps a workshop of his own for clocks, the 
organization is analogous to the one we have described for watches. Every 
pupil has a place to himself like a workman ; the tools are exactly the same as 
in a complete watch and clock manufactory, organized according to the best and 
most recent processes, and on the system of division of labor. 

The workshops are never closed for want of work; but there are holidays at 
Easter, at the end of the school year, and in Carnival time, just the same as in 
the other manufactories of the Black Forest. The working hours are, in accord- 
ance with the general usages of the trade, from 7 to 11 .30 a. m., and from 1 to 
7 p. m., that is 10^ hours' work per day, — 63 hours per week. Of those who 
attend the trade school, those in the first class have seven hours' instruction, and 
58 of practice in the workshops, in all 65 hours in winter; those of the second 
class, 12 hours and 54 hours, or 66 hours in all ; those of the third class, 7 hours 
and 58 hours, or 65 hours. In summer the theoretical courses begin at an earlier 
hour, which prolongs to 66 or 68 hours the time employed per week. 

In the workshop for clocks the hours of work, according to the custom preva- 
lent in the Black Forest, are 13 per day. In the second shop those who work 
by the piece can leave off at dusk. 

There is no time fixed for pupils to remain in either workshop ; their stay de- 
pends on the aptitude, application, and progress of each individual. In general 
the apprenticeship does not exceed three years. In the contract signed on enter- 
ing, the pupil engages to pay a certain sum in case he leaves the school by his 
own desire, or if, on withdrawing from the watch workshop, he leaves the Black 
Forest. In all other cases the instruction is gratuitous. 

Each of the two workshops has a bench for 10 pupils, the number of practical 
pupils, therefore, can not exceed 20. 


Workshops foi- Watches. — The principle of division of labor is adopted in these 
shops, so that, as soon as a pupil possesses a general knowledge of the trade, he 
is advised to select the particular speciality for which he has most aptitude, or 
which best meets the actual wants of the establishment. 

The instruction therefore consists : 1. Of a general part common to all the 
pupils. 2. Of a part special to each pupil, and which will render him perfectly 
competent to undertake one or more of the branches forming the complete manu- 
facture. 3. Of a part intended to form workmen thoroughly versed in both the 
practice and the theory of the art. 

The first, or general part, forms the basis of all the subsequent instruction, 
and is, therefore, of the utmost importance. While the pupils are going through 
it the professor has ample opportunities of appreciating their capabilities and 
of deciding what special branch will best suit them. 

In this part of the course the pupil has to acquire, — dexterity in filing, turn- 
ing, drilling, polishing, &c. ; a knowledge of the treatment of materials, harden- 
ing and annealing of steel, hammer-hardening of brass, &c. ; the power of mak- 
ing small tools, such as punches, drills, counter-sinks, rimers, screw-taps, &c. ; 
tlic iise of the simple machine tools ; a facility of producing pieces in the rough, 
a knowledge of the constituent parts of a watch, the practice of drawing watches, 
and all their parts. 

The details of the practical teaching are so numerous that it is impossible to 
give them here. Strict attention is paid to the perfection of the work, and to 
the exact proportions of size. The parts most minutely examined for the mak- 
ing of the pieces in the rough are the lever, escapements, the balances, the cut- 
ting and setting of the jewels the position of the wheels, &c. The instruction 
of the complete watchmaker embraces a knowledge of. all parts of the divided 
labor ; it must also familiarize the pupil wdth the geometrical proportions of the 
parts of a watch, enable him to judge of its movement, to undertake improve- 
ments, and even to devise new^ systems. 

This instruction is given by a professor and his assistant, both practical watch- 

In the year 1860 there were 13 pupils, four of whom had completed the course 
at its close. In 1860-61 there were only 11 pupils, as none are admitted but 
those who display more than the average talent. 

Workshops for Clocks. — The object of these is to improve this branch of manu- 
factures in the Black Forest. Owing to the peculiar organization of the clock 
manufacture, it is very difficult to establish the principle of division of labor in 
this branch ; the instruction given, therefore, is such as to enable every pupil to 
take any work that he can obtain in establishments already existing, or to set 
up a workshop of his own. It is indispensable that, while more especially culti- 
vating the branch for which he feels most inclined, he must none the less learn 
to make complete movements, and to prepare the different pieces in the rough, 
othenvise he could not be of much use in the present manufactories of the Black 
Forest. It is nevertheless necessary for him to know the system of the division 
of labor, and the use of the more expensive and more perfect machines, so as to 
be able to take advantage of them whenever an opportunity occurs. 

The instruction is divided into: 1. The general elementary teaching com- 
mon to all the pupils ; 2. The general improvement of the pupil in all the 
branches, but with a more particular study of that for which the pupil is 
best fitted. 


The pupil has to acquire : Dexterity in filing, drillinc:, turninj? ; the knowl- 
edge of materials, and manner of treating them ; the making of the dificrent 
tools; instruction in the use of the various machines required in the manufacture 
of clocks ; the knowledge of the constituent parts of a clock, their purpose, and 
execution. The concluding instruction consists in teaching how to make the 
cases, harrels, and wheels; the moving powers; the conditions indispensal)le for 
good working of the wheels ; the making of ordinary movements ; striking and 
repeating clocks ; finishing with pieces in the rough. As there are always in the 
workshops pupils of various degrees of proficiency, this last course can not he 
divided into sections. The instruction is given hy a professor. 

The Furtwangcn school has in all six professors, one of whom is director ; 
there arc also two workmen and one man servant. 

During the last ycai' there were 80 pupils : 

In the industrial school of the first year, - - - 29 

" " second year, - -. 11 

" " third vear, - - - 9 

T 1 11 (for Avatches, 

In the workshops | ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Fifty-four hoys, from 8 to 14 years of age, and 18 girls, from 8 to 13, have 
attended the school for free-hand drawing. The yearly sum allowed for the 
school by the government is at present 10,0(X) florins. 

Another of the staple industries of the Black Forest is straw-plaiting, and this 
also has been encouraged by the opening of schools. In 1851 a school for girls 
was established at Furtwangen under an able mistress, and in this school skilful 
workers were trained who have since themselves become mistresses. Numerous 
other schools for straw-plaiting have been opened in the Black Forest. 


There is a school of agriculture at Hochburg, with 21 pupils ; of arboriculture 
at Carlsruhe, for only eight or ten weeks, with 10 pupils ; of horticulture at 
Carisruhe, with 13 pupils ; of grazing and meadow culture at Carlsruhc, with 
16 pupils. 

The agricultural school at Hochburg was founded in 1848, on the national 
domain. Its course of instruction is ample, with 12 lessons a week in wintorj 
and 17 in summer, and extends throiigh three years. The practical instruction 
in the first year is devoted to ordinary farm labor ; in the second, to the care 
of animals generally; and the third year in particular to horses. Instruction is 
gratuitous. Each pupil receives a gratuity of $16, and regular wages for his 
work, amounting the first year to $28 ; the second, to $37 ; and the third, to $46. 
The cost of boird is alx)ut $70 dollars a year. 

The knovrlcdge of agriculture is also propagated in the primary schools, the 
masters of Avhich are bound to give lectures on the subject beyond the limits of 
elementary teaching, properly so called, especially to the improvement and even- 
ing classes. The central commission of agriculture sends competent persons to 
see that this instruction is properly given, and awards prizes to the masters who 
perform this part of their duty with distinguished ability. 

For the diffusion of knowledge concerning agriculture there is, under the 
direction of the central commission of the Grand Duchy, an agricultural society 


-Nvliich extends its action over the whole country. At the end of 1862 this society- 
numbered 11,934 members, and it publishes a weekly journal of agriculture 
which has a circulation of 9,000 copies. 


In 1820, the Grand Duke Louis founded the School of Cadets for the educa- 
tion of young officers; but its existing organization dates only from 1851. 
Youths are admitted to this school from 15 to 18 years of age, after being recog- 
nized as fit for the military service, and having proved that they possess the 
requisite instruction, which comprises all that is taught in the gymnasia of the 
Grand Duchy as far as the fourth class inclusively. 

Tlie studies last three years, and embrace : 

Tlieoretical Course. — German and French mathematics, the military code, tac- 
tics, the military art, fortification, history, geography, land-surveying. 

Practical Courses. — Infantry and artillery exercises, manoeuvres, and the use 
of arms, fortification, surveying, and reconnoitering. 

Gi/mnastics. — Fencing and sword exercise; gymnastics, riding, swimming. 

The number of cadets, in 1867, was 60. 

There is likewise at Carlsruhe an improving school for superior officers. 


At Carlsruhe there is a central school of gymnastics partly supported by the 
government, the object of which is to train all those who intend to teach this 
branch of education. Those candidates who are already employed in teaching 
gymnastics in various degrees complete their training in this establishment ; such 
persons as are employed in assisting the actual professors of gymnastics are also 
admitted. In case of need, assistance is granted to these candidates. 

This institution is also in connection -with the establishments of public instruc- 
tion at Carlsruhe, and especially with the lyceum. The pupils of the last-named 
schools receive their gymnastic lessons there, and a part at least of the pupils 
of other public schools may also be admitted. 

The experience of Baden in reference to Trade schools is, that the attendance 
of pupils should not be obligatory, and that every pupil should be required to 
pay a small fee. If the instruction is good and cheap, those likely to be improved 
will attend, and if only a moderate tuition is required and paid in advance, they 
will attend more promptly, regularly, and diligently. 



The Kingdom of Bavaria, on an area o. 29,617 English square 
miles in 1864, had 4,807,440 inhabitants, of whom 679 out of every 
1000 were engaged in agriculture, and 227 in mechanical arts and 
commerce, and the balance in other occupations. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Bavaria, in 
1864, amounted to 46,720,597 florins, of which 902,507 florins were 
expended for general instruction and 138,578 for technical, making 
a total of 1,041,085 by the two departments for educational pur- 
poses. This amount was independent of all local expenditure, 
which raised the sum to about 4,000,000 florins. 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by two 
ofiBces ; those of general education by the Minister of Education 
and Ecclesiastical Affairs, and those of a special character by the 
Minister of Commerce and Public Works. 

1. Primary or Common Schools, ( Volksschule.n.) — Of these there 
were in 1863, 7,113 schools with 8,937 teachers and 946,275 pupils. 
Besides the primary-schools there are 1,550 Sunday and holiday- 
schools, {^Sonn-und I^eiertagsschulen,) open one or two hours on cer- 
tain evenings and on Sundays, completing and extending the course 
pursued in the primary-schools, with 129,128 pupils. So general is 
the attendance on elementary-schools, public and private, that all 
but eight per cent, of the recruits who joined the army in 1864 read 
and wrote well. Besides the regular primary schools, there are 91 
infant schools, with 6,796 pupils, and 143 private schools, with 6,853 
pupils, most of whom are in elementary studies. Taking the whole 
of the kingdoyi, there is one primary-school for every 530 inhab- 

2. Secondary Schools. — 95 Latin schools or preparatory gymna- 
siums, with 8,205 pupils; 28 classical gymnasiums, with 3,800 
pupils ; 6 real or scientific gymnasiums, with 1,200 pupils; 30 pub- 
lic high-schools for girls, with 1,200, and 143 boarding-schools for 
girls, with 6,853 pupils. 


3. Superior Schools. — 10 lyceums, with university studies, at- 
tended by 700 scholars, (mostly Catholic, preparing for the priest- 
hood;) 3 universities, (Munich, Wiirzburg, Erlangen,) each with 
four faculties, and a total of 2,959 students in 1867; 1 academy of 
science, with cabinet of natural history, royal library of 800,000 
volumes, chemical laboratory, (under Baron de Liebig,) which are 
made subservient to the university at Munich. The conservatorium 
of scientific collections, and laboratories embraces 12 sections, and 
has an income of 48,000 florins from the government. 

4. Special and Professional Schools. — Bavaria is well supplied 
with institutions adapted to special occupations and classes, viz. : 

10 Normal schools for primary school teachers, with 18 teachers and 518 

3 Seminary courses for secondary school teachers, (one in each university, 

with 96 seminarists. 

4 Superior agricultural schools, with 29 agricultural sections in the trade 

schools; with an aggregate of 2,114 pupils. 
1 School of forestry, with 40 pupils. 
1 School of horticulture, with 30 pupils. 

1 School of veterinary surgery, with 18 teachers and 140 pupils. 

2 Commercial schools, with 18 commercial divisions in the trade schools, and 

an aggregate of 2,000 pupils. 
29 Trade schools, with an agricultural, commercial, and mechanical section. 

3 Polytechnic schools — now existing as 1 Central Polytechnic at Munich, 1 

School of Arts at Nuremberg, and the School of Machinery at Augsburg. 
1 Academy of painting and sculpture, with 1 director, 13 professors, and 231 

1 School of architecture, with 9 teachers, and 143 pupils. 
261 Schools of drawing, of which 121 are independent, and 140 are united 
with other institutions — with 9,973 pupils. 
1 Conservatorium of music, with 1 director, 14 teachers, and 94pup0s. 
10 Schools of music. * • 

1 Central and 9 provincial institutions for the deaf and dumb, with a total 

of 23 teachers and 256 pupils. 
1 Institution for the blind, with 3 teachers, 13 assistants, and 16 pupils. 
1 Institution for idiotic children, with 3 teachers and 23 pupils. 
3 Schools of midwifery, with 14 teachers and 132 students. 
35 Orphan institutes, with 1,400 children; and 75 rescue homes for neglected 

and vicious children, witli 2,250 inmates. 
Besides the royal library of 800,000 volumes, the University of Munich has a 
library of 150,000 ; that of Wurzburg, 100,000 volumes; of Erlangen, 140,000 
volumes ; and 24 public libraries, with ap aggregate of 2,000,000 volumes. 

The logical arrangements of the schools of science and literature 
in the system of Public and Special Instruction in Bavaria impressed 
the French Commissioners so favorably, that they have represented 
them in the accompanying diagram. 








1 ' 1 













Bavaria was one of the first states in Germany to found a school 
of art, in its highest sense, and one of the earUest to apply instruc- 
tion in science to the development of mechanical industry, and to 
bring its young artisans and workmen of every kind into systematic 
courses of technical instruction.* 

The Academy of Art in Nuremberg was founded by Sandrart in 
1662, and after being long conducted by him, gained new distinction 
under Preissler, and no school of art out of Munich has done so 
much in our day to develop taste and skill in artisans and artists as 
the Royal School of Art, and several private schools of drawing now 
in successful operation in that quaint old town. 

The first Technical School, so called, in Germany, was opened in 
Nuremberg in 1823, under the lead of Scharrer, afterwards mayor 
of the city, who gave the impulse, by providing instruction one 
hour on Sunday, and two evenings in the week, in drawing (free- 
hand and architectural) and mathematics. He was assisted by Hei- 
deloff, architect, and Hermann, afterwards professor in the Poly- 
technic and counselor of state. The school was adopted by the 
municipal authorities, and as the instruction was of the best kind, 
it was completely successful, and by the expansion of its studies and 
length of term, grew into a Trade School, under the law of 1834, 
till 1836, when it had V teachers, with 490 pupils (one-fourth of 
them journeymen) in 11 divisions, receiving instruction in mathe- 
matics, drawing, modeling, molding and casting metals, wood-carv- 
ing, &c. The pupils of this school, (called, in 1836, Mechanic 
. School,) created a new trade for this district of Bavaria ; and the 
example of special schools on Sunday, evenings, and holidays, was 
followed by other cities, until in several of them the mechanic 
schools grew into polytechnic schools — Munich in 1827, Nuremberg 
in 1829, and Augsburg in 1833, none of which, however, attained 
to the highest scientific development — the pupils not being required 
to go through a thorough course of theoretical study, as in some 
other institutions of this class. In all, the plan of instruction was 
pretty much the same, but gradually Munich turned its force 
towards construction and engineering; Augsburg and Nuremberg 
to mechanical handicrafts. In 1862 the school at Munich was di- 
vided into two parts, the polytechnic proper, and the school for con- 
struction and engineering. 

♦For the details of this system, see National Education, Part I, Gkruam States, Bavaria. 



In 1864 the whole system of real-schools, trade-schools, and poly- 
technic schools, which had grown up since 1808, was reorganized. 
After the law of 1808, real-schools and real-institutes were set up 
in the large centres of population parallel with the progyranasiums 
and gymnasiums. The real-schools added to the elementary course 
the study of French, drawing, the elements of natural history, and 
algebra. The real-institute added to the real-school course, which 
usually terminated at the fourteenth year, the natural sciences, more 
of mathematics, history, general philosophical studies, as well as the 
literature of modern languages. This course, if carried out, occu- 
pied four years, and was intended to prepare for higher academical 
studies and for special careers, such as financiers, merchants, &c. 
The system did not work well, and was modified in 1816 — the real- 
institutes being discontinued, and the real-schools converted into 
higher burgher- schools — which were only the higher classes of an 
elementary school. The deficiency of State realistic seminaries was 
partially supplied by the municipal authorities, associations and in- 
individuals, in artisan schools, further-improvement or Sunday- 
schools, mechanic schools, and polytechnic institutes, in which the 
arts of design and drawing received particular attention. To give 
this new instruction, which the necessities of society had created, 
thorough organization and symmetry, the government, in 1829 and 
in 1833, decreed the estabhshment of technical schools in all the 
large cities of the kingdom. The law of 1833 discontinued the 
higher burgher-schools and laid down the outlme of a course of in- 
struction for the technical schools, which was perfected by the 
law of 1836. The object of the technical schools, in the language 
of the law, is " to carry the sciences into industry, and to put indus- 
trial pursuits themselves upon a footing corresponding to the prog- 
ress of technical art and the competition of foreign industry." With 
this aim the technical schools had their central point in the exact 
sciences, and were preparatory for, 1, the artist's vocation proper; 
2, the technical branches of the public service, especially architec- 
ture, mining, salt works, and forests ; 3, for technical departments 
of civil life ; 4, for strictly civic vocations, particularly for carrying 
on improvements in manufacturing, agricultural, and mechanical 

In the development of this system there sprung up, and existed 
in 1863, the following institutions: 

1. Schools of arts and trades, or technical gymnasiums, with an 
agricultural, commercial, and mechanic arts division. Of these 
there were twenty-nine, in as many centres of population and in- 


dustry. They received pupils at twelve years of age, and dismissed 
them at the end of three years. With several were connected pre- 
paratory schools, and with all, a Sunday and holiday or feast-day 
school for apprentices and journeymen. 

2. Polytechnic schools or technical lyceums. Of these there were 
three, located at Munich, Nuremberg, and Augsburg. They received 
their pupils at the completion of their fifteenth year, and with a 
preparation equal to the attainments of the graduates of the tech- 
nical gymnasium. 

3. Special courses, or schools for the completion of technical in- 
struction: (1,) engineering in the polytechnic school at Munich; 
(2,) mining, foundries, and salt works in the department of public 
economy in the University of Munich ; (3,) higher forestry service 
in the Royal Forestry School at Aschaffenburg, and one year in the 
University ; (4,) higher agricultural training, in the Central School 
of Agriculture at Weihenstephan, near Freising ; (5,) for the fine 
arts, including architecture and ornamentation of an artistic character, 
the Royal Academy of Arts in Munich, and (6,) for higher chemical 
analysis, the laboratories of the Academy of Science, the Conserva- 
tQi-ium, and the University. 

This system, although it developed a prodigious amount of scien- 
tific and artistic talent, and in several directions, of improved indus- 
trial fabrics, did not satisfy all the wants of different classes and 
different industries. In consequence of " urgent pressure from the 
Department of Commerce and Public Instruction," the king promul- 
gated in 1864 a new law respecting technical institutions, according 
to which they are now classified and administered. 


. The system of technical instruction, as organized under the law 
of 1864, and in force after 1868, when the classes under the former 
system will have completed their curriculum, and the new classes 
will be in full operation, consists of — 

I. The trade-school, [gewerbschulen — twenty-nine in all, located 
in the principal centres of population and industries,) designed to 
impart a fitting general education, and the theoretical knowledge 
preparatory to different occupations, and the professions in which 
science forms the basis of the highest success. The instruction be- 
gins where the common school leaves off, and while it is passably 
complete in itself, it is the systematic preparation for a more ex- 
tended course in commercial and agricultural studies which can be 


organized in the institution with the sanction of the highest author- 
ities, or pursued in the special institutions of a higher grade. 

Eight of these institutions, one in the chief town of each of the 
eight districts or circles into which the kingdom for administrative 
purposes is divided, are designated in the law as district or higher 

II. The real-gymnasium — this class of schools, of which there are 
six, one in the chief town of each of the six provinces, is of a higher 
grade than the trade-school, and includes, in a four years' course, 
the study of Latin and one or more modern foreign languages. It 
presupposes the attainments of the primary -school and of the first 
year of the classical gymnasium, with which its first year is par- 
allel. The final examination and certificate entitles to admission 
into the polytechnic school at Munich, and into the university, for 
participation in such studies as do not fall within the special limits 
of the three faculties of theology, jurisprudence, and medicine, and 
if found qualified after special examination, into the higher special 
schools of forestry, agriculture, veterinary science, or separate 
branches of the public service. 

III. The polytechnic school at Munich, in which the different 
professional studies of engineering, architecture, technical chem- 
istry, trade and commerce, are treated independently of each other, 
in courses of two years each, on the basis of a common scientific 
instruction in mathematics and the natural sciences, and the art of 
drawing, pursued to the extent deemed necessary for each profes- 
sional course. 

The Royal School of Machinery at Augsburg, and the Royal 
School of Art at Nuremberg, both of which were polytechnic 
schools up to 1865, are not yet permanently organized as part of 
the system. Their present course of instruction exceeds the course 
of the district trade-schools, and falls short of the Central Poly- 
technic School. 

With each of these institutions or their teachers are associated, 
more or less directly, supplementary schools and classes, designed 
to impart instruction in subjects of immediate utility to apprentices 
and workmen in various crafts and occupations ; and above them 
all in the lectures, collections, libraries and laboratories of the uni- 
versities, and in the higher special schools of agriculture, forestry, 
and art, the student can carry his artistic, artisan, or purely scien- 
tific studies to the highest point. 

' We append the substance of the regulations recently issued for 
the government of these schools : 



The trades schools of Bavaria were originally known by the name of agricul- 
tural and industrial schools, but received their present name in the decree of 
1864. They are generally government institutions, but the municipalities or as- 
sociations contribute more or less to the support of some of them, the teachers 
being appointed by the power that supports them, although all the appoint- 
ments must be confirmed by government. 

The qualifications for admission are that the candidate shall be between the 
ages of twelve and fourteen ; shall be able to read, write and compose without 
gross blunders in spelling or language ; shall be master of the first lour rules of 
arithmetic, and possess a proper knowledge of religion. 

The plan of studies occupies three years, and is as follows : 

Hours per week. Course I. Course II. Course IIL 

Eeligion, 2 2 2 

German, 5 4 3 

Geography, 2 2 2 

History, 2 2 2 

Arithmetic, 5 

Algebra, 2 4 

Natural History, 4 4 

Physics, 4 

Drawing, 8 8 4 

Modeling and embossing, 2 6 

French, .2 2 2 

Plane geometry, ; 4 

Descriptive " : 2 

Solid geometry and plane trigonometry, . . 2 

Chemistry, .'. . . 4 

Popular mechanics, 4 

Making thirty hours a week for each class. 

In some places part of the scholars pursue a commercial or agricultural course 
of study, varying in some particulars from the above. Those in the commercial 
section omit drawing and embossing, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and me- 
chanics, devoting three hours more a week to French during the whole course, 
and studying calligraphy, arithmetic, the science, geograpliy and history of 
commerce, and in the last class, English. 

Those in the agricultural section omit natural history, physics, algebra, de- 
scriptive geometry and plane geometry, mechanics, and French, and have 
only two hours a week in drawing. They add to the course the study of hus- 
bandry and rural economy, with practical labor on the farm, nine hours in the 
first class, six in the second and third. 

Sunday, Holiday, and Evening Trades Schools. 

Connected with the district trade-schools there is a higher class of supple- 
mentary schools whose object is to impart a free education to those apprentices 
or workmen whose education has been neglected, and to offer the means of far- 
ther advance to those who have finished the course of the trade schools, in the 
buildings of which they are generally held, although in some cases they form 
separate institutions. The only requirement for admission is having attended 
the primary-schools during the six years required by law. The instructors are 
generally the teachers of the trade-schools, but practical workmen are engaged 
to teach particular handicrafts. The schools are held on Sundays, holidays, and 
two evenings in the week. The course is divided into two sections, the ele- 


mentary, which is a continuation of the course pursued at the primary-schools, 
and the special section, dealing with matters of trade and commerce, and with 
practical trades or handicrafts. 

In the elementary section are taught religion, German, arithmetic, and draw- 
ing. Under German are included composition, commercial style, &c. 

In the special section are taught drawing, embossing, modeling, arithmetic in 
its applications to trade and commerce, geometry, natural history, the history 
of staples, me! cantile book-keeping, and practical exercises in different trades 
and handicrafts. There are fourteen of these institutions, attended by 560 
scholars. They are supported by the communes or from other local sources. 


The real-gymnasiums of Bavaria, sometimes called technical gymnasiums, 
have for their aim to give "the requisite preparation for entering upon the study 
of a profession which demands an intimate acquaintance with the exact sci- 
ences." They are at once literary and scientific. There are six of these schools. 

They are all government institutions, and the teachers, who must have been 
graduates of a Latin-school, a polytechnic school, and have spent at least one 
vear at a university in their special study, are considered government employes. 

Pupils are admitted between the ages of thirteen and sixteen, after having 
completed the course at a Latin-school, or passing an examination upon the 
studies there pursued. Hospitants are received only exceptionally. The aca- 
demical year begins October 1st and ends August 15th, with a fortnight's holi- 
day at Easter. The courses are all obligatory and as follows : 

Course I. — Religion, 2 hours per week ; Algebra, 4 ; Plane geometry, 3 
German, 4; Latin, 4; French, 4; Geography, 3; Drawing, 6. — Total, 30 hours, 

Course II. — Religion, 2 hours per week ; Algebra, 3 ; Plane geometry, 2 
Natural history, (zoology and botany,) 4; German, 3; Latin, 4; French, 4 
Geography, 2 ; Drawing, 6. — Total, 30 hours. 

Course III. — Rehgion, 2 hours per week ; ■ Solid geometry, 2 ; Algebra and 
trigonometry, 4 ; Physics, 5 ; Descriptive geometry, 2 ; German, 2 ; Latin, 3 ; 
French, 3; Histor}^, 2; Drawing and embossing, 6. — Total, 31 hours. 

Course IV. — Religion, 2 hours per week ; Elements of higher analysis, 2 ; 
Analytical geometry, 2 ; Descriptive geometry, 3 ; Mineralogy and chemistry, 
5 ; Latin, 3 ; French, 2 ; English, 4 ; History, 2 ; Drawing and modeling, 6. — 
Total, 31 hours. 

Annual written and oral examinations take place, and the pupil who fails 
two years in succession in one of the lower classes is excluded from the school. 
At the close of the course a pupil may demand to be specially examined for an 
absolutorium, which is in writing, and extends over three days, as follows: 

First day. — 1. A religious theme to be completed in one hour; 2. A histor- 
ical essay in German on some given subject, three hours ; 3. A problem in 
descriptive geometry, two hours ; 4. Two themes, one in zoology, one in bot- 
any, one hour. 

Second day. — 1. Solution of two problems in the lower and one in the higher 
analysis, two hours ; 2. Solution of two problems, one in elementary and one 
in analytical geometry, two hours; 3. Two themes in physics, one hour; 4. A 
French composition, two hours. 

Third day. — 1. Solution of two problems in trigonometry, two hours; 2. Two 
themes in chemistry, one to have reference to mineralogy, one hour; 3. A Latin 
CQmposition, two hours; 4. An English composition, two hours. 

Every scholar pays 20 florins annually; hospitants only half this sum if they 
attend but one course. The whole may be remitted to poor and capable students. 



In the organic system of the technical institutions, the polj^technic school 
stands in immediate connection with the real gymnasium, and forms the apex 
of the system of technical instruction. 

In place of three, the lav/ designs to place at least one school on the basis of a 
broad and thorough scientific preparation, and then to provide for at least four 
leading interests by a complete course in each. 

It is divided into — 

A. A general class, and 

B. Special classes for individual branches of technical business. 

The general class or division comprises a course of two years, and its object 
is to impart instruction in the mathenaatical and natural sciences, and the art 
of drawing to the extent required to make them a general foundation for the 
commencement of separate branches of technical studies, and at the same time 
to constitute a course of general scientific culture. 

The special' classes are to impart knowledge of and skill in the particular 
sciences required in individual branches of technical business, and these studies, 
in organic connection with the studies of the general class, are to complete the 
technical professional education. 

The polytechnic school comprises four special classes or divisions : — 

A. For architecture, the course extending over two years. 
"^ B. For mechanical engineering, the course extending over two years. 

C. For technical chemistry, the course extending over two years. 

D. For trade and commerce, the course extending over one year. 

The principal object of the potytechnic school is' to treat the different profes- 
sional studies independently of each other. 

The preliminary studies lead up to these, and must therefore precede these in 
the degree prescribed and deemed necessary. 

In order that the regular gradations which are considered absolutely 
necessary may be observed, the students must strictly follow the course of 
instruction laid down. 



Lessons. Hours in the Week. Semester I. 11. 

Analytical geometry , 3 3 

Differential and integral calculus 4 4 

Analytical mechanics 5 5 

Mathematical physics 6 

Applied physics with practical exercises 6 

Elements of architectural construction 6 6 

Elements of machine construction 6 6 

Free drawing 6 6 

Elementary mechanics 5 5 

Zoology 5 

Botany 5 

Political ecomony 4 

French language 3 3 

Italian language 3 3 

History of German literature 2 2 



Lessons. Hours in the "Week. Semester I. II. 

Applied mechanics 5 5 

Application of descriptive geometry to perspective, 

shading and stone-cutting 3 3 

General chemistry 4 

Special chemistry 4 

Oryctognosy .■ . 4 

Geology 4 

Architectural designing (construction and architectural 

forms) '..... 6 6 

Machine designing (elements of construction) 6 6 

General knowledge of machinery 6 6 

Constitutional and administrative law 4 

French language 3 3 

English language 3 3 

Italian language 3 3 



On entering this class the pupil is supposed to be in possession of such 
knowledge of the subjoined subjects as is taught in the two courses of the 
general division. 

Analytical geometry, differential and integral calculus, analytical and applied 
mechanics, maihematical and applied physics, general and special chemistry, 
applied descriptive geometry, oryctognosy, geology, architectural and mechani- 

cal designing, drawing, (the latter studied during two hours a week,) and 
political economy. 


a. For architects and huilding engineers in common. 

Lessons. Hours in the week. Semester I. . IT. 

General civil engineering * 2 2 

Knowledge of building materials, and of . sanitary 

matters connected with building 4 

Estimates of cost, and conditions of contract. 4 

Plan drawing {Situations zeichnen) 4 4 ' 

(&.) Separate instruction for architects. 

Architectural styles and history of architecture 4 4 

Plans of elevation (Rochbanten) 14 14 

Figure and landscape drawing 4 4 

Separate instruction for building engineers. 

Bridge building 4 4 

Plans of bridges 8 8 

Geodesy and hygrometry 6 6 

The construction of machinery 4 4 


(a.) For architects and building engineers in common. 

Plans of architectural buildings 6 6 

Plans of engineering works of construction 6 6 

Stone cutting and modeling 4 

Constitutional and administrative law 4 


(b.) Separate instrttction for architects. 

History of architecture 2 2 

Elements of the science of road building, bridge 

building, and the construction of water works 2 2 

Measurement. 4 

Plans of architectural buildings 12 8 

Separate instruction for engineers. 

Science of road making and of constructing water works. 6 6 

Historj'- of engineering 2 2 

Plans of engineering works 8 8 

II. Mechanical Enoineerino. 

On entering this division the pupil is supposed to be in possession of such 
knowledge of the subjoined subjects as is imparted in the two courses of the 
general division: 

Differential and integral calculus, analytical geometry, the apphcation of 
descriptive geometry, mathematical and applied physics, designing (architectu- 
ral and mechanical,) general knowledge of machinery, analytical and applied 
mechanics, general and special chemistry, geology. 


Lessons. Hours of the week. Semester I. 11. 

Theory of machinery (Maschinenlehre) 4 4 

Construction of machinery 4 * 4 

Exercises in designing 8 8 

Railway, canal, &c., engineering 3 

Leveling and measurements 4 

Manufacturing engineering (Fahrikbau) 3 

Metallurgy 5 

Technology (of manufactures, building trades, and 

implement making) 

Excursions: practical work in the mechanical work- 
shops . . .' 

III. Technical Chemistry. 

On entering this division the pupil is supposed to be in possession of such 
knowledge of the subjoined subjects as is imparted in the two courses of the 
general division : 

Zoology, botany, oryctognosy, geology, mathematical and applied physics, 
general and special chemistry, architectural drawing. 


Lessons. Hours in the week. Semester L IL 

Elementary mechanics 5 5 

Technical ph3^sics (pyrotechnics) 4 

Technical chemistry 5 5 

Elements of mechanical designing 6 6 

Knowledge of building materials 4 

Political economy 4 

Work in the laboratory 




Lessons. Hours of the week. Semester I. II. 

General theory of machinery 6 6 

General civil engineering 2 2 

Metallurgy, including smelting and casting 5 

Physical chemistry 5 

Technology 5 5 

Work in ihe laboratory 

IV, Trade and Commerce 


Lessons. Hours of the week. Semester I. II, 

Theory of coraraerce, including the sciences of the 

counting-house ,.,,...,,,, 6 6 

Commercial geography and commercial statistics 2 2 

History of commerce 2 

Laws relating to commerce and bills of exchange 3 

Political arithmetic 3 

Commercial arithmetic 3 

Knowledge of goods 3 3 

Mechanics i as applied to the means of transport) 2 

Political economy 4 

Constitutional and administrative law 4 

French language 3 3 

English 3 3 

Italian. 3 3 

Mercantile correspondence in French and English 3 

Previous to the commencement of a term of studies, the directors of the 
establishment must determine, with the aid of the masters of the various 
divisions, the programme of studies, and this must then be published. 

The institution is managed by a board of directors. 

Admission to the special divisions or schools is based on a thorough mastery 
of the two preparatory courses, and to their equivalent in mental discipline and 
knowledge obtained in a real gymnasium. 

On entering the Polytechnic School, regular pupils and hospitants, must pay 
an admission fee of five florins. 

The school honorarium is twenty florins per semester. Hospitants pay four 
or six florins, according to the number of lessons they take weekly. 

For participation in the work of the laboratory'-, pupils pay fifteen florins, and 
hospitants twenty fiorins. 

Individuals giving proof of special worth and abilities, and at the same time 
of incapacity to pay, may be absolved from payment of the above fees. 

An absolutorial examination is held at the close of each school-year, the 
subject of examination being fixed by the professors in council. 

Such are the principal provisions of the new regulations for the government 
of the Central Polytechnic School at Munich, 

Up to the reorganization of technical instruction in 1864, the three schools 
at Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg, had the same general characteristics. 
Under the present plan, much higher scientific culture will be attainable at 
Munich, while a very thorough special course in construction and manufactures 
will be given, the first at Augsburg, and the last at Nuremberg. 



Out of the many excellent institutions and classes for teelinical training in 

the arts of construction, ornamentation, and industrial production generally, of 

which we have received recent programmes or find described in the Reports of 

the French and English Commissions, we will present specimens of each grade. 


The Sunday-school in Germany is not, in its aim and instruction, identical 
with the institution known by that name in England and the Uuited States, the 
great leading object and characteristic of the latter being almost ignored in the 
former — we mean religious instruction. The name is sometimes applied to 
schools taught in the evening of other days, or in the morning for one or two 
hours before nine o'clock, in harvest time and on church holidays, although 
generally these last are called by the name of the day on which they are held. 
All of these schools, however called, are in the first place review or repetition 
schools, for those who have left at the age of twelve or fourteen the in- 
struction given in the regular primary-school, or they continue elementary 
instruction in the direction of the special occupation in wliich the pupils are 
already engaged, or for which they are destined. In the latter condition, they 
are frequently known as trade improvement-schools, commercial improvement- 
schools, or agricultural improvement-schools. In this view of their aim and 
i&ethods, they constitute a highly valuable part at once of the system of pop- 
ular and of technical instruction. Infrequent and sliort as the sessions are, they 
fix a large amount of valuable knowledge in the memorj' by timely repetition, 
and add to the stock just tliat kind of knowledge which in his daily avocations 
the pupil feels to be necessary and useful, and which thus passes as it were into 
the substance of the mind — his daily thinking and practice. Such educators as 
Niemeyer, with a full knowledge of the operation of these schools, expresses 
himself very favorable to this class of schools. "It would be a great gain in 
every place, large or small, city or village, if young persons, servants, appren- 
tices, clerks, could have, every week, even one or two hours of regular instruc- 
tion and mental exercise, under the care of a well-qualified teacher." Although 
the practice has been opposed, on account of its violating the usual observance 
of Sunday, and its interfering with the engagements of teachers as organists, 
and adding to their already heavily-taxed services, as well as on account of the 
very restricted range of instruction — the system continues; and Far tJier Ln- 
provement Schools, under some name, and on several hours of the week, con- 
stitute an important part of the elementary and technical education of the 
working classes of Germany. 

Sunday-schools have existed in 'Wurtemberg since 1695, (for children not yet 
confirmed, and to prepare them for confirmation,) in Baden since 1154, in Prus- 
sia since 1763, and in Bavaria since 1803. They are estabhshed by law in 
Austria, Bavaria, Coburg-Gotha, Nassau, and other States, while in Saxony 
and Hesse their institution depends on the action of the separate communities. 
When they exist bylaw, the same studies are pursued as in the regular common 
or primarj'-school, and always attended by those whose opportunities of school- 
attendance on week-day schools have been abridged. There is, however, in 


these States frequently a class of pupils who have completed the regular course 
at fourteen years of age, and devoted two years more to additional instruction. 
With these pupils, and in schools in large commercial, mechanical, and other 
centres, the instruction is generally technical, and is given by experts, and is, 
not unfrequeutly, of the highest value. 


The technical school founded in 1823, when on Sunday mornings the architect 
Heideloflf gave instruction in free-hand and architectural drawing ; Hermann, 
professor in the gymnasium, taught mathematics ; and Keippler, the mechan- 
ician, taught machine-drawing — has continued to the present time, with a con- 
stantly-widening range of studies in additional classes, which were provided 
for in two evenings of each week. The average attendance from 1837 to 1853 
was 700 ; in 1854 it was 1,200, and in 1856, it amounted to 1,600. 

The establishment combines the teaching of drawing, modeling, sculpture, 
and engraving, with elementary instruction in geometry, arithmetic, physics, 
and chemistry. The first and most important part of the curriculum is con- 
nected with the arts of design. The first and second courses, graduated ac- 
cording to the ciapabilities of the pupils, are devoted to free-hand drawing, 
ornaments, architectural drawing, with or without shading, figure-drawing, 
geometrical drawing, and tinting in Indian ink. The third course has four 
divisions, according to the special destination of the pupils : the first division 
comprises every thing connected with buQdings, from tlie first details of masons' 
and carpenters' work to the types and styles of architecture; the second is 
devoted to jomers' work ; the third to turners in wood or metal ; the fourth to 
divers trades. 

The second part of the curriculum teaches modeling in wax, clay, or plaster, 
engraving, and sculpture. The third is devoted to arithmetic and geometry 
applied to mensuration of superficies, solids, and to plotting. The fourth im- 
parts the rudiments of physics and mechanics, so far as applicable to local 
industries. The fifth and last treats of industrial chemistry. These courses 
were attended, in 1864, by 228 pupUs for drawing, and 1,354 hearers for the 
other courses. 


As a specimen of the city Sunday and holiday schools, we give an account 
of the large central institutions of this class in Munich, from the annual report 
of the committee for 1866-67 : 

Every ordinary parish-school has attached to it a holiday school, which is, 
therefore, called a parish holiday school, and which consists of three classes 
designated by the numbers I, II, and III. 

There is. in addition to this, a central holiday educational institution, which 
embraces the whole city, and which has also three subdivisions, viz : 

(a.) The Central Holiday School, an elementary school with three morning 
and three afternoon classes, designated by the numbers lY, V, YI. 

This central holiday school is not. however, supplementary to, or a continua- 
tion of the parish holiday schools in so far that scholars must necessarily pass 
into it from these latter. It obtains its scholars from among such as have (1) 
passed through course lY, (2) who having performed their duty in the week- 
day schools, have left these with certificate No. 1, and (3) who leaving a higher 
educational institution, after the probationary months, have returned to the 


Tvorkshop. Such pupils must not be admitted into the parish holiday schools, 
but must be sent to the central holiday school. 

(6.) The Journeymen's School. — This embraces four classes, and imparts, dur- 
ing one hour of the morning, elementary instruction to journeymen, who are 
eitlier still within the age fixed for attendance at school, or who, feeling the 
deficiencies of the school instruction they have previously received, voluntarily 
enter their names in this institution. This being once done, they are, like the 
othL'r scholars, bound to attend during the whole year. 

(c.) The Holiday S-hool for Handicrafts, in which instruction is given in — 1. 
Geometry and arithmetic; 2. Physics; 3. Technical chemistry; 4. Descriptive 
geometrj^, theorj^ of machinery, and mechanical designing ; 5. Practical me- 
chanics; 6. Free-hand, geometrical, and architectural drawing. 

The last branch of instruction is divided into five regularly-organized classes, 
four of which have of late years had to be subdivided into eight parallel 
classes, on account of the great number of students attending them. 

The uniformity of the instruction given, and its regularly progressive char- 
acter is insured by the supervision of a technical director, under whom rank 
also the holiday drawing-schools in the suburbs of Au, Haidhausen, and Giesing, 
which form branches of the central drawing-school. 

This central school is so regulated as to be in strict harmony with the system 
of drawing-instruction introduced into all the week-day schools. 

Sole Course. Hours in the week. Semester I. II. 

Theory of commerce, including the sciences of the counting-house, . . 6 6 

Commercial geography and commercial statistics, 2 2 

History of commerce, 2 

Laws relating to commerce and bills of exchange, 

Political arithmetic, 3 

Commercial arithmetic, 3 

'Knowledge of goods, 3 3 

Mechanics, (as applied to the means of transport,) 2 

Political economy, 4 

Constitutional and administrative law, 4 

French language, 3 3 

English, 3 3 

Italian, 3 3 

Mercantile correspondence in French and English, 3 

Previous to the commencement of a term of studies, the directors of the es- 
tablishment must determine, with the aid of the masters of the various divis- 
ions, the programme of studies, and this must then be published. 

It must be observed that in the instruction given in this institution each 
handicraft is taken into due account, so that each pupil may obtain the knowl- 
edge specially required for his trade. 

With the holiday school for handicrafts is connected a lithographic establish- 
ment, which supplies the drawing-schools with systematically-arranged models, 
and thus maintains the regularly progressive character of these. 

The schools enumerated under a, i, and c, constitute together one great 
whole, under the superintendence of a special inspector. The guidance of it is, 
however, beset by great difficulties, and demands an amount of tact and en- 
ergy which will be easily appreciated by those who know, by actual intercourse 
with them, the character of our apprentice boys. It is, therefore, the more to 
be admired that among so large a number of scholars brought into such close 
contact with each other, so few aberrations should hnve taken place. 

The female holiday schools are, like the male schools, divided into: — 

a. A central holiday school ; and 

b. Parish holiday schools. 

The first mentioned consists of three classes, which, to distinguish them from 
the lower holiday schools, are designated by the numbers IV, Y, and VI. No. 
IV is, on account of the great number of scholars, subdivided into three classes, 
viz., A, B, and C ; and instruction is given both in the morning and in the 
afternoon, in order to render it more easy for the girls to attend. 



"With this school is connected a so-called preliminary division, in which girls 
who have been unfavorabl)-- situated with regard to the attainment of education 
are enabled to obtain proper instruction. This division has been incorporated 
with the central holiday school, because, as in its object and its methods of 
teaching it holds an exceptional position, it would otherwise be q\iite isolated ; 
and because, were the pupils who frequent it to be distributed among the parish 
schools, they would fail to obtain the special attention which their case requires. 

In connection with this school there is also a class for instruction in partial 
work, which is open to girls who have already gone to service, as well as to 

The elementary instruction, which increases in 0ach class, and which in 
classes V and VI extends to practical life, was, during the last year, attended 
by 504 girls, and the working class by 125 girls. 

In all its features, both as regards the teachers and the greater number of the 
scholars, in their efforts to impart and to attain culture and dignity, this school 
offers a most attractive picture of what hoUday schools may be. 

Holiday Schools for Girls. 

h. The parish holiday schools for girls, of which there were, during the year, 
11, with 27 classes, also effect much that is good and useful, yet it can not be 
denied that their effectiveness might be far greater. The chief obstacle to their 
activity is not only the lukewarmness of the scholars themselves, but more es- 
pecially the contempt in which the schools are held by many parents and 

Prizes, mostly consisting of money, are annually distributed in all these 
schools, and the names of the scholars who have distinguished themselves by 
steady industry are published in the yearly reports. 

During the school-year 1866-67, the number of pupils attending these various 
schools and classes has been as follows: — The Sunday and Holiday School for 
Handicrafts: — Religious classes, 208; arithmetic and geometry, 65; physics, 
64; technical chemistry, 99; descriptive geometry, 62; theory of machinery, 
79; designing, 63 ; practical mechanics, 50; embossing, 77; chasing, 22 ; arch- 
itectural drawing, 88 ; linear, 299 ; more advanced ornamental drawing, 367 ; 
free-hand drawing and elements of ornamentation, 296. T/ie Journeyman's 
School, 167. The Central Holiday School for Boys, 341. The Parish Holiday 
Schools for Boys, 1,467. The Central Holiday School for Girls, 644. The Parish 
Holiday Schools for Girls, 1,303. 


The district trade-school at Nuremberg will serve as an example of the high- 
est grade of these schools: 1. The district trade-school; 2. The Sunday-school 
for artisans; 3. The elementary drawing-school. 

1. The district trade-school affords instruction to persons who require for 
the intelhgent pursuit of their several callings a knowledge of mathematics, of 
natural philosophy, and facility in drawing and modehng, or to such as wish to 
devote themselves to the technical service of the State. It also serves as 
preparatory to the Polytechnic School. The instruction embraces in a course 
of three j^ears: — 

Religion, German and French languages, history, geograpliy. elementary 
mathematics, phj^sics, thoretical and practical chemistry, mechanics, technology, 
geometry, plane and solid, trigonometry, natural history, free-hand and linear 
drawing, modeling in clay and wax. 

After the first year, pupils who take a commercial career devote more time 
to the French and English languages, arithmetical calculations, and geography 
in reference to the natural resources and industries of nations, and to commer- 
cial forms. Those whose destination is agriculture, pursue chemistry in refer- 
ence to soils, and the implements and processes of husbandly. 

The first instruction in drawing is according to "Wolff's principles of rational 
instruction in drawing, the more advanced from large drawings and solid 


objects. In all the classes there are from seven to eight hours for drawing 

2. The Sunday-school for artisans gives instruction to apprentices and 
journeymen in drawing, modeling, engraving, arithmetic, geometry, physics, 
anil chemistry. The instruction in drawing, in throe courses, begins with free- 
hand drawing according to Welti's system; then follows the drawing of orna- 
ments, vases, &c., in outline, witli reference to the trade of the pupil, geometric 
drawing, drawing from bas-reliefs; finally, in the last course, special drawing. 
This is divided into four sections: — a. For builders; b. For joiners; c. For 
turners ; d. For workers at various trades. 

3. The ebvii/iiary draw in-j -school is for those boys who are still attending the 
popular school, and who wish later to engage in a trade, after which they entei 
into the trade-school. In two courses drawing and modeling alone are 

AH these schools in Nuremberg have a large number of pupils. In 1867 the 
first had 212, the second 1,876, and the last 228 pupils. The school-fees in the 
trade-school and the elementary school amount, at the most, to two florins an- 
nually ; on the other hand, there is for apprentices and journeymen under 
eighteen years of age, a strict compulsory school attendance. 

The annual income of the above schools from the town and the State amounts, 
exclusive of premises rent free, to 16,000 florins, to which add the amount of 
school-fees received, 1,800 florins, and we get the total cost at 17,800 florins. 
The establishments in Nuremberg possess a library, out of which works of gen- 
eral utility and belles-lettres are lent to diligent pupils. It thus gives an oppor- 
tunity of rewarding good behavior, and is also calculated to impart much in- 
formation which the school does not teach. A bad choice of books is also in 
this way prevented. 


The trade-school at Passau is organized with two divisions ; with 57 pupils 
in 1867 in the commercial and 44 in the industrial or mechanical division — both 
under a rector, assisted by 14 teachers. 

The special subjects included in the commercial division, besides the French 
and English languages, are thus drawn out in the programme : 

Course II. — Commercial Arithmetic. — Calculation of profits by multiplication 
and division. Compound rule of three. Simple and complex partnership ac- 
counts. Compound calculations and calculation of per centage. Calculation 
of interest, and discount. Lessons in the knowledge of coins, measures, and 
weights. Bankers' accounts. Direct and indirect reduction of bills of exchange. 
Bills of lading and invoices. 

Mercantile Science. — The most essential parts of the theory of banking, with 
explanation of the most common terms used in banking. Making out of various 
forms of bills of exchange. Invoices and calculations. Simple book-keeping. 
Elaboration of a course of business, making the necessary entries connected 
with it in the proper books, and then making up the latter. Composition of 
the most important letters for simple book-keeping. Opening and closing of 
accounts current according to various rates of interest. 

Course III. — Mercantile Science. — Arbitration. Banking commissions. Pub- 
lic .stocks. Customs and trade regulations. Commercial associations and mer- 
cantile systems. Book-keeping by double-entry ; composition of most import- 
ant letters for this. 

Commercial Geography and Commercial Hisiory. — The various States of Eu- 
rope, with reference to their commercial productions, the principal seats of their 
commerce and industry, their lines of traffic, their customs, laws, &c. 

Tite Nature of Colonies. — Synoptic history of commerce during the middle 
ages, more particularly of German commerce. Influence of geographical dis- 
coveries, and especially of the discovery of America, and of the ocean road to 
India, on the intercourse of nations. Commercial history of the European mar- 
itime powers in modern times. 


The higher improvement-school at Paasau, opened in 1866, provides for in- 
struction on Sunday mornings and week-day evenings, and has been well at- 
tended, mostly by adult apprentices and assistants; several master-workmen 
also have attended. It a rector and four teachers (masters,) and the 
branches taught are book-keeping, commercial science, geometry, natural phi- 
losophy, chemistry, technology, and drawing. Its pupils number one or two 

Weaving-school. — Connected with the higher trade-school at Passau is a 
weaving-school, teaching the whole art, including the history and preparation 
of the materials, hemp and flax. This is also a week-day and Sunday-school. 
There are thirty-three pupils. 

Regular conferences of weavers are held in connection with these schools. 


The weaving-school at Miindeberg is intended to impart thorough theoretical 
and practical instruction in weaving in all its branches, and to give instruction 
not only to pupils, but to give whatever information may be demanded by any 
body already in the business. It is open to young men from fourteen to twenty- 
two years of age, from the whole province of Yoigtland, preference being 
given to natives of Miindeberg. It is a boarding-school, and is provided with 
two salaried masters and one pupil-teacher. 

The course embraces two years, during both of which are taught German, 
arithmetic, geography, drawing, and rehgion. During the first, pupils are 
taught the sim.pler processes connected with weaving, and the weaving of plain 
fabrics ; during the second, theoretical and practical instruction is given in the 
more advanced processes. Certain manufacturers in the neighborhood furnish 
the raw materials and buy the woven fabrics at the usual rates. There are six- 
teen pupils. Bavarians pay 150 florins, natives of other countries 200 florins 
annually for board, lodging, and instruction, in addition to which the school re- 
ceives their earnings. 

Connected with the school is a gratuitous Sunday-school, open from 1 to 3 
P. M., of two classes, the first of which is open to all persons engaged in in- 
dustry without exception, teaching German, compositions being written- on sub- 
jects relating to trade, arithmetic, linear and free-hand drawing. The second 
class imparts theoretical and practical instruction in their trade to weavers 


At Berchtesgaden, in the Salzburg district, a technical-school has been insti- 
tuted by the government, in aid of an industry which has long been carried on 
in that mountainous region, namely, the handicraft of carving ornamented arti- 
cles in wood and bone. 

The course embraces instruction in drawing, modeling, and carving, free of 
charge to all persons domiciled in the district, and to strangers who pay a small 

The school is well supplied with patterns and models, and there is a reposi- 
tory in which the work of the pupils is sold for their benefit. The school-hours 
are from T to 11 A. M., and from 12 to 4 P. M. The pupils are arranged in two 
classes, and can remain four years. 



The Royal School of Machinery at Augsburg was formerly a Polytechnic 
school, but under the law of 1864 it lias a special organization. The conditions 
for admission are a thorough knowledge ot algebra, inclusive of logarithms and 
geometry, and a certain amount of practice in linear drawing. Pupils must be 
over fifteen. Hospitants must give proof of possessing the preliminary knowl- 
edge requisite to thoroughly understand tke subject taught. 

The curriculum consists of two courses : — First course : Mathematics, four 
hours weekly; designing, eight hours weekly in winter and ten in summer. 
Second course : Elementary mechanics, differential and integral calculus, physics, 
mechanical engineering and designing. There are for botli courses two hours 
of daily practice in the workshops, except on Saturdays. There are twenty-five 
pupils, paj'^ing each twenty florins annual school-fee. 

Prof. Koristka, in his account of the Polytechnic Schools of Bavaria, takes 
the following notice of the workshops at Augsburg : 

Although in general the establishment of machine-shops at the Polytechnic 
schools has been given up for want of success, as at Dresden, Berlin, Carlsruhe, 
Zurich, &c., we must confess that these workshops have had marked success at 
Nuremberg and Augsburg. The instructive and beautifully-made models of 
Augsburg are to be found in almost every collection of models in Germany, 
and the Principal of the Augsburg workshop (Prof. Walter) has for years de- 
voted all his energies to this branch of instruction. To give a little idea of the 
way in which this instruction is given, we add the plan, condensed as far as 
possible, as it was explained to us by Prof Walter. During the first year, two 
hours daily are spent in the workshops ; daring the second year, one hour daily ; 
in the third year three, and that from 4 to 7, after the theoretical instruction. 
The most of the scholars have never had any practical experience. The 
scholar is placed at a screw, a coarse file and a piece of (smith's) iron are given 
him. He is to practice himself in filing first planes at right angles and then 
parallel to one another. Than he is made to do the same with a finer file. 
Nothing can ba done superticially, and no pupil is allowed to go on until he has 
been thoroughl}'- saccassful. Then the scholar is practiced in boring, in cutting 
of screws, and in making faucets. Then comes the turning of round surfaces 
and of screws, the smoothing off, &c., and this is all done with simple pieces of 
iron, out of which different articles, such as paper-weights, &c., are made. The 
next tasks given are the completion of correct rulers, simple steel angles, turn- 
ers' compasses, and so on, until the pupil is able to make a pair of brass com- 
passes, with steel points soldered in. If the pupil can do all this correctly, he 
is capable of taking a simple model of some motion and working on without 
assistance. He generally reaches this point during tlie third course. This 
instruction is not obligatory, but if a scholar has once undertaken it, he is held 
strictly to all its duties. Scholars are paid for the models they complete. When 
they have finished the course they are generally far enough advanced to be aljle 
to support themselves by work in any factory. The workshops at Augsburg 
have twenty-one screws, with a perfect assortment of tools belonging to each, 
five (foot) turning-lathes, and a great lathe more than twenty feet long. Be- 
sides this, there are joiners' benches, two planing machines, a large and two 
small wheel-cutting engines, a boring machine, a smithy, &c. Many of these 
things are made here, so that it is impossible to give the cost of the whole 
machine-shop. The following prices may give a faint idea of the expense : a 
screw, with its appurtenances, $52, a turning-lathe and its belongings, $179, a 
planing-bench, with its tools, $50, The common tools used would amount to 
about $1,960. The tools for the blacksmith's shop cost $240. According to 
this we should estimate the furnishing of similar workshops at about $4,000 or 
$5,000. Beside the scholars, day-laborers also work in these shops, and are 
regularly paid. In 1860 the expenses for labor, reparations, material, salary 
of the overseer, &c., amounted to $959, the receipts to $976.80. 



The plan on which the Polytechnic School at Munich is now organized, and 
the distribution of subjects in the general division of mathematics and natural 
sciences, and the four special divisions or schools of architecture, mechanical 
engineering, technical chemistry, and of trade and commerce, lias been so fully 
set forth in the general exposition of the system of technical instruction as 
established by the law of 1864, that^ny further description here is unnecessary 
except to give a few particulars from the last prospectus. 

The conditions of admission are, the necessary preliminary knowledge, and 
good moral conduct. 

The pupils of the general division are bound to take part in the lessons on at 
least five subjects in each semester. 

The pupils in the special divisions are bound to take part in all the studies 
mentioned in the programme of the division. 

Admission into the Polytechnic School is only granted to those who can pro- 
duce a certificate of having passed the absolutorium of a technical gymnasium, 
or who will submit to examination in all the subjects of study pursued in those 

Admission to pupils or hospitants, who wish to attend only some particular 
lessons, is, however, granted on less difficult conditions. 

On entering the Polytechnic School, regular pupils and hospitante must pay 
an admission fee of 5 florins. 

The school honorarium is 20 florins per semester. Hospitants pay 4 or 6 
florins, according to the number of lessons they take weekly. 

For participation in the work of the laboratory, pupils pay 15 florins, and 
hospitants 20 florins. 

Individuals giving proof of special worth and abilities, and at the same time 
of incapacity to pay, may be absolved from payment of the above fees. 

An absolutorial examination is held at the close of each school-year, the sub- 
ject of examination being fixed by tlie professors in council. 

The premises heretofore occupied are spacious, and the equipment every way 
suitable; the lecture and class-rooms are large and well lighted, and the labora- 
tories for the chemical students afford eveiy convenience for manipulations. 
The rooms for drawing are well provided with models, and the collections of 
all kinds for iUustrations in architecture, mechanics, and engineering, are large, 
and of the most recent construction. 

To these facilities for instruction within its own premises, this great technical 
school can hold out to the student the splendid galleries of art. the vast collec- 
tions in natural history, the well-equipped and officered laboratories of the-Con- 
servatorium, and the great industrial establishments generally of Munich, which 
are now commanding a patronage fairly won by the scientific and artistic train- 
ing which the foremen and workmen generally have received. 

The General Conservatory of Scientific Collections at Munich embraces twelve 
distinct collections, viz. : the cabinet of coins ; the antiquarium ; the observa- 
tory and meteorological institutes ; the chemical laboratory ; the mineralogical, 
geological, zoological, and paleontological collections ; a botanical garden, and 
an anatomical institution. The Conservatorium has an income of 50,000 florins. 

The Academy of Sciences, originally founded by the Elector Maximilian III, 
but reorganized by King Louis and placed in immediate connection with the 
University; the Royal Library, with over 800.000 volumes, and the University 
Library of 160,000 volumes; the School of Mines, the Cameralistic studies, or 
science of flnance and public economy ; the general artistic and scientific pur- 
suits of Munich — make it desirable as a place of higher scientific study. 



"Within a very recent period, Bavaria has become one of the great art centres 
of Europe, and its capital, wliich has increased in popuUition from 20,000 in 
1805 to 155,000 in 1868, not only possesses in its galleries and collections valu- 
able remains of ancient art, and the modern productions of other countries, but 
is rich in specimens of architecture, painting, statuary, castings, and frescoes, 
executed by her own artists trained in her own schools and ateliers. The late 
King Louis expended on buildings and works of art in Bavaria over $80,000,- 
000. This expenditure was not confined to the fine arts, in the construction, orna- 
ment, and equipment of public buildings, and galleries for the possession and 
enjoyment of the few, but was intended and felt in its beneficence throughout , 
all the mechanical industries, and by every class of the kingdom. 


For the youth who has determined to embrace the career of an artist, the 
Royal Academy of the Fine Arts offers the requisite means of completing his 
education. This institution has its origin in the drawing-school founded by the 
Elector Maximilian III, in 1770, and reestablished by King Maximilian the 
First, in 1808; but its present flourishing condition is the work of King Louis, 
who gave it a new constitution in 1846. It is at once a society of artists and 
a school of art. 

The instruction given in the academy is both practical and theoretical. The 
former embraces historical painting, sculpture, architecture, and copper-engra- 
ving ; the latter, the history of art, anatomy, perspective, descriptive geometry, 
and shading. The common basis of artistical studies is considered to be draw- 
ing after the antique ; but especial attention is also directed to the drawing, 
modeling, and painting after nature. The instruction in historical painting is 
given in four separate schools, each under the direction of a distinct professor. 
There are also separate schools of sculpture, architecture, and engraving. Lec- 
tures are delivered regularly on the history of art, ancient and Christian, as 
well as on anatomy, and on the other branches of theoretical knowledge. 

The admission to the academy is free both to natives and foreigners, provided 
they are qualified by the possession of adequate elementary knowledge and 
facility in the higher branches of drawing, with a proper scholastic ediication, 
and a good moral character. The pupils destined for architecture must, if na- 
tives, have passed through the polytechnic school ; and if foreigners, produce 
certificates of their mathematical attainments. The candidates execute an ex- 
perimental performance, upon the result of which their admission depends; and 
they must, further, remain a half-year on probation before they are definitively 
enrolled as pupils. The maximum period of study in the academy is six years, 
but pupils may leave it earlier if qualified. Diligent and talented pupils, who 
are natives of Bavaria, and poor, may obtain small stipends, besides being fur- 
nished gratuitously with models for the cartoons, pictures or statues which they 
may execute within the academy. 

A general exhibition of modern works of art takes place about every three 
years, under the direction of the academy. 

* Abridged from Report of J. Ward, Secretary of the English Legation at Munich. 


The academy has also the execution or direction of all public works within 
the sphere of painting or sculpture. It forms a kind of council to the Eang in 
all matters of art. 

The staff of the academy consists of a director, (for many years the celebrated 
Kaulbach,) five professors respectively of painting, sculpture, architecture, en- 
graving, tlie history of art, and the technics of painting, with teachers of anat- 
omy and of perspective, descriptive geometry, and shading, and a corrector of 
the pupils' performances, a teaching force of fourteen persons. It has a secre- 
tary, an inspector, and proper attendants. 

The usual number of pupils is 230, among whom are several foreigners. 

The annual expenses of the academy itself amount, in the whole, to 22,816 
• florins, or £2,281 sterling — a very moderate sum, considering the efficiency of 
the institution and the merits of the professors. The budget of the academy, 
however, in the government estimates, comprises the annual charge of the 
public galleries, &c., and stands thus for 1864: — 1. The Academy of the Fine 
Arts, 22,816 florins; 2. Galleries of Art, the property of the State, (viz., the 
Glyptothek, Pinacothek, New Pinacothek, &c.,) 20,501 ; 3. Working artists, 
1,800; 4. Allowances and pensions to artists, 6,721; 5. Cashier's department, 
500 ; 6. General Reserve Fund, 357. Total, 52,745 florins, equivalent to about 

There are other institutions in Munich which the inhabitants themselves have 
formed for the furtherance of the same objects, such as the Art Union, the 
Trades' Union, and the like. The Society for the Improvement of Manufactures 
has, in particular, had a very useful tendency, by the constant communications 
which it keeps up between the class of artists and that of mechanics. It was 
founded in 1850, and the chairman is the eminent architect De Yoit. The so- 
ciety gives to its members drawings and models for all articles to be worked or 
manufactured in the department of industry, arranges occasional exhibitions, 
and publishes a journal. Whilst the artist furnishes the drawings or designs, 
the artisan is often able to give useful suggestions with respect to the materials 
best suited for the work ; and so both the one and the other is mutually im- 
proved. The progress which has been made in casting, and other branches of 
metallic work — of which the late Paris Industrial Exhibition has furnished 
evidence — is considered as in some measure attributable to this society, which 
aims at raising the character of manufacturers, by brtngmg them more closely 
into contact with the fine arts. 

The number of artists constantly residing in Munich is very large, and is- 
stated to be about eight hundred. They are chiefly Germans, but artists from 
foreign countries are also continually visiting the Bavarian capital. The daily 
'association of these persons with each other can not fail to be attended with 
beneficial results. Not only is the principle of emulation called into action, but 
ideas are exchanged in a social hitercourse which often lead to the realization 
of important works. Munich offers, in this respect, on a small scale, the same 
advantages that Rome does on a larger. Nor are the artists by any means con- 
fined to their own set. They mix pretty freely with other classes of society — 
with learned men, tradesmen, mechanics, and artisans ; and hence their ten- 
dency has become more scientific than formerly ; they have become more dis- 
posed to avail themselves of practical science in the execution of artistic works. 
Tliis improvement is partly attributable to the influence of the polytechnic 


As a school of pure art, there is no pliace out of Italy which holda out so 
many attractions to the student. He finds in the Glyptothek, the Pinacothek, 
and the other Royal collections, the best opportunities of copying from the 
antique, and of forming his knowledge of the painting and sculpture of more 
modern times. He sees around him magnificent public buildings, and churches 
whose architecture is only surpassed by the beauty of their internal decorations. 


The Ro3'al School of Arts applied to Trades {Kunstgewerlschule) at Nuremberg 
aims not only to promote art, but to improve the artistic character of industrial 
products. It receive pupils above sixteen. The curriculum is as follows : 

Division ij (12 hours a week to each study.) — 1. Drawing from ornamental 
models; 2. Practice in architectural drawing, with theoretical lectures; 3. 
Drawing from antique models; 4. Modeling and drawing ornaments and figures. 

Division II. — 1. Painting, drawing, and modehng from Hfe, for artists ; 2. 
Plastic studies for artists ; 3. Exercises in composing and executing subjects in 
figures and of an ornamental character ; 4. Embossing and sculpture; 5. Wood- 
carving, exercises in carving ornaments and figures, and execution of objects 
of industrial art ; 6. Brass-founding — exercises in forming, founding, and en- 

Supplemental classes, (2 hours weekly to each branch.) — 1. Perspective and 
shadows; 2. Anatomy. 

The practical branches, such as architecture, sculpture, and ornamentation, 
are'^made the chief subjects of instruction, and are taught with special reference 
to the present requirements of industry. 

The general opinion of the persons who have made a study of questions con- 
nected with teaching, not only in Bavaria, but also in other parts of Germany, 
is that the Nuremberg school has contributed more than any other to the prog- 
ress of the national industry. This progress is especially manifest in the very 
decided improvement in the manufacture of children's toys, which are one of 
the staple productions of the country. For some years past, the improvement 
in the forms of the articles, whether molded in clay or sculptured in wood, with 
which the Nuremberg manufacturers supply the shops of Paris, has shown us 
that great progress must have been made in the teaching of drawing, and 
ample confirmation of this opinion may be obtained on visiting the higher 
drawing-school of this town. The Parisian manufacturers, though superior in 
other matters dependent on the arts of design, are, with regard to children's 
toys, very inferior to the Nuremberg artisans. 


In this town, so noted for its various manufactures, there are several draw- 
ing-schools of different degrees, according to the trade the pupils intend to 
follow. The first and most important is the higher school of industrial drawing 
conducted by M. Kroling. It is justly regarded in Germany as the one which 
has rendered most services to industry. In order that the pupils may, in a few 
years, acquire some real skill, none are admitted but those who have already 
attained considerable proficiency. The principle adopted by the professor of 
this school is that, in order to form good industrial draughtsmen, the pupils 
must pass through all the degrees of artistic drawing, so that they may be able, 


in the very varied and different combinations required by manufacturersj to 
blend judiciously and harmoniously all the various kinds, without there being 
any necessity, as often happens, for having recourse to one artist for the archi- 
tectural part, to another for the figures, and to a third for the ornaments, &c. 

As for the method of teaching, it is exclusively based on drawing from 
models in reliefj graduated according to the proficiency of the learners, and ad- 
vancing from the simplest models to the finest left by ancient art, and then to 
nature. The talented director expresses his antipathy to copying from litho- 
graphs, which he regards as calligraphy, not drawing. In accordance with 
these principles, he has formed for his pupils very fine and very complete col- 
lections of models. The teaching is distributed in three divisions : — 1, drawing 
of ornament; 2, drawing from the antique; 3, drawing from nature. After 
attaining proficiency in drawing, the pupils pass on to modeling and sculpture 
in wood and stone ; then, as soon as they have attained a certain degree of 
skill, they have to compose designs, and to model and carve them. 

As a preparation for the higher drawing-school, there is an elementary school 
with courses occupying two years. The first, of eight hours' lessons per week, 
is entirely devoted to free-hand drawing, beginning with exercises on straight 
lines and curves, on plane surfaces, on symmetrical and regular bodies, and on 
simple and complex ornaments, finishing with compositions. The second 
course, of six hours per week, is devoted to drawing ornaments, to drawing 
from the round, from the antique, and also to drawing furniture. 


The instructions drawn up in the Department of Commerce and Public Works,' 
for the government of the newlj^-organized technical schools, mark out a detailed 
course for drawing founded on the long experience of the famous schools of 
Nuremberg and Munich. 


Course I. — First half-year. — Exercise of eye and hand in drawing lines and 
geometrical figures ; delineation of objects of suitable size, and with plane sur- 
faces; explanations of the nature of vision, and with this the first elements of 
perspective; linear drawing without instruments should be combined with free 
drawing, [Freihandzeichnung.) 

Second half-year — Continuation of the free drawing ; delineation of simple 
ornaments from cartoons, or from plaster models, in slight relief or perforated ; 
linear drawing, with the aid of compasses and mathematical instruments; draw- 
ing, division and measurement of straight lines, right angles, and figures ; con* 
struction of scales, measurement, &c. 

Course II. — Free drawing of more elaborate ornaments from plastic models; 
the proportions of the human head and its various parts, from simple outlines; 
exercises in the construction of regular curved lines, architectural members, 
projection of simple surfaces, and of regular equilateral figures; embossing 
from simple plastic models in diflferent sizes. 

Course III. — Continuation of exercises in free drawing from the round; de- 
lineation of animals and plants, in as far as these may be applicable to orna- 
mentation, with slight indication of shades, so as to make the form distinct ; 
explanation of style ; delineation of tlie human body, and its proportions, in 
outline; linear drawing; continuation of exercises in designing simple ma- 
chines and models; the five orders of architecture ; industrial tools; profiles, 
&c., as fin- as possible in natural size, from models; sketching from nature; ex- 
ercises in drawing with Indian ink ; sliglit coloring of profiles, &c. ; embossing 
from drawings of simple classical artistic forms. 


Modifications for (he Agricultural Division. 

Course I. — First half-year. — [Substantially the same as in the trade course,] 

Stcoiid half-year. — Linear drawing, with help of compasses and nuiLlicmatical 
instruments; drawing, dividing, and measuring straight lines, plane angles and 
figures, and construction of scales of measurement; exercises in drawing plans 
and elevations of simple geometrical bodies, in various positions, and in the 
rules of the theory of proportions. 

Course II. — Plxercises in drawing plans and elevations of separate architec- 
tural parts, more especially of the stationary arrangements of farm-buildings, 
from models, and also from nature ; delineation of simple agricultural imple- 
ments ; first rules of plan-drawing. 

Course III. — Exercises in drawing entire buildings from models on a differ- 
ent scale of measurement; delineation of ground-plans, elevations, and sec- 
tions; delineation of more complete agricultural tools and machines without 


Course I. — Free drawing ; exercises in drawing straight lines and geomet- 
rical figures formed by them ; delineation of bodies with plane surfaces, with 
explanations of the nature of vision, and of the most simple phenomena of per- 
spective, illustrated by single objects, or groups of objects, of suitable size; 
exercises in drawing curved lines and simple ornaments formed of these; out- 
line delineation of symmetrical ornaments and vessels from cartoons and plaster 
casts in slight relief, of simple antique artistic forms. 

i)ouRSE II. — Free drawing ; division and proportion of the separate parts of 
the human frame drawn from cartoons ; foreshortening of the several parts in 
different positions, then of the whole body, using the geometrical lay figure as 
a model ; more elaborate ornaments in outline from embossed and plane-models ; 
ex&rcises in the use of rules, compasses, and other instruments, by delineation 
and division of plane figures; explanation of the planes of projection; exer- 
cises in the delineation of simple bodies by means of their projections, with use 
of the prismatic compass when copying from cartoons ; measurement and pro- 
jection of solid models in different positions, and according to different scales 
of reduction. 

Course III. — Simple exercises in shading, at first from models of plane orna- 
ments, afterwards from ornaments in rehef ; drawing of heads, hands, and feet 
indifferent positions, from slightly-executed models; ornaments belonging to 
various periods of art, as much as possible in connection with architectural fea- 
tures; measurement of complex solid models with plane surfaces, and projec- 
tion of the same according to the rules of descriptive geometry, and to a given 
scale of reduction, and in a prescribed position ; modeling of ornaments in re- 
lief, first from solid models, and then from plane patterns, and on a different 

Course IY. — Delineation of animal and vegetable forms, if possible, from 
models in relief, and with strict attention to foreshortening and bends; elucida- 
tion of styles and exercises therein ; delineation of figures from simple plane 
models; ornaments in combination with human and animal forms, from the 
plane and from the round; projection of solids with curved surfaces and their 
intersections (Durchdringungen ;) delineation of the different orders of columns 
from cartoons ; exercises in linear perspective and shading. 


Drawing is made obligatory in all the higher classes of the popular or com- 
mon school, but it is more systematically attended to in the. Further Improve- 
ment School, and in the special drawing-schools, of which there are now 261, 
in which are employed 270 well- trained teachers, with an aggregate attendance 
of over 7,000 pupils. Of these institutions, 219 are public, and 121 inde- 
pendent; 140 united with other institutions. There is in Munich a special 
drawing-school for women. 



Great attention is paid to musical culture, not only in the capital, and chief 
cities, but throughout the kingdom. It is made obligatory in all common 
schools, and ability and success in its instruction is secured by ample provision 
in the training of teachers, and in a rigorous examination on this point of all 
candidates. Mr. Juhus Eichberg, director of musical instruction in the Girls' 
High and Normal School in Boston, in a recent (1868) communication addressed 
to Dr. Upham, Chairman of the Committee on Music in the Boston Public 
Schools, respecting the manner and extent of popular musical instruction in 
certain European cities, remarks: "In no part of Germany does music receive 
more attention than in Bavaria and in Bavarian schools." 


By royal decree, dated September 29, 1866, concerning the education of 
school teachers, their musical studies, which are continued through the three 
years of the seminary course, are fixed as follows : 

1. Primaj-y School Teachers. 
First Course. — (A) Singing. — General rules for the cultivation of the voice, 
breathing, position of mouth and body. Practice of major and minor scales, 
general musical theory, practice of intervals and singing of short songs within 
the diatonic scale. 

(B) Piano. — Knowledge of the key-board, notes and measures, five notes 
finger exercises, easy major and minor scales. 

Books to be used: — Piano Method, by Wohlfahrt, Part I; finger exercises by 
A. Schmidt; one hundred exercises by Czerny, and Enkhausen's first Beginning. 

(C) Violin Playing. — Position of the body. Practice of scales and intervals. 
Book used: — Hohmann's Yiolin School, Part I. 

Second Course. — (A) Singing. — Practice of more diflScult intervals. Use of 
accidents. Singing of two-part songs, for soprano and alto. Attention to be 
given to correct breathing. 

(B) Piano. — More difficult scales in two octaves, continuation of Czerny's 
one hundred exercises and Wohlfahrt's Piano method. Senates by Mozart and 

(C) Violin. — All the scales in Hohmann II. 

(D) Harmony. — Intervals. Theory of consonances and dissonances. Major 
and minor triads and connection of the same. Playing the perfect cadences by 
heart, in every way. 

Third Course.— (A) Singing. — The preceding exercises have enabled the 
pupils (unless hindered by mutation of voice) to assist in the church choirs. 

For Catholic institutions the practice of easy Latin or German masses is re- 
quired ; for Protestant institutions the practice of easy motets by Rink or Dro- 
bisch, as also the chorals of moderate difficulty from the Bavarian Church 
Melody Book, by Zahn. 

(B) Piano. — Practice of Bertini op. 29, running passages by Czerny, sonatas 
by Haydn, Clementi, and Mozart. Four-hand exercises by Bertini. 

(C) Organ. — Explanation of the pedals and the various stops. Practice of 
simple cadences. 

Book used : — Rink's first three months on the organ. 

(D) Violin. — Progressive practice of exercises and duets. Hohmann's Book 
III. Practice of violin — parts from works by Michael Haydn, Mozart, and 

(E) Harmony. — Inversion of triads and their connection with triads. Chords 
of Seventh. Book used, Forster's Examples I. The conducting of church 
music being among the duties of school teachers, pupils of the preparing school 
should now get acquainted with the use and nature of the several stringed and 



wind instruments, as afterwards, when in the seminary, but little time can be 
given for this purpose. Nevertheless, the study of these instruments is not 
obligatory on the pupils. 

2. Plan of lessons for the Preparing School. 

Courses I AND II. — Religious instruction, 3 hours per week; German lan- 
guage, 6 ; arithmetic. 4 ; geography, 2 ; history, 2 ; natural history, 2 ; callig- 
raphy, 2 ; drawing, 2 ; music, 6. Total, 29 hours. 

Religious instruction, the study of the German language, of arithmetic, and 
of music, arc considered the principal branches, insufficient progress in either 
of which entails with it the repetition of the course. But if insufficiency in 
music is owing to lack of talent and not of industry, no repetition of the course 
is necessary. 

3. Seminaries for Teachers. 

Course I. — (A) Singing, (a) Catholic Seminaries. — Theory of choral singing. 
Practice of psalm melodies, antiphonies, and other Church songs. Practice of 
one-part chorals, with the organ accompaniment played by the student. 

(b) Proteatant Seminaries. — Learning by heart of chorals, from the Bavarian 
Choral Book for the Protestant Church. Zahn's harmonization of chorals, for 
male voices ; also, the four-part songs, by J. Rietz. 

(B) Piano. — School of velocity, by Czerny. Organ lessons to be prepared on 
the piano. 

(C) Organ. — Review of the lessons from the preparing school. Use of ped- 
als. Preludes, by Rink and others. Protestants to practice the whole of the 
Bavarian Melody-Book, as also preludes by Herzog and Ett. 

(D) Violin. — Hohmann, Book IV. Review of previous studies. Practice in 

(E) Harmony. — Theory of connected chords of the seventh and their inver- 
sions. Prolongations, their inversions. Organ-point. Playing of figured 
basses. Forster's Examples B, IJ and III. 

Course II. — (A) Singing. — Protestant Seminaries. — Church Songs of the 16th _ 
and 17tli centuries, by Zahn. Yolks-Klaenge, for male voices, by Erk. Sacred ' 
choruses, for male voices, by W. Greef. 

(B) Piano. — To be considered as a preparatory study for the organ. The 
more advanced students to practice sonatas, by Beethoven, and Clementi's 
Gradus ad Parnassum. 

(C) Organ. — Protestant Seminaries. — J. S. Bach's chorals, for four mixed 
parts, as preparation for the more difficult preludes. Study of the longer pre- 
ludes and chorals, by Herzog and Ett. Extemporaneous preludes. System of 
ancient tonalities. 

(D) Violin. — Hohmann, Part Y. By dihgent practice the student ought to 
acquire the capability of playing the first violin part of orchestral works, by 
Haydn and Mozart, correctly. 

(E) Harmony. — Theory of modulations, demonstrated by the student, both in 
writing and at the piano. Four-part harmonization of chorals, or other given 
subjects. The study of the other instruments, without being obhgatory, is ad- 
visable. The most advanced students are to practice orchestra-playing once a 
week. The practice of so-called brass music is forbidden. 

Religious instruction, German language, arithmetic, mathematics, theory of 
teaching and music, are to be considered the principal branches ; the other 
branches secondary. 

The following is the division of hours in the Royal Bavarian Seminaries for 
Teachers, both courses being equal : — Religious instruction. 3 hours per week ; 
German language, 4 ; arithmetic and mathematics, 3 ; geograpliy, 1 ; history, 
2 ; natural history, 2 ; science of teaching, 5 ; natural philosophy, 2 ; drawing, 
2 ; music, 6. Total, 30 hours per week. 

The following is a schedule, to be filled up at the annual examinations : 

Jifatiiral Disposition. 

Moral Conduct. 



I. Very great. 

Very prniseworthy. 

Very great. 

Very great. 

11. Grent. 




III. Sufficient. 




IV. Little. 

Not free from blame. 




According to section 75, students applying for situations as school teachers, 
must have received at least No. Ill, for their musical qualifications. 


In all the Bavarian cities where school seminaries are established, there exist, 
as branch establishments, public music-schools, where the seminarists receive 
their musical instruction. These music-schools are, like the seminaries, under 
the supervision of the Minister of Public Instruction in Munich, and an annual 
sum is provided by the budget for their maintenance. The Eoyal Music School 
inT\"urzburg is the oldest of these institutions, having been, founded on the 18th 
of April, 1804, since which date it has given a sound musical instruction to 
countless school-teachers, and in consequence has vastly advanced the cause of 
music in Bavaria. Although designed at first as a branch to the Wiirzburg 
Seminary, it has long since outgrown these limits, and has become one of the 
most prominent of German musical high-schools, from which numbers of emi- 
nent men have graduated in succession. The founder and first Du'ector was 
the celebrated Dr. Joseph Frohlich, professor of aesthetics at the "Wiirzburg 
University, one of the profoundest musical theorists of the century. After his 
death, in 1862, he was succeeded by the present Director, Mr. T. G. Bratsch, to 
whose kindness I owe a host of interesting facts concerning the good work that 
is being done in the Bavarian schools. 

In these schools singing is not merely tolerated, but forms a principal part in 
the common-school education. Pupils are not permitted to show a listless, in- 
different manner at their music lessons, but are made to understand that this 
branch of education is considered by the school authorities as equally important 
with the ' three R's,' as we call them. Select voices from the public schools 
are occasionally allowed to join the seminarists in the performance of some im- 
portant musical work, such as cantatas and oratorios ; and I have before me 
the programmes of Pierson's oratorio, 'Jerusalem,' and Spohr's oratorio, ' Our 
Saviour's Last Moments,' performed solely by the seminarists and select pupils 
of the public schools, including solo parts, choruses, and the full orchestra. 

I was present, by invitation, at the musical exammation of aspirants to the 
seminary, and when it is taken into consideration that it comprised singing, 
organ-playing, vioHn, and piano, some shortcomings in any of these branches 
will not be wondered at. The choral and orchestral forces of the music-schools 
(composed, as above stated, of seminarists and pupils of the public schools,) 
meet, assisted by the music-teachers, twice a week for the practice of oratorios 
and symphonies. The public are admitted to these exercises without charge or 
any formality whatsoever. The exercises are conducted alternately by the 
most advanced students, under the supervision of Mr. Bratsch. 

No musical text-books are in use in Bavarian schools, but the teacher uses 
the blackboard for the theoretical instruction, and for choral practice in addition 
to the publications ■ of L. Erk and Greef, selections from cantatas, motets or 
masses within their reach. 


' The Royal Conservatorium of Music at Munich has a director and 14 teach- 
ers, with an average of over 100 pupils, and receives aid from the government 
to the amount of 8,000 florins. 


The establishments for instruction in agriculture consisted till 1864 of three 
central schools of agriculture, forestry, and veterinary science, and an agricultu- 
ral course or special divisions in the trade schools. Of thes.' last there were 
thirty in 1864. Since then several of them have been discontinued, and the 
whole system has been reorganized as follows : 


The Agricultural Institute was established in 1835, in the ro^-^al domain of 
Weihensteplian, in the old town of Feising, twenty miles north of Munich. 

The grounds include nine hundred and thirty-eight acres of arable and 
pasture land, as well as of forest, with an immense building, standing on a 
gentle elevation which overlooks a wide extent of beautiful country. The 
building forms a series of parallelograms, inclosing a great grassy court, and 
providing for the laboratory, colleciions and cabinets of various kinds, halls of 
study, dormitories, &c. Around a second court are the cattle barns, and other 

The live stock comprises all kinds of domestic animals, and there are also: — 
Experimental fields for various cultures. A brewery and distillery. A 
nursery. A hop ground. A cheese dairy. Technological collections. A 
chemical laboratory. A collection of various seeds. A collection of the pro- 
ductions of the Bavarian soil. A cabinet of instruments for experimental 
physics. A collection of agricultural implements and models. A library. A 
plantation of mulberry trees for the study of silkworms. An anatomical col- 
lection for veterinary studies. The neighboring forests ofter opportunities for 
the study of resinous trees. 

The instruction is distributed as follows : — 

First Tear. Wiyiter Term. — Agricultural implements. Experimental 
chemistry. Arithmetic. Elements of construction. Drawing of plans and 
farm implements. Physiology of plants, agronomy, agriculture. Forest 
science. Anatomy, physiology, and dietetics of domestic animals. 

Summer Tirm. — Practical farming. P^xperiinental chemistry. Construction. 
Drawing of plans, surveying. Breeding of cattle, races, diseases. Physiology 
of plants Agronomy. Agriculture. Forest management. 

Second Year. Winter Term. — Organization of rural economy and manage- 
ment. Agricultural chemistry. Roads. Drawing of plans and form imple- 
menta Breeding of cattle. Veterinary police, warranty of cattle sold. 
Ph3'-sical geography. Meteorology. Climatology. 

Summer Term. — Valuation of farm property, and book-keeping. Agricul- 
tural chemistry. Farm buildings, meadows, and draining. Agricultural 
technology. Breeding and rearing of cattle. Veterinary police, warranty of 
cattle sold. Physical geography. Meteorology. Climatology. 

The studies last two years, and the instruction is given by nine professors 
and two assistant professors. The youths who attend this school are divided 
into two classes, ordinary pupils and free auditors. There are about twenty of 
the former and forty of the latter. To be admitted, the candidate must have 
attained sixteen years of age, have followed the studies of an agricultural 
school {Landwirthschaft Sclmle) or of a trade school; he must also know 
enough Latin to understand the value of the terms borrowed from that 
language, and be able to undergo an examination on the subjects taught in 
those schools. 


Owing to local circumstances the pupils are, contrary to the general usage in 
Germany, received as boarders ; Bavarian subjects for one hundred and twenty- 
five florins per half year, and foreigners for one hundred and fifty florins. 
This charge includes teaching, board, and lodging; books and school neces- 
saries tlie pupils find themselves. They also have to pay two florins per half 
year for the reading room. The free pupils pay thirty-five florins per half 
year for each course they follow, and may obtain a certificate relative thereto. 
The courses begin on the 1st of October and end on the last day of August, 
with a fortnight's vacation at Easter. At the 'end of the year, examinations 
are held, and the deserving pupils receive certificates of aptitude. 

Mr. C. L. Flint, secretary of the Massachusetts board of agriculture, in a 
report of his visits to several agricultural institutions abroad m 1863, thus 
speaks of AVeihenstephan : 

I arrived there from Ratisbon on a bright summer morning, introduced 
myself to the first man I met, told him my object, and learned at what hours 
the various lectures took place, attended two or three of them and became 
acquainted with the professors, visited and examined the collections, the 
stables, the brewery, the farm and experimental field, the sheep, &c. 

The estate lying in connection with tliis institute comprises, I believe, about 
six hundred and fifty acres, of which there are usually about eighty in wheat, 
over forty in rape and root crops, about thirty-five in oats, twelve to fifteen in 
potatoes, fifteen to twenty in rye, eighteen to twenty in barley, eight to ten in 
beans, five in hopvS, about one hundred and thirty in fodder crops, such as 
lucerne, clover, vetches, &c., while about one hundred and fifl;y are in mowing 
fields and so on. The land is of excellent quality. 

The stock consists of twelve horses, twenty-two pairs of oxen, fifty-nine 
milch cows, seven young cattle, thirty swine, and five hundred and seventy 
sheep. The cows are mostly of the AUgauer and Miirzthaler breeds, w^hich are 
considered best for milk after the Dutch. The cross with the Allgauer and 
Swiss, they say, makes fine working oxen. 

The buildings form a series of parallelograms, inclosing a great grassy court, 
around which are arranged the various departments, as the chemical laboratory, 
the rooms for study, &c. Around a second court are the cattle barns, the dairy 
and stables, the granary, the brewery, the plough manufactory, &c. There 
are also various other establishments, a distillery, a flour mill, &c. 

The number of students is about seventy. The course of instruction does 
not materially differ from that at Hohenheim. 

During the summer term, for instance, there were lectures by the Director, 
on soils, their origin, the different kinds of soil, weathering, irrigation, 
drainage, division and natural classification ; the comparative value of soils for 
the production of plants; circumstances which modify this value; the soil 
differs according to the coarseness of its particles and its tenacity ; sand, loam, 
clay, marl and humus; subdivisions of soils; taxation of mowing lands, 
pastures, gardens, vineyards, swale lands, fisheries, &c.; double-entry book- 
keeping as a check upon farming operations. 

Dr. Riederer lectured upon the following topics : 

1. Introduction to agricultural practice, idea and object in general and the 
systems of Thaer, Thiinen and Liebig. 

2. The positive and negative means of a good farm management, as the 
judicious division of land, proper number of laborers, education of the farmer, 
necessary capital, &c. 

3. Advantages and disadvantages of large and small estates. Influence of 
a judicious regulation of the corn trade, at home and abroad, on the profits of 
farming. &c. 

4. The most important directions in regard to keeping animals and the 
proper estimation of their products. 

Text-books are used in connection with the lectures. 


Professor Knobloch lectured three hours a week upon — 

1. Aurricultural Chemistry. — Chemistry of fermentation, decomposition, 
formation of humus. The chemical contents of manure, excrements of birds, 
sohd and liquid excrements of man and animals, strawy materials, disinfection. 
Tiie chemical principles of the preparation of composts. Bone manuring, 
phosphorites, and koprolites, gypsum, wood and peat ashes. Manuring with 
oil-cakes, ammonia, and nitric acid salts. Fish guano. The formation of soil 
through the culture of agricultural phmts. The chemical principles of fallowing 
and rotation. Drainage. Chemical analysis of soils and kinds of manure, the 
ashes of plants, of spring and running water, and of different agricultural 
products. On Liebig ; chemistry in its application to agriculture and physi- 
ology, &c. 

In connection with these lectures, the chemical laboratory was open daily 
during the term, and the students worked industriously in it, in making 
analyses of soils, manures and aslies, milk, potatoes, feeding materials and 
cereals, sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid determinations, &c. 

2. Agricultural Teclmologj'-. — Four hours weekly. Fermentative processes 
of the beer brewery, the brandy distillery and vinegar manufactory in its whole 
range. Making of butter and cheese, making of starch, and the application of 
the latter to the production of sago. Lime and brick burning. Turf cutting. 

Technological Practice^ four half-days a week in the winter term, and one. 
half-day in the summer term. Manufacture of Bavarian normal and strong 
beer, potato, grain and maize brandy, vinegar, starch, &c. Demonstrations in 
the brand}'- distillery, the cheese dairy, the brickyard, at the limekiln, and on 
the turf or peat meadows. Investigation of various raw materials and fabrics. 
Agricultural technological mechanics. Excursions to farming estates in the 

Professor May gave lectures in the winter term, five hours weekly, upon — 

1. The anatomy of the horse, the sheep and the swine, with demonstrations 
by skeletons and preparations. 

2. Piiysiology of domestic animals, in connection with the feeding proper 
for them. 

3. The races of the larger farm animals. Study of the different races, 
breeds and families of improved domestic animals, their form, characteristics 
and useful qualities. 

4. General principles of the production of animals. Methods and principles 
of breeding. Green, dry, root, bulb and corn fodder. Wastes of the farm. 
Loss and injury from particular feeding materials. Comparative composition of 
different materials, and their nutritive value. Preservation, economy and 
production of fodder. 

Summer Term, four hours a week — 1. Swine-breeding. Choice of animals. 
Pregnancy and care of the litter. Parturition. Treatment of the dam and 
pigs. Close confinement. Keeping at pasture. Fattening. 

2. Horse-breeding. Study of the subject from an agricultural and a 
national economical point of view. Choice of draught horses. Pairing. 
Treatment of the mare in foal. Handling of colts during the first, second, 
third and fourth years. Checks in the development. 

3. Knowledge of wool. Its normal and abnormal conditions. 

4. Importance of a knowledge of veterinary science in the treatment of 
domestic animals. 

Secontd Course. Winter Term, four hours a loeek. — 1. On wool (continu- 
ation.) Wool staple. The wool fleece. Evenness of wool. Cloth and comb- 
wools. Working of wool. 

2. Sheep-breeding. Choice of animals. Numbering and classification of 
slieep. Treatment of ewes in lamb. Time of lambing. Management of the 
young. Pasturing sheep. Washing and shearing. Sorting of wool. Treat- 
ment and sale of wool. Fattening. Valuation of the fodder used in sheep 

3. Cattle-breeding. Choice and selections of animals for breeding. Devia- 
tions from the normal presentation. Suckling and artificial raising of calves, 
General management in all cases. 



4. External diseases of the larger useful farm animals. 

5. Shoeing. Treatment of the ordinary brealvs and diseases of the hoof. 
Summer Term., five hours a week. — 1. Cattle-breeding (continued.) Stall 

and pasture treatment. Use of cattle — milk, fattening and draught. Valuation 
of fodder to be used. 

2. Knowledge of the exterior of the horse. 

3. Knowledge of the exterior of cattle. 

4. Internal diseases of domestic animals. Contagious diseases and their 

Practical exercises of judging correctly of animals, on the part of the 
students, also of wool ; the true modes of breeding and the diseases of stock 
are constantly enforced. 

Prof. Lidl lectures in the winter term, on — 

1. Cursory view of the geognostical relations of Bavaria. 

2. Agronomy. Mold and subsoil, humus, sand, clay, lime, gravel and 
alluvial soils.. Local aspects and their influence on vegetation. 

3. Agriculture. Cultivation — working of the soil by cultivation, by different 
implements. Improvement of soils. 

4. Anatomy and physiology of plants. Cells and vessels of plants. Dif- 
ference in them. Contents of cells. Plant-cells in their various relations. 
Intercellular tissue. Nourishment of plants. Motion of the sap. Production 
by seeds and spores. Diseases of vegetation. 

5. Morphology. Root, stem and leaf organs, flowers, fruits and seeds. 
Summer Ter7n. — 1. Special plant culture — grain fodder and root-plants. 
2. Economical botany. The most important weeds and poisonous plants. 
Second Course. Winter Term. — 1. Eruit culture. 

2. Cultivation of special plants, root, commercial and coloring plants. 
Summer Term.. — 1. Culture of special plants, grains, pulse and oil fruits. 
Fodder plants and tubers. 

2. "VViiie growing. 

3. Continuation of lectures on botany. 

Two botanical excursions are made each week in connection with this 

Prof. Dohlemann lectures in the winter term, on — 

. 1. Applied mathematics. Recapitulation of the most necessary principles 
of algebra, geometry and stereometry; calculation, division and alteration of 
surfaces; calculation of the cubic contents of different bodies. 

2. General architecture. Earth and foundation work. Construction of ore 
pits. Restoration . of hewn stone and brick wall work. Stone -binding for 
pillars. Gliimney flues, &c. 

3. Practice in drawing. Drawing of situations. Copying and .sketching 
of simple agricultural buildings and parts of buildings. Drawing of agricultu- 
ral implements and machines. 

Summer Term.. — 4. Continuation of general architecture. Construction of 
different kinds of vaults; ornamental works; carpenter's work; joiner's and 
locksmith's work. 

5. Surveying, with exercises in the field. Explanation of the most useful 
instruments for length and angle measuring. Solution of difi'erent problems of 
practical geometry, on the field and in practice. 

Second Course. Winter Term. — Agricultural architecture. Laying out 
and construction of houses and stables. Buildings for the preservation of 
agricultural crops,- &c. 

2. Meadow management, with practical exercises. Theory and use of 
different leveling instruments. Water measuring. Improvements of fields in 
general. Drainage. Irrigation. Practice in leveling and water measuring. 

Professor Meister lectured in the winter terra, three hours a week, on 

Physical geography, the atmosphere and climatology. The barometer, 
thermometer, hygrometer, and psych rometer. Effect of clearing oft' of forests. 
Relations of temperature to the atmosphere and the earth, and the consequent 


distribution of plants. Peculiarities of land and sea climate, and their causes. 
Winds. Warmth and moisture. Amount of rain, dew, number of rainy days, 
storms, fall of hail, and their distribution over tlie year, and the consequent 
physical characteristics of the soil. Explanation of the century calendar, and 
of the so-called rules for determining the weather. Temperature of the soil. 
Observations at different depths. Barometrical and thermometrical measure- 
ment of heights. Construction of sun-dials. 

Judge Schleisinger lectures in the second course twice a week, in both terms, 
on the general German agricultural law in regard to the more important private 
rights and later laws in regard to cultivation. 

This course was comprehensive, embracing the general principles of rights, 
persons and things, and the laws affecting property, real and personal. 

The royal master of forests, Bierdimpfel, lectured in the winter term on the 
introduction to the management of forests, the structure of woods, plants, and 
their relation to the air, climate and soil, and on the definition of the technical 
forest expressions. 

Summer Term. — On forest cultivation, protection of forests. These courses 
wer^ illustrated by excursions into the neighboring forests. 

In addition to the short and frequent botanical and other excursions in the 
neighborhood, long excursions are made, from time to time, to various parts of 
the kingdom, the students being accompanied on them by one or more profes- 
sors. Special subjects are assigned to some one or more of the class on which 
to write out a detailed report. As an example, the last great excursion which 
took place previous to my visit was made to Northern Bavaria^ to Niirnberg, 
and"%o round to Augsburg, to visit the wool market in that city. In the former 
city, there was at that time a great meeting of Bavarian farmers, for the dis- 
cussion of agricultural topics; an agricultural convention, in other words. 
That was taken into the trip. That part of the kingdom, as well as Franconia, 
through which the direction lay, is largely devoted to the culture of hop?. 
Now two of the students were appointed to write out an account of the 
journey in general ; three to write on the culture of the hop ; two on fruit 
culture, as seen in the excursion; another on irrigation; another on garlic- 
land ; another on the art of manuring ; four others on cattle ; two others on the 
visit to Lichtenhof Agricultural School; another on bees; two others on the 
wool market, &c. A full report of the excursion, mostly written by the students 
themselves, is printed in connection with the annual report of the school. 

The nurseries on the farm are extensive and the sales from them profitable ; 
but probably the brewery is the most profitable branch of the establishment. 
Here are used more than ten thousand bushels of malt a year. In the year 
ending with July 1st, 1863, it used 3,668 Bavarian schefifel, or about 11,000 
bushels. In the same year over a thousand bushels of potatoes were used in 
the distillery. There were sold from the nursery, 8,520 trees. 

Just before I was there a terribly destructive hailstorm had occurred, and I 
never saw such magnificent fields of wheat and other grain so completely 
riddled and ruined. It was painful to look upon. It had given promise of an 
extraordinary yield up to the time of the hail, but it was very nearly a dead 
loss when I saw it. A committee of appraisers from the insurance company 
for crops was on to estimate the damages. The wide-spread system of 
insurance, of which the institute had fortunately availed itself, saved it from 
very great loss, which otherwise would have fallen very heavily upon it. 



I should add that much instruction is given in the field and the nurseries, in 
the barn and other parts of the establishment, by practical demonstrations. 
There is a reading-room, a library, and extensive collections and other appliances. 


At Lichtenhof, in the neighborhood of Nuremberg, there is a school of 
agriculture, established by Dr. Weidenkeller, in 1832, as a trade-school with 
two sections, the other section being devoted to the mechanical arts, with a 
preparatory course common to both. 

The school of agriculture comprises : — 1. A preparatory school. 2. A school 
of husbandry. 3. A school of agricultural science. 

1. The preparatory school is intended to receive lads whose education hag 
been neglected, and in it they are taught the following subjects: — Religion, 
two hours per week; principles of theoretical agriculture, two; practical 
agriculture, four ; arithmetic, four ; reading, one ; calhgraphy, four ; German lan- 
guage, 'four ; geography, two ; natural history, two ; drawing, eight. Total, 33. 

2. The school of husbandry is intended to educate farmers, -bailiffs, and 
managers. The instruction occupies a year, and embraces the following 
subjects: — Religion, two hours per week; German language, four; chemistry, 
two; arithmetic, four; geography, two; drawing; three; calligraphy, four; 
theoretical agriculture, six; practical agriculture, four. Total, 31 hours. 

3. The school of agricultural science is intended to render young men 
capable: — 1, of managing and cultivating farms of moderate size; 2, of being 
admitted into a central school of agriculture, or into the Munich Veterinary 
School. The instruction occupies three years, and there were in 1862-63, 
thirty-nine pupils of the first, eighteen of the second, and fifteen of the third 
year; in all seventy-two pupils. 

These numbers show that less than one-half of the pupils go through the 
whole course of studies. The school of husbandry had only two pupils, the 
preparatory school eight, which makes a total of eighty-two pupils, for whom 
there are tliirteen professors and three masters. 

The programme of the school of agricultural science is as follows: — 



Theory of agriculture, ... ^ 

Practical agriculture,. . 


General and special botany, 

Pure mineralogy, 

Applied mineralogy, 





German language, 


Free hand and linear drawing, 

Calligraphy, ,, 

Anatomy and treatment of domestic animals. 

Hours per week. 

1st year. 

3d year. 

2d year. 



. 2 



4 * 

12 to 30 

12 to 20 

12 to 30 




• 4 










Mr. 0. L. Flint thus speaks of his visit to this school: — 

This institute is about a mile from Niirnberg towards the south. It was. 
founded in 1832, by Dr. "Weidenkeller. The farm, originally composed of sand 
and gravel, almost barren, was gradually changed into a good soil, now 
apparently fertile and productive, by the students. 


The stately buildings of the institute stand at the right of the entrance, and 
on the left the botanic garden. The buildings are in a modern style, contrast- 
ing strangely with the antique structures in the neighborhood. The dwelling 
of the inspector is within the college inclosure, as also that of Mrs. Weidenkel- 
ler, and just beyond, the dormitories for eighty students, the lecture-rooms, the 
laboratory, a spacious eating-saloon, which serves also as a work-room, a 
library and wash-room. 

The botanical garden contains all, or nearly all, the agricultural plants, 
arranged in the Linntean order, besides many of the more common forest trees. 
The garden of the institute for the growth of vegetables and fruits also joins 
the botanical gard n. Among the fruit trees stands the monument to Dr. 
Weidenkeller, the founder. A httle way beyond lies the experimental field. 
The improved grounds near by contain a good nurserj'- of trees. In a little 
grove on a knoll, a monument is erected to his majesty, King Max. A broad 
space is devoted to prnamental plants and farm crops. The experimental held 
is about two acres in extent. There is also a hop-garden on a piece of 
reclaimed swamp. This piece was improved by the pupils without much cost. 

Near the main building stands a second, which contains the collections. 
Tliey consist of skeletons and anatomical preparations, a crocodile, birds, 
domestic game and some malformations, several models of systems of irrigation, 
collections of insects, minerals, &c. 

The stocks of bees were presented by Dzierzon, and are therefore of special 
interest. The mode of operation is easily seen from the arrangement of the 

The farm buildings consist of cow and horse stalls, shed and coach-house. 
There were about thirty cows, consisting of Allgiiuers and Simraenthalers, a 
iew Ansbachers and Ellingers. The roof of the cow-house is built of wood, 
the sides of stone. 

The instruction at this institute is not strictly agricultural. Much of it, in 
fact, has no more bearing on agricultural than on any other calling. Religion, 
the German language, geography, arithmetic, zoology and drawing are 
prescribed studies in the first year. Agriculture and practical agricultural 
exercises come in for a share of attention, but they don't seem to be especially 
prominent in the programme. 

The second year is a continuation of the first, with a little botany, geometry, 
mineralogy and history added, while in the third year, agricultural chemistry, 
farm accounts, rural architecture, machinery, the anatomy and physiology of 
animals, veterinary medicine, drawing, riding, fencing, and other practical 
exercises, come in and add variety. 

This institute ranks as intermediate in the list of Bavarian agricultural 


The school of practical farming at Schleissheim was founded in 1822 as an 
institute for theoretical as well as practical agriculture, after the model of 
Hohenheim, but the plan was more fully carried out at Weihenstephan, and 
this institution has been carried on apparently to illustrate the pursuit of 
agriculture under difficulties. 

Mr. Flint thus describes his visit in 1863 : — 

The estate consists of about six thousand five hundred acres, and like many 
Other establishments of the kind, it possesses a fine old royal residence or 
chateau tlie whole lying in an immense, but not very fertile valley. I have 
seen it intimated that the lands were so decidedly inferior and unproductive 
that the intention of the government in giving it over to the school to be 
managed by scientific men was to put the value of scientific principles in agri- 
culture to the severest possible test. I believe, if such was the case, that there 
has been little reason to exult in the triumphs gained over such powerful 
natural obstacles as a poor soil and an ungenial climate, aq^ I think it may be 
taken to be as great a mistake to select land for a model farm, or an agricultu- 
ral college farm, that is much below the average of natural fertility, aa it 


would be to select one very much above it. In the first case even scientific 
management can hardly be charged with the responsibility of a failure to 
produce high crops, and in the latter, it would not get the credit of whatever it 
did produce. Neither would be a fair test of the skill and science applied 
to it. 

The character of the soil led to the early adoption of a twenty years rotation, 
in which wheat came in but once, oats five times, rye and barley one year 
each, grass occupying six years, and one year being given over to an idle 

The buildings are old and immense in extent, arraiiged in the form of paral- 
lelograms, with broad open courts or yards between. The whole has an air of 
majestic desolation. I do not think palaces especiallj- well adapted for the 
purposes of agricultural schools. The endless stables were partially occupied 
by horses belonging to the Bavarian cavalry. 

The course of instruction is more practical than theoretical, that is, of the 
time devoted to study and training, two-thirds is given to practical work and 
one-tliird to theoretical. 

The theoretical instruction, which comes mostly in winter and on rainy days 
in summer, when it becomes impracticable to work out doors, embraces — 

1. Rehgion. A brief survey of the history of religion and biblical history. 

2. Elementary studies, arithmetic, orthography. In arithmetic, the funda- 
mental rules and fractions, exercises in reducing common currencies, weights 
and measures, and measurements of sj)ace. It is especially mathematics 
applied to agriculture. As large a proportion as possible is mental. 

About an hour a week is devoted to orthography, to teach correct writing 
and language, and to develop facilitj' in writing. It includes examples of 
receipts, bills, notices, &c. 

3. Agriculture. On climate, atmosphere, knowledge and estimation of 
kinds of soil and their cultivation or working. On maclnnes and implements, 
their manufacture and repair, the parts of which they are composed and their 
use, the handling and management of sowing, threshing and cutting machines, 
to guard against accidents. On the formation of manure heaps and the 
manufacture of manure, the application of different sorts of manure. On the 
knowledge of seeds, and the different methods of sowing and planting. The 
treatment of plants during the period of growth. The reduction of different 
feeding substances to the hay value. Estimation of the necei^sary requirements 
of manure. On the various methods of harvesting, threshing, preservation and 
drying. On the valuation of fruits. On the arrangement and keeping of simple 
farm registers. Plan and model drawing from measurement. 

Technical Employments. — On milk and the products of milk. On the 
erection and management of brandy distilleries, and the suitable materials to 

Culture of Mowing Lands. — Preliminary instruction. 1. Leveling by the 
application of the level and other instrument.'^. 2. Measuring of level surfaces, 
lines, angles, and figures ; triangles, quadrangles, right angles, the circle, prac- 
tical exercises in these operations. 3. Laying out trenches and dams for 
water or irrigated meadows, calculation of bodies of water, and the require- 
ments of water for irrigated meadows. 4. Tools for field culture 

The practical management of meadows. Study of meadow or field plants. 
Requirements of seed and time of sowing. Seed raising. Manuring mowings 
with barn and compost manures, with hquid and artificial manures ; the hay 
harvast and its yield. Preparation of brown hay ; care and improvement of 
meadows other than irrigation. 

Drainage. — When and how to be applied. The work preparatory to 

C.A.TTLE Breeding. — Application of anatomy to horse, cattle, sheep, and 
swine breeding. The various breeds and their characteristics. Explanation of 
particular methods of improving the breeds of cattle, through the introduction 
of foreign males, and through in and in breeding, &c. 

1. Explanation of characteristics according to the kind of use required, 
feeding for beef, milk and draught. 

2. Choice of animals for breeding, according to age, use, special points. 


■3, Treatment of the breeding animal, feeding and care. 

4. Parturition. Treatment immediately after. 

5. Maiwgenient of the calf Methods of raising. Quantity and quality of 
milk for its nourishment. 

6. Feeding, management and care of the young animal up to the period of 

7. The same of the full-grown animal. Quantity and quality of food for 
milking, fattening, and working animals. Housing of sheep, product of wool, 
and the cleansing of it. 

8. Adaptation to work. 

9. Purcliase and sale of animals, especially the horse. 

The students are instructed in veterinary manipulations, which as far as pos- 
sible are applied to practice. Bleeding at several points in different animals. 
Treatment of wounds, &c. Shoeing of horses and oxen. 

The proper management of forests in all its branches, also forms a part of the 
instruction, as well as that of fruit trees. 

Excursions are also made to neighboring estates for the purposes of observa- 
tion, the results of which are written out by the pupils. Money is sometimes 
appropriated by the government to defray the expenses of long excursions. 

Experiments are conducted in the making of implements, the application 
of manures, and the cultivation of plants. 

There is a collection of models, a herbarium, a library, and tools and work- 
shops for repairing the smaller agricultural implements, and the preparation of 
models. The students are held to a pretty strict line of conduct; neatness, 
order and industry are inculcated and required. An examination takes place 
at the close of the course, and prizes are awarded according to merit. 

The number of cows kept is ninety; the number of yokes of oxen, thirty- 
six. They make cheese and butter. The age of the students varies from 
sixteen to twenty. The tuition, board, &c., amounts to about eighty florins, or 
about thirty-three dollars. Each student costs the government about one 
hundred and twenty-five florins, but the balance is made up from the public 

The young men are certainly not liable to acquire luxurious habits here. I 
visited them, by invitation of Professor Anselm, teacher of agriculture, while 
they were at supper, and had various opportunities for conversation with 
several of them. Their fare appeared to be what, in our reformatory and 
correctional institutions, would be called " very hard," and yet they seemed to 
be quite contented and happy. 

I should think the institution well calculated to send out a hardy, frugal, 
intelligent, industrious class of young men, who might testify with regard to 
their training as Socrates did with regard to Xantippe, " being firmly convinced 
that in case I should be able to endure her, I should be able to endure all 

There is nothing imposing in the buildings or their arrangement. They are 
substantial!}^ built of stone, in low, long ranges surrounding a large yard or 
open space. There is a blacksmith's and a wheelwright's shop in a part of the 
range, and many agricultural implements are turned out here by the slow 
processes of hand labor, some of them excellent, but all rather more remark- 
able for strength than elegance. 


1. In addition to the instruction given in the agricultural section of the real 
gymnasium and the trade schools, there are arranged courses of lectures in the 
university at Munich, and another special course of two years in the royal 
forestry school at Aschaffenberg. 

2. The lectures on botany and vegetable physiology in the university, the 
practical work of the botanical garden, and the plantations of the pubhc parks 
and grounds, afford rare opportunity for horticultural study as well as land- 
scape gardening. 



Besides the numerous schools of the usual grades for girls and young ladies 
in Munich, there are several institutions of a pecuhar character to prepare them 
for profitable occupations. Under the lead of several noble women, among 
whom are Mrs. Maria Von Weber, Eugenia Dollman, daughter of the celebrated 
architect Klentze, Mrs. Maria Volk, daughter of Kolbach, Caroline Hay, and 
others, an Art School for Young Women has been instituted— one of the first 
of its kind in Germany. Beginning in a smaU hired apartment, they bought 
models, procured the services of an experienced teacher of drawing — a pupil of 
Leutze before he came to this country, and opened the school ; and before the 
close of the first year numbered twenty-four eager pupils. The second year 
opened with a class in painting, under the instruction of an eminent artist — 
and during the following winter, lectures were delivered to the school on Es- 
thetics and the History of Art, by a Professor of the Royal Academy of Arts — 
the object of the school being to train its pupils to become themselves teachers 
of drawing and painting, and designers of patterns for various textile fabrics, 
household furniture and ornamentation. 

There is also another institution for training girls between the ages of thir- 
teen and sixteen for commercial business. It has been supported for several 
years at the expense of Mr. Adolph Remenschmied, a philanthropic merchant 
of Munich. The branches taught are such as are usually required in Schools of 
Commerce for Young Men, and are designed to fit young women to judge of 
the quality of goods, efiect sales, keep accounts for others, and for independent 
business for themselves, if they should have the talent and opportunity. 

Graduates of this school are already in responsible situations as book-keepers 
and managers of business for themselves and others. 

The success of the school has led to the establishment of similar institutions 
in other commercial cities of Germany. 



The Durhy of Brunswick, on an area of 1,526 square miles, com- 
prised in two portions widely separated, had in 1861, 282,400 inhab- 

The governmental supervision of public schools belongs to a divis- 
ion in the department of the Interior, in which the consistory of the 
Lutheran church is largely represented. The system* and statistics 
of public schools and education in 1867, were as follows: 

1. Elementary Schools : 579 parish schools in rural districts, with 
406 teachers and 33,700 pupils ; 41 village and city public schools, 
with 255 teachers and 12,000 pupils. 

2. S*econdary Schools : 5 Classical Gymnasium, (including 1 real 
school and 1 progymnasium,) with 67 teachers, 871 pupils, besides 
2i latin classes in other schools. 

3. Superior School: Collegium Carolinum, with a classical, tech- 
nical, and commercial department, with 25 professors and 180 pupils, 
including the technical division, which has an independent course. 

4. Special and Professional Schools : The technical department of 
the Collegium Carolinum with eight special schools ; 1 carpenters 
school ; 1 agricultural school ; 3 secondary and every-trade schools ; 
1 theological seminary ; 2 normal schools for common school teachers ; 
5 young ladies' seminaries ; 1 institute for deaf mutes ; 1 scliool for 
the blind ; 5 orphan asylums ; 2 rescue and reform schools ; 5 infant 
gardens and schools ; 3 parish schools for Catholic children ; 1 Jewish 
institution with an endowment of $100,000. 


The Collegium Carolinum, in the city of Brunswick, prepares 
young men by a scientific and technical education, for the special 
careers of — mechanicians, civil engineers, architects, metallurgists 
for mining and salt works, manufacturing or dispensing chemists, 
forest engineers, agriculturists, officers for raUway-s and roads, and 

*For an account of the system of Public Instruction in Duchy of Brunswick, see Special Re- 
port on National Education, Part I, German States. 

tThe details of the Technical College are taken from the report of the French Commission, 
and the Programmes of the Iiutitutiou. 


From the comprehensive curriculum, each pupil chooses the sub- 
jects required for his future destination. But when the pupil has 
entered his name for a particular line of studies, and he wishes to 
obtain irom the College a certificate of proficiency, he is obliged to 
follow all the courses taught in that technical branch. 

Besides these special studies there are college courses of litera- 
ture, living languages, history, general ^ and political geogra] hy, sta- 
tistics, political economy, which the pupils are encouraged to follow 
as useful adjuncts to the scientific teaching. 

The duration of the complete studies of the nine technical divis- 
ions is fixed as follows : 

1. Construction of machines, - - - - 3 years. 

2. Civil engineering, construction and architecture, - - 4 " 

3. Metal works and salt mines, - - - - 3 " 

4. Manufacturing chemistry, - - - - - 3 " 

5. Dispensing- chemistry, - - - - - 1 " 

6. Forest economy, - - - - - -2" 

7. Agricultural economy, - - - • - 2 " 

8. Service of railways and posts, - - - - 1 " 

9. Government survey, - - - - - 2 " 

The teaching elementary mathematics, experimental physics, gen- 
eral chemistry, the rudiments of the natural sciences and of free- 
hand drawing, is common to all the divisions. Proof of sufficient 
preparatory instruction is required for admission to each division. 

At the end of every year's studies, the Director and professors 
decide as to the passing of the pupils to the upper class of their 
division. Those whose proficiency is doubtful have to undergo, on 
their return after the vacation, a special examination, after which the 
decision is given. A pupil who has followed the complete courses 
of his division receives on leaving a certificate of proficiency. 

Besides the pupils regularly matriculated for the technical divisions, 
free students are admitted to certain courses, as well as to the lessons 
in drawing, painting, and sculpture ; young men are at all times 
admitted to the class-rooms and studies. 

Numerous and well arranged collections and a good library are 
placed at the disposal of the professors and the use of pupils. 

The following tables show the number of hours alloted weekly to 
each branch of instruction for the special divisions for a half-year. 

The pupils who do not follow the plan of studies indicated for any 
special branch, do not receive the certificate relating thereto. 

. First Technical Division. — Mechanicians, Constructors, S^c, 
In order to shorten the length of the studies, the pupils begin to 


attend the special courses before their instruction in the higher 
mathematics is completely terminated. The courses of coiisti-uction 
of machines are to follow simultaneously and in connexion with those 
of mechanics, the study of machines, or projects, and exercises of 

Hours per week 
First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - - 5 

Gconietry and tri<^ononictry, - - - - - - 5 

Knowledge of instruments, ---.-. 2 

Experimental pliysies, - - - -- - -5 

Inorganic chemistry, -------5 

Free-liand drawing, - - - - - -- — 

2d Term. * 

Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - - - - - 5 

Equations, - - - - - - - - 2 

Analytical geometry, - - - - - - .5 

Practical geometry*, - - - - ... . 5 

Experimental chemistry, second course, - . • - - 5 
Drawing of plans*, --._.___. 

Free-hand drawing, - - - - - - - — 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 
Differential calculus, 1 st course, - - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 1st course, - ... - 4 

Mineralogy, -----..-5 

Technical chemistry, 1st course, - .... 5 

Drawing of machines, - - - - -,_ - — 

4th Term. 

Differential calculus, 2d course, - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 2d course, - - - - - 4 

Geology, - -' - - . - - - .5 

Mechanics, 1st course, --.-._ 4 

Elements of building construction, - - - - - 4 

Drawing of machines, - - . . . . — 

Second Technical Division. — Construction of Buildings, 
The divisions for the construction of buildings, for civil eno-ineer- 
ing, and for architecture have nearly all the preparatory studies in 
common ; they have also several points in common with the special 
studies. So, when the pupils have decided for one or other of the 
eight subdivisions, it is only in the exercises of drawing, projects and 
the applications relating thereto, that their teaching differs from that 
of the other two subdivisions. 

Hours per week. 

First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - - - 5 

Geometry and trigonometry, - - - - - - 5 

Knowledge of instruments, - - - - - - 2 

*These courses are not compulsory ; but the pupils are earnestly recommended to follow 
punctually the courses comprised ia their studies, and not to neglect those which tend to the 
general culture of the mind. 


Hours per -weak. 
Experimental physics, 1st course, ----- 5 

Inorganic chemistry, - - - » - - -5 

Free-haud dj-awing, ...... — 

2d Term. 

Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - - . - 5 

Theory of equations, ----.--2 

Analytical geometry, - - - - - - -5 

Practical geometry, - - - - - - - 5 

Experimental physics, - - -- - - -5 

Drawing of plans, - - -- - - - — 

Free-hand drawing, - - - - - - - — 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 

Differential calculus, 1st course, - - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 1st course, - - - * - 4 

Land surveying*, - - - - - - -2 

Technical chemistry, - - - - -- - 5 

Mineralogy, - - - -•-_ . .5 

History of architecture, 1st course, - - - _ . 2 

Drawing of ornaments, - - - - - - - — 

4th Term. 

Differential calculus, 2d course, - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 2d course, - - ... 4 

Higher land surveying*, - - - - - - - 3 

Geology, - - - - - -'- - 5 

Mechanics, 1st course, - - - - - .-4 

Elements of building construction, 1st course, - - * - 1 

Drawing of ornaments, - - - - - -- — 

Architectural drawing, - - - - - - — 

Third Year. — 5th Term. 

Differential calculus, 3d course, - - - - - - 2 

Descriptive geometry, 3d course, - - - - - 4 

Technical physics, 1st course, - - - - - - 2 

Mechanics, 2d course, - - - - - - 5 

Elements of building construction, 2d course, - - - -.4 

Architectural drawing and construction, - - - - — 

6th Term. 

Technical physics, 2d course, - - - - - - 2 

Mathematical physics, 2d course, . - * - - 2 

Mechanics, 3d course, - -..--.4 

Elements of building construction, 3d course, > - . 4 

History of architecture, 2d course, - - - - - 4 

Building materials, - - - - - - -2 

Architectual drawing and construction, - - - - - — 

Founh Year.— 7th Term. 

Analytical mechanics, -- - - - - -4 

Mechanics of building, - * - _ - - 2 

Roads and railways, - - - - - - -4 

Building of Bridges, - -- - - - - 4« 

Civil law, ---------3 

Drawing of buildings, ••••--- — 

Architectural projects, .• • • -.- - - — 

Landscape drawing, ••••--- — 


Hours per week. 
8th Term. 

Hydraulic constructions, -----.. 4 

Study otinachiucs, - - - - - . .4 

Law relating to the erection of buildings, - - - - - 2 

Drawing- of constructions, ------ — 

Arcriitectiiral projects, - - - - - - - — 

Landscape drawing, -----.. — 

Third Technical Division — Salt Mines and MetaUur^cal Works, 
These two subdivisions require the same preparatory studies. 
For the salt-mines a sound knowledge of geology and fossils is re- 
quired, and for metallurgical works great proficiency in chemistry 
and mineralogy. 

Hours per week 
First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - - -5 

Geometry and ti-igonometry, ------ 5 

Knowledge of instruments*, -' - - - - -2 

Experimental physics, 1st course, - - - - . 5 

Inorganic chemistry, --- .. . -5 

Free-hand drawing, ------- — 

2d Term. 

Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - - - - - 5 

Theory and equations, ------- 2 

Analytical geometry, - - - -- _ -5 

Practical geometry*, -------5 

Experimental physics, 2d course, ^ - - - - - 5 

Drawing of plans*, ------- 

Free-hand drawing, - - - - - - . 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 
Differential calculus, 1st course, - - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 1st course, ----- 4 

Technical physics, 1st course, - - - - - .2 

Chemical physics, -------2 

Mineralogy, ------.-5 

Drawing of machines, -----_ 

Manipulations in the laboratory, - - - . 

4th Term. 

Differential calculus, 2d course, - - - . - - 5 

Descriptive geometri', 2d course, - - - - . 4 

Technical physics, 2d course, - - - - - - 2 

Geology, 5 

Mechanics, 1st course, - - - - - - -4 

Elements of construction, ------» 4 

Drawing of machines and constructions ; manipulations, - - 

Third Year. — 5th Term. 

Mechanics, 2d course, - - - - - - -5 

Mineralogical exercises, .-.-.. 2 

Elements of construction, 2d course, - - - - - 4 

Projects of metallurgical works, ----- — 

Manipulations in the laboratory, - - - - - - — 

6th Term. 
Mechanics, 3d course, - - - - - -4 or 5 

Metallurgy, - • - - - ; , 2 or 3 



Geological exercises, - 
Elements of construction, 3d course, 
Projects of metallurgical works, 
Manipulations in the laboratory, 

Hours per week. 
- 4 

Fourth Technical Division. — Technical Chemistry. 

Besides a profound acquaintance with chemistry, the pupils of this 
division must know something about the construction of machines and 
buildings. An acquaintance with descriptive geometry is consequent- 
ly necessary for them. 

lu the third year they are almost exclusively occupied with manip« 
ulatious in the laboratorj^ 

Hours per week. 
First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - 

Geometry and trigonometry, - • - - 

Experimental physics, 1st course, - - 

Inorganic chemistry, ----- 
Free-hand di'awing, - - 

2d Term. — 

Stereometry and trigonometry ; physics, - - - - . « 5 

Experimental physics, 2d course, - - - • - 5 

Organic chemistry, - - - -- - -5 

Botany, - - - - - - - -5 

Free-hand drawing, - - 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 
Dccriptive geometry, 1st course, - - - . - -4 

Chemical phyS'ics, - - - - - - - 2 

Technical chemistry, 1st course, - - - - - - 5 

Technical physics, 1st course, - - - - -2 

Mineralogy, ..... 

Drawing of machines and laboratory manipulations, 

4th Term. 

Descriptive geometry, 2d course, - - - - - 4 

Technical chemistry, 2d course, - - - - - 5 

Technical physics, "2d course, - - • - - -3 

Geology, - - ... . . . . 5 

Drawing of machines and laboratory manipulations. 

Third Year. — .5th Term. 
Elements of machinery, -----.-4 

Statistics, .... .... 3 

Projects of manufactories and working in the laboratory, 

6th Term. 
Political economy, ' - 
Projects of manufactories atid working in the laboratory, - - — 

Fifth Technical Division. — Pharmaceutical Chemists. 

The pharmaceutical studies must have been preceded by a practical 


Hours per week. 

First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, -- - - - - -5 

Geometry and trigonometry, - - - - - - 5 

Experimental physics, 1st course, - - - - - 5 

Inorganic chemistry, - - - - - - - 5' 

iVlanipnlation in the laboratory, - - - - - - — 

2d Term. 
Experimental physics, 2d course, - - - - - 5 

(_)rganic chemistry, .----.-5 

Boiuny, ......... f) 

Pharmacy, .-.--.--5 

Chemical jurisprudence, - - - - - - 2 

Manipulation in the laboratory, .... - — 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 
Mineralogy, - - - - -- - -5 

Zoology, ..--.-.-5 

Pharmacognosy, - ------.4 

Chemical physics, ....... 2 

Manipulation in the laboratory, - - - - - - — 

Sixth Technical Division. — Forest Economy. 
The plan of studies here sepaiates the special from the prepara- 
tory studies. The pupils in the forest service of the country are 
advised to follow the first year of this division immediately on leav- 
ing the primary or other elementary schools, and then to have a 
year's practical apprenticeship in the forests, before they come to fol- 
low the special course of the second year. 

Hours per week. 
First Year. — 1st Term. • 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - -- - - -5 

Geometry and trigonometry, ------ 5 

Experimental physics, 1st course, - - - - - .5 

Inorganic chemistry, -------5 

Zoology, - -- - - - - - -5 

Mineralogy, -.-.-..-5 

2d Term. 
Stereometiy and spherical trigonometry, - - - -5 

Practical geometry, ...-..^5 
Experimental physics, 2d course, - • - - - - 5 

Organic chemistry, ------.5 

Botany, - - - ... - - -5 

Geology, - - -'- - - - - 5 

Second Year, — 3d Term. . 

Mathematical exercises, -- - - - - 2 to 4 

Climatology and knowledge of soils, ----- 2 

Physiology of forest plants, - - - - - - 4 

Forest botany and culture of forests, . - - - 6 
Valuations of forests, --.....3 

Forest history and statistics, --.--- 2 

Civil Law, - - -- - - • - -3 

4th Term. 
Mathematical exercises, - - - - - - 2 to 4 

Organization of labor, .-..,, 4 



Protection of forests. — Forest insects, 

Forest economy and police, 

Utilization of forests, 

Elements of the chase, 

Forest laws, . . - 

Hours per week 

- 4 

- 3 

- 2 

Seventh Technical Division. — Rural Economy. 
The pupils are advised to separate their studies in the same man- 

ner as in the preceding division. 

First Year — IsT Term. 
Aritliraetic and algebra, - - - - 

(Geometry and trigonometry, - - - 

Experimental physics, 1st course, 

Inorganic chemistry, - - - - . 

Zoology, - - - - - - 

Mineralogy, - - - 

2d Term. 

Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - 
Practical geometry, . - - . 

Experimental physics, 2d course. 
Organic chemistry, - - - - 

Botany, ------ 


Drawing of plans, . - » - 

Second Year. — 3d Term. 

Agricultural economy, . - - - 
Anatomy of domestic animals, 

K earing of cattle, - - - • 

Rearing of horses, - - - - 

Technical chemistry, - - - - 
General knowledge of machines*, 

Agricultural book-keeping, . - - 

4th Term. 

Theory of agriculture proper, 

Culture of plants, - - - - 

Diseases of domestic animals, - - - 

Elements of sxirgery and medicine. 

Valuation of farm property, . _ - 

Elements of agricultural building construction, 

Manipulations in the laboratory. 

Third Year. — 5th Term. 
Differential calculus, 3d course. 
Descriptive geometry, 3d course. 
Technical physics*, . - - - 

Mechanics, 2d course, . - - 

Construction of machines, 1st course. 
Elements of building construction, 2d course, 
Construction of machines (exercises,) 

6th Term. 

Technical physics, 2d course. 
Mathematical physics, - 
Mechanics, 3d course. 

Hours per week. 


Hours per week. 
Construction of machines, 2(1 course, . - - . 2 

Study ofniju-hincs, 2d course , - - - - - - 4 

Klcmcnts of Ijuildinj^ construction, 3d course, - - - 4 

Construction of machines (exercises,) - - - - - — 

Fourth Year. — 7th Term. 

Analytical mechanics*, - -.- - - - -4 

Mechanics of building, . - . - - _ 2 

Construction of machines, 3d course, - - - - - 2 

Study of nuichines, - - - - - - - 4 

Civil engineering;*, - - - - - - -4 

Construction of machines (exercises), . . . - — 

Eighth Technical Division. — Railways and Roads. 
The knowledge necessary for admission into this division are ele- 
mentary mathematics, geography, statistics, the history of modern 
languages and literature. 

Hours per week. 
First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - - -5 

Geometry and trigonometry, ------ 5 

Experimental physics, - - - - -- -5 

Geography and statistics, - . - - - - - 6 

French language, --------6 

EngUsh language, - - -- - - - 6 

2d Term. 
Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - - - - - 5 

Political economy, -------3 

History, ....-_. .5 

German literature, -------3 

French language and literature, - - ' - - - - 3 

English language and literature, ----- g 

Second Year — 3d Term. 
Mathematical exercises*, -- - - - - 2 to 4 

Technical physics, .--.-..2 
History, ---.----- 2 

Gernian literature, ------- 2 

French language and literature, - - - - - - 2 

English language and literature, - ... - 2 

Civil law, ---------2 

Ninth Technical Division. — Officers of the Government Survey. 
The young men who intend to enter this service must follow a 
course of two years composed nearly as follows : 

Hours per week. 

First Year. — 1st Term. 

Arithmetic and algebra, - - - - - - -5 

Geometry and trigonometry, ------ 5 

Mathematical exercises, - - - - - - 4 to 6 

Knowledge of instruments, - - - - . - 2 

Experimental physics, -- . , . . -5 

2d Term. 

Stereometry and spherical trigonometry, - - - • .5 

Theory of equations, - - - - - . • 2 



, Hours per week. 

Analytical i^eometry, -.>--.. 5 

Practical jreometry, -----..5 

Mathematical exercises, - - - - - --4 

Experimental phrsic, .-..-. 5 

Drawing of plans, . •- . . - . _ — 

Second Year. — 3d Teem. 
Differential calculus, 1st course, - - - - - - 5 

Descriptive geometry, 1st course, ----- 4 

Spherical astronomy, - - - - - - - 3 

Mathematical exercises, - - - -■- -2 to 4 

Technical physics, --------2 

Drawing of plans, ------- — 

4th Term. 

Differential calculus, 2d course, - - - - - - 5 

Dcscri])tive geometry, -------4 

Higher land surveying, - - -- - - -3 

Geology, ------__5 

Management. — The direction is entrusted to a committee of three 
members, the oldest of whom is chairman. This committee is under 
the immediate control of the Minister of State. The college or 
council of professors is consulted with regard to the general interest, 
or for any change of the existing arrangements. It comprises all 
the principal professors, and is convoked by the chairman, or at the 
instance of one of the members of the managing committee. The 
conference of the professors is composed of all the professors and 
tutors. It is convoked to discuss the business of the school. 

School Fees. — The young men matriculated as regular pupils pay 
18 thalers for the half-yearly term, and if they take part in the man- 
ipulations an additional sum of 6 thalers. They also give the labor- 
atory attendant 20 gros. 

The young men who do not matriculate for the six months' term 
pay three thalers for a course of three hours a week, six thalers for 
one of five hours; the maximum paid is 18 thalers, whatever num- 
ber of courses may be fol'owed. For the laboratory, these pupils 
pay 10 thalers, and to the a'tendant 20 gros. 

For daily pai-ticipation in the lessons in arts, from eight in the 
morning till two in the afternoon, the fee is three thalers per quarter, 
and half that sum for three days a week. 

The matriculation fee is two thalers, with 20 gros. to the apparitor 
and 10 gros. for the admission card. 

Discipline.- -Through all the pupils live outside the college, disci- 
pline is maintained in-doo's and in the classes by the professors, each 
for his own course, and by tb.e managing committee for general order 
and conduct out of college - 

The Polytechnic Institution of Brunswick has no less than twenty- 
five professors for the different branches of instruciion there given. 


In the small town of Holzmiiiden, there is an establishment for 
special insii uction, which, by a remarkable exception to the general 
rule in Germany, receives boarders. It is devoted to the class of 
artisans designated in France under the general term of the build- 
ing trade; masons, stone-cutters, carpenters, joiners, smiths, slaters, 
glaziers, painters, cabinet makers, &c. 

The instruction is chiefly given during the winter half year, when 
work is generally suspended ; but it is continued during the fine 
season also for those pupils who are disposed to attend. To be ad- 
mitted, a young man must have already entered one of the trades 
connected with building, and must supply the necessary information 
as to his age, his parents, his residence, the master for whom he has 
worked, and as to his moral character ; he must also submit to a 
medical examination with regard to his health. During their stay 
at the school, the pupils wear a uniform, which facilitates discipline. 
On entering ihey must bring linen, a few other articles, and a case 
of mathematical instruments. 

The establishment supplies during the usual term of residence, 
which is twenty weeks for the winter half-year : 

Lodging and board for the sum of - - - 27 thalers. 

Teaching, firing, lighting, necessaries for writing and 
drawing, the uniform, medical attendance and wash- 
ing, for ------- 45 thalerS. 

Total ------ 72 thalers. 

Thus, during this period of one hundred and forty days, a young 
man can be boarded, lodged, taught, and supplied with every neces- 
sary for less than two francs per day. 

The pupils are divided according to their proficiency, into three 
classes. In the two lower classes, the pupils are improved in ordin- 
ary and commercial arithmetic, writing, and composition. At the 
same time in all the classes they are taught free hand drawing details 
of construction, of ornament, of line drawings relative to their difFe: ent 
trades, the objects and models being chosen according lo the capaci- 
ties of the pupils. 

The discipline is nearly the same as in a college. They rise at six 
in the morning, wash themselves and perform other necessary duties 
till half-past eight, and the studies continue till half-past nine in the 
evening, except the intervals for meals and recreation. They go to 


bed at ten. The school can accommodate five hundred and fifty 

At the close of each complete period of instruction, the pupils who 
are found deserving, and have attended long enough, receive a cer- 
tificate stating their degree of proficiency in the studies bearing on 
their profession. The pupils who have not completed their studies 
receive a certificate of their conduct and application during the time 
passed at the school. This certificate must be countersigned by their 
parents or masters when they return for the next half year. 

The general curriculum of the school comprises calligraphy, orthog- 
raphy, composition, ordinary and commercial arithmetic, the elements 
of algebra, book-keeping, elementary geometry, descriptive geometry, 
projections, stereometry, elementary and technical physics, the details 
of the construction of machines and buildings ; joining of stone, wood, 
and iron ; technical chemistry, the knowledge of building materials, 
drawing* up of estimates, laws affecting buildings, free-hand drawing, 
architectural drawing, studies of forms and orders, drawing of ma- 
chines, drawing up of projects, modeling. The pupils are expected 
during the summer half-year, to visit works in course of execution, 
and write reports of their excursions. 



The small republic of Hamburg had, in 1869, a population of 
315,000, of which there are in the city and its suburbs 225,000, and 
in the outlying districts, 90,000. 

Besides being a great commercial emporium, and the centre of a 
very extensive business in marine insurance, it has important branches 
of home industry ; shipbuilding on a large scale, with sail-cloth, ropes, 
sugar refining, distilling and dyeing, manufacture of cigars, &c. 

The total expenditure for educational purposes amounted, in 
1869, to about 800,000 thalers, of which 109,302 were borne by the 
State, to which last item is to be added 12,640 thalers for special 
schools, and about 5,500 for the city library, botanic garden, and 
similar establishments. 

The educational institutions of Hamburg number 437, with 2,521 
instructors and 39,098 pupils, and are, in the official report, divided 
into the following classes : 

(1.) Public Schools. City and Parish schools 64, with 183 teach- 
ers and 8,135 pupils. Schools for the poor {Armen Oschulen) 20, 
with 142 teachers, and 5,079 pupils. Foundation schools {Stiftungs- 
schulen) 21, with 131 teachers and 2,376 pupils. Church Schools 
(Kirchenschulen) 27, with 130 teachers and 4,235 pupils. 

(2.) Private Schools. Elementary schools 49, with 127 teachers 
and 1,922 pupils. Middle schools 108, with 562 teachers and 8,212 
pupils. Higher schools 89, with 1,046 teachers and 7,686 pupils. 

There are, besides, 29 Kindergarten, of which 7 are in connection 
with other schools, with 68 teachers and 973 children attending. 
Also 30 private courses, with 132 instructors and 480 pupils. 

Elementary Schools. — Nearly all the schools included in the above 
official statement as Public Schools, may be classed as elementary. 

Secondary Schools. — The gymnasium has eight classes, with 11 
professors, and 7 assistants. The Model School has a Real depart- 
ment, and Female High School. 

Superior Education. — The Gymnasial Academy, founded in 1 632, 
is a connecting link between the classical schools and the University. 


There are four professors ; one of classical philology, who is also city- 
librarian ; one of chemistry, one of biblical philology and philosophy, 
and one of natural history, who is also director of the botanic gar- 
den. There is also a teacher of mathematics. 

Professional and Special Schools. There are four special schools 
for teachers, — one for gymnasiums and real schools, two for elementary 
schools, one for males and one for females, and one for the Kindergar- 
ten ; — one evening trade school for males with 29 teachers and 809 
pupils; one trade school for females with 77 pupils ; one trade school 
in the suburb St. Paul with 4 teachers and 36 pupils ; a winter day 
school for the building trades, with 106 pupils; the evening school 
of the educational union, with about 200 pupils ; one polytechnic 
preparatory school with 16 teachers and 3d pupils; a navigation 
school with 3 teachers and 85 pupils ; a private seamen's school with 
6 teachers and 43 pupils. 


The public trade, and the building school ( Gewerhe Schule, und Sclmlefi'ir Bau- 
handioerker,) at Hamburg, have for their object to give to all men engaged in any 
-trade, but especially apprentices and workmen connected with the building 
trades, such instruction as shall be of use to them in their occupations. They 
are held in the same rooms and under the same director. 

The hours of instruction in the trade school are two to sixteen weekly, in the 
evening, and the branches are German with business writings in German, book- 
keeping, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, physics, free hand dra-\ving, and drawing 
with the compass, drawings as applied to the trades of building, ship-building, 
metal working, and those trades in which some knowledge of art is required, 
modeling and elementary instruction in drawing for boys. 

The hours for instruction in the building trade schools are fifty-four, weekly, 
during the winter, and three winters are required to finish the course. .The num- 
ber of pupils in the trade school is (1868) 809, in the building school 1.06. 

The number of scholars (186y) is, in the trade school about 500 in winter, and 
600 in summer; in the architectural school, held only in the winter, 106. ' 

The director is paid about 1,500 thalers per annum; the teachers (28 in all) 
thirty thalers per week during the course. Tuition in trade school, 2 to 4 
thalers the course ; in the building schools, 30 thalers the half year. 

We add a brief notice of the common method of teaching drawing : 

Free drawing without instnmients begins -with drawing from wooden models, 
according to Heimerdinger's method, in which simple objects, such as tools used 
by joiners, engineers, &c., are included; attention being paid to the vocation of 
the pupil in the choice of the models. Ornamental drawing from plaster casts, in 
outline, and in respect to. shading, then follows Those pupils who devote them- 
selves to building or ornamental trades, study the figure from casts and anatomy. 
The metal workers draw freely, without instruments, portions of machinery, &c. 
The mode of execution (which is with lead pencil, pen, brush, and nibber,) is 
always the most suitable to the branch of technical art to which the pupil intends 
to devote himself. In close connection with this style of drawing, arc the exei*- 
cises in ornamental design. Plants, flowers, and leaves are drawn from life, and 


these drawings arc used in designing. By these exercises the pupils hecome very 
soon iudOjjcudent of all help. Geometrical drawings are executed from large 
copies. The teachers explain the perfect principles of construction, and pay 
special attention to exactness in execution. When the pupil has jic(iuired conti- 
dence in the use of his instruments, and has mastered the es.sential principles, 
the measuring and drawing of some simple and more complicated bodies follows. 
This chi?s is attcndi.^d by metal-workers, joiners, builders, and carpenters, car- 
riage-l)uilders, ship-builders, &c. The instruction is imparted by measuring and 
drawing real objects, such as parts of machinery, tools, furniture, doors, windows, 
carriages, &c., according to fixed rules and specified plans. 

Instruction in free-hand drawing can only be of use to the pupils when they 
use real objects, and not drawings. By the method pursued here, the hand 
needs no particular preparation, because the nearest model offers an example by 
which the hand and eye are both alike exercised. No particular introduction to 
the rules of perspective is needed, the scholar learns to see correctly, and his 
attention is directed to the principles of perspective by the teacher. 

From the specimens of free-hand drawing which were exhibited at Paris this 
year, it would ap])car that no method can compare with that here referred to, for 
producing a satisfactory result in a short time. The results of several other 
industrial schools are in this respect far behind those of the Hamburg school. 
DraAving from specimens should be entirely avoided in industrial schools, in free- 
hand as well as in geometrical aiid technical drawing. In the instruction of 
teachers, this method has be.ou followed for a number of years in Mr. Jessen's 
Polytechnic Institute, and also for the last two years in the Hamburg Trade 
School, with most satisfjictory results. The pupils of both show great applica- 
tion and zeal, and make good progress. There are no workshops connected 
with the trade school. 


-In 1862-63, the Hamburg Patriotic Society, established for the 
promotion of art and industry, appointed a committee to visit dif- 
ferent countries in which attention had been paid to institutions 
of science and art, especially in reference to the advancement of 
national industries, and report a plan for the re-organization of exist- 
ing institutions of this kind in Hamburg, or the establishment of 
new. The committee, after visiting the polytechnic and trade schools 
of Bremen, Frankfort, Brunswick, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Munich, 
and other cities, as the result of their inquiries, recommended the 

Plan for a Trade School for Hamhirg. 

The aim of the Trade School shall be to give those employed in trades an 
opportunity of acquiring such knowledge and attainments as they stand in need 
of for an intelligent prosecution of their callings. 

In order to carry out this object in a comprehensive manner, a complete trade 
school should be divided into three quite different departments : 

1. A Sunday and evening school for such pupils as can take advantage of the 
instruction during the few hours of the week which they have at liberty from 
their other school time or from being otherwise engaged. 

2. A wintei- school of architecture for those engaged in the building trades, and 
Avho will be able to give their time exclusively during the winter months to the 
attainment of theoretical knowledge and skill. 

3. A chill trade school for young pei'sons Avho have already left the primary 
school, and are in a position to be able to devote the whole of their time for a 
year to their industrial education before they are appenticed to a trade. 

Although the education of artisans is the end which these departments have 
in view, and this can be attained, for the most part, by the same subjects of study, 
yet there must be a difference between them according to the requirements of the 
Duyils attending the different establishments ; and especially as to the time to 



he given to separate subjects, as well as regards the subjects taught, as also as 
regards the extent to which they are taught. 

Whilst in all three departments the instruction will be, as far as possible, the 
same, especial regard will be paid, in all the subjects taught, to the profession 
which the pupils may have already embraced, or for which they may be destined. 


The subjects taught comprise : 

1. Commercial composition and book-keeping, (orthography, the formation of 
words and sentences, the composition of letters, invoices, agreements, &c.) 

2. Mathematics, a. Arithmetic and algebra, (fractions, algebraic notation, 
equations, 1st and 2d degree.) h. Geometry, (plane and solid geometry.) 

3. Physics, (elements of physics in general, the science of heat, elements of 
acoustics, optics, electricity, and magnetism. 

4. Mechanics, (elementary mechanics, gravity, motion, friction, pressure of 
water, water power, pressure of air, steam engines.) 

5. Chemistry, (elements of inorganic chemistry, special important branches of 
organic chemistry.) 

6. Technology and knowledge of implements. 

7. Political economy. 

8. Free-hand drawing, (from simple objects, from ornamental objects, figures, 
parts of machinery, &c.) 

9. Geometric drawing, (drawing by compass,) and geometric figures, (geomet- 
rical constructions, measuring and drawing by rule, perspective.) 

10. Special drawing with practice in design and construction, (in 5 classes, 
for building, for manufactures, for workers in metal, for workers in wood, for 

11. Modeling in clay, wood, and wax. 

The course of study is for three years, and the regular entrance of the pupils 
takes place at Easter. Young persons are received as pupils who have completed 
their fourteenth year and possess a competent knowledge of the usual branches 
of school education. To each pupil is prescribed by the superior which classes 
he is to attend ; of course, as far as possible, in this matter the wishes of the 
pupil or of his relations are taken into consideration. 

The school is intended for 600 pupils, and the committee think they may with 
certainty reckon upon this number, Avhen it is considered that towns such as Nu- 
remberg and Chemnitz have trade schools which are attended by 1,800 pupils. 

The average number for each class is to be reckoned at 35 pupils. 

The school is under the superintendence of a director, subordinate to him are 
masters for the various subjects. 

The number of lessons weekly, amounts, for each pupil, to from 6 to 8. 

Weekly Plan of the Lessons. 






1. Commercial knowledge, &c., - 

2. Mathematics, 

3. Physics, 

4. Mechanics, - - - - 

5. Chemistry, . - - - 

6. Technology, 

7. Political economy, - . - 

8. Free-hand drawing, 

9. Geometric drawing, &c., - 

10. Special drawing, - - - 

11. Modeling, - - - - 

Classes. Hours. 
4 of 2 
4 of 2 

4 of 4 
2 of 4 

Classes. Hours. 

4 of 2 

2 of 2 

2 'of 4 
4 of 4 

Classes. Hours. 
1* * of' ' 1 

Voir" 2 

2 of 2 
1 of 2 

1 of 1 

'e' of' 4 

2 of 4 

40 hours. 

36 hours. 

48 hours. 


Thus, altogetlier 124 hours of study weekly. 
- To the S inula V and evening seliool there is also a preparatory class annexed, 
for those who are* not yet sufficiently acquainted with the ordinary branches of 
school knowledge. This preparatory class comprises the loUowing subjects : 

1. German language. 

2. Arithmetic. 

3. Geometry. 

4. Free-hand drawing. 

And the arrangement of the classes is as follows : 

1 . German languiige, - - - 2 classes of 2 hours. 

2. Arithmetic, - - - - 2 " 2 " 

3. Geometry, - - - . 2 " 2 " 

4. Free-hand drawing, - . - 2 " 2 " 

Total, - - - - 16 hours weekly. 

The yearly expenditure for the Sunday and evening school, and for the pre- 
paratory class, is estimated altogether at 25,000 marks current, according to the 
following table : 

Mks. ct. 
For the director, including a salary for 10 hours lessons a week, - 4,000 
Salary for 130 hours lessons a week at 100 mks. ct. each per year, 13,000 
Rent of premises, ------- 5,000 

School apparatus, ------- 500 

Servants, -------- 200 

Warming, lighting, and cleansing, ----- 2,000 

Total, 25,000 

To meet this we may reckon upon a yearly income of 18,000 marks current, 
viz : 600 pupils, at 30 marks school fees per year, so that a yearly grant is requi- 
site of 7,000 marks current. 


The subjects taught are : 

1 . Commercial composition and hook-keeping. 

2. Mathematics. 

a. Arithmetic and algebra. 
h. Geometry. 

3. Physics. 

4. Mechanics. 

5. Free-hand drawing. 

6. Geometric drawing. 

7. Applied geometry. 

8. Architectural drawing, and plans of buildings. 

9. The art of building, the knowledge of construction, and estimating the cost 
of buildings. 

10. Constructive modeling. 

The course of study is for three years, and the instruction is given during the 
five winter months, (November to March ) in 48 weekly lessons; besides these, 
written exercises are prepared under the superintendence of a teacher in 12 
weekly lessons. 

Such persons are accepted as pupils as are engaged in construction, and who 
are acquainted with the ordinary school knowledge; those who are deficient in 
the latter are referred to the Sunday and evening school. 

The school is intended for 100 pupils; it is placed under the superintendence 
of the director of the trade school. There are masters who teach under and in 
addition to him. 


Plan of the Lessons. 






1. Commercial knowledge, &c., - 

2. Mathematics : 

Arithmetic and algebra, - 
Geometry, - - - - 

3. Physics, - - - - 

4. Mechanics, - - . - 

5. Free-hand drawing, 

6. Geometric drawing, 

7. Applied geometry, 

8. Drawing of buildings, - 

9. Art of building, &c., - 
10. Constructive modeling, - 












\ ; 






Besides this, 13 hours are set apart weekly for the preparation of written exer- 
cises, under the superintendence of a teacher for all the classes in common, at 
the same time, participation in this instruction is not obligatory for those who 
undertake this work at home. The yearly expenditure is estimated at 8,300 
marks current, viz : 

Mks. ct. 
For superintendence, including salary for 6 lessons per week, - 1 ,000 

Salary for 150 lessons per week, for 5 months, at 40 marks per lesson, 6,000 
School apparatus, - - - - - - - 300 

Servants, - - - - - - - - 150 

Premises, (those of the Sunday and evening schools,) - - .... 

Warming, lighting, and cleansing, - - - - 850 



Against this we may reckon upon a yearly receipt of 5,000 marks current, 
viz: 100 pupils at 50 marks, so that an annual addition of 3,300 marks cur- 
rent will be necessary. 


The subjects taught comprise : - 

1 . German and composition. 

2. Mathematics. 

a. Arithmetic and algebra. (Fractions, algebraic notation, equations of the 
first and second degree, powers and roots, logarithms.) 

b. Geometry. (Plane and solid geometry.) 

c. Trigonometry. (Plane trigonometry.) 

3. Physics. (Physics in general, science of heat, principles of the remaining 

4. Chemistry. (Inorganic, and some sections of organic chemistry.) 

5. Free-hand drawing. 

6. Geometric drawing. 

The course of lessons is for one year, and the regular entrance of pupils takes 
place at Easter. 

Such young persons are accepted as pupils as have completed their fourteenth 
year, and who show proof of the requisite capacity to comprehend the above- 
named subjects. 

The school is primarily intended for a class of 35 pupils ; it is placed under 
the director of the trade scliool. A master insti-ucts in the head branches, 


assisted by teachers. The annual expenditure is estimated at 5,200 marks cur- 
rent, viz : 

Salary of the head-master, who gives '24 lessons per week, 3,000 marks ; sahiry 
for 18 lessons per week, 1,800 ; premises (those of the Sunday seliool and even- 
ing school) ; school apparatus, 200; servant, 50; Marming-, 150; total, 5,200. 

Against this we may reckon upoa an annual income oi' 3,500 nuirks, viz : 35 
pupils at 100 marks, which will require an annual addition of 1,700 marks 

A trade educational establishment, (comprising : a. A Sunday and evening 
Bchool ; b. A winter school of construction ; c. A day trade school ;) would, there- 
fore, re(piire an annual expenditure of 38,500 marks current ; deducting from this 
the estimated annual receipt of 26,500, there will remain to be asked an annual 
grant of 12,000 marks cun-ent from the municipality. 


As a second means towards the su])port and promotion of the industry of the 
city, the committee recommend the establishment of an industrial musnun icith 
erhihitims of products, after the model of those in other states, especially in Wur- 
temburg, England, and France. 

Although for years past the importance of education througli the eyes has been 
recognized as essential for the completion of instruction pro]jtr in industry, still 
a long time elapsed before the example of France, who in 1783, founded the Con- 
servatoire des Arts et Metiers, has been followed in other countries. 

It Avas only in 1850 that an exhibition was opened at Stuttgart, under the 
'direction of the Royal Academy, for industry and commerce, and it was first the 
great universal exhibition in London, in the year 1851, which induced the Eng- 
lish to found their richly endowed Kensington Museum. Since that time, iu 
many places, efforts have been made to supply this deficiency, and at this time 
\v^ hear of even small towns which are occupied in the establishment of indus- 
trial museums. The special experience of Wurtemburg is most favorable as to 
the utility of such an establishment. 

In addition, the foundation in Hamburg of an industrial museum is to l>e 
recommended on commercial considerations. Hamburg despatches daily to the 
interior, raw materials ; travelers from Hamburg range through the interior iu 
order to find out objects of export. Might not in many cases the manufacture 
of these materials be carried on here ? In the second place, might not many 
Hamburg manufiictures, which have already obtained a good reputation abroad, 
attain still greater success if the manufacturers, profiting by the beautiful forms 
brought under their eyes in a museum, Avere to employ these in their fabrics. 

The aim of such an institution as the committee proposes, is to promote exist- 
ing trades, to call forth new ones, and to increase the sale of manufactured goods. 
This aim is to be reached by the exhibition of raw materials, of the process of 
manufacture of improved implements, and of superior products of industry with 
special regard to the formation of taste. 

The arrangement of an industrial museum will be as follows : 

1. A Technical Section. — This contains raw materials, manufactures in process, 
implements, models, &c. 

TJie collection of raw materials, and of manufactures in the different stages 
of their ])reparation should have in view an exact knowledge of their origin and 
price as well as of their uses, and at the same time should point out new uses. 
The collection of implements, utensils, and machinery should indicate means to 
the artisan of working better and at less cost. 

2. A Section for Art Mannfartures. — This comprises casts, engravings, draw- 
mgs, ])hotographs, &c., which ought to serve especially in the formation and im- 
provement of taste in industrial drawing and design. 

3 The Exhibition of Products. — This section contains especially good or useful 
new products of industry. The artisan should here be made acquainted, from 
seeing the fabric itself, with new combinations, beautiful forms, and new employ- 
ment of materials, &c., in order that he may perceive clearly the ])ossil)i]ity of 
a juofitable new or improved manufacture. The commercial interest will also 
find here new fabrics, and be made acquainted with their origin. Every object 
should have attached to it the price, and the name and residence of the m.inu- 


The whole establishment is under the superintendence of a director, who should 
pay close attention to home and foreign industry, in order to develop the former 
from the experience of the latter. To this end he must place himself in corres- 
jiondeuce with foreign exhibitions and industrial societies, &c., as also with the 
consuls for Hamburg, and with the home manufacturers. 

Entrance to the museum should, as far as possible, be facilitated, and there- 
fore the committee think it desirable on four days in the w^eek to give admittance 
to all gratis, and on the other days to charge a moderate price of admission, in 
order in this way to gain a contribution towards the yearly cost. 

The use of the museum must always under regulations be open to the trades 
schools, as they have a free claim to the use of the drawings and models therein 
contained, as means of instruction. 

The committee think it necessary to give a right to the manufacturers of the 
city, not only to study the fabrics in the different sections in the locality of the 
exhibition, but if they desire it, to take these home with them for closer study. 


1. The Navigation School, opened m 1826, by the Chamber of Commerce, con- 
tains two classes : one for lads who are pursuing the usual primary studies; and 
the other for seamen, who are qualifying themselves by a study of arithmetic, 
trigonometry, surveying, navigation, nautical astronomy, drawing, with special 
reference to charts ; code of signals, theory of winds, tides, and currents, mer- 
cantile laws and usages, practical use of instruments used at sea, book-keeping, 
and correspondence. Steam and mechanics have been recently added. 

. No one can be employed as a master or under officer in a steam or sailing veS' 
sel belonging to Hamburg, without a certificate of proficiency in the studies of 
this school, which is managed by a committee of the Chamber of Commerce. 

2. The Seamen's School, a private enterprise, receives as boarders 43 lads, 
under 15 years of age, for a two years' course in naWgation. It employs three 
teachers, and charges 210 thalers a year for board and instruction. 


Music is a regular subject of instruction in the public schools of Hamburg, 
but the method is left with each school and teacher. Mr. Eichberg, in his com- 
munication to the Boston School Committee on musical iustraction in the prin- 
cipal cities of Germany, says : 

Music is not taught uniformly in the Hamburg public schools, but the several 
teachers instruct independently of system. Two music lessons of one hour each 
are given to the pupils, either by their regular, or, in the higher schools, by an 
appointed special teacher. In the Latin school, four part songs, motets and 
chorals, are sung, the lower classes singing soprano and alto, while the higher 
classes take the tenor and basso parts. Pupils are not allowed to sing during 
the mutation of the voice, but have to be present at the music lessons. Great 
care is taken to avoid choruses requiring great extent of vocal compass. I found 
here Mr. Benedict Widmann's different publications well spoken of. They are 
named " Little Singing School, for the Three Divisions of Boys' and Girls' 
Schools," and "Prefatory Instruction in Singing." These two little works, 
(sixty-four and eighty-two pages respectively, in 12mo,) contain many novel 
ideas on class teaching. . The author strongly advocates musical instruction in 
the primary schools, and maintains that the imitative faculties of the child render 
the teaching of singing far easier at an early age than it would be when the vocal 
organs iiave passed the period of their elastic softness. 




The Free City of Frankfort, (now a portion of the new province 
of Nassau, in the kingdom of Prussia,) to which our school statistics 
refer, on a territory of 43 square miles, had in 1861 a poj)ulation 
of 87,518, of which 70,000 belonged to the city proper. Besides its 
vast banking interests, there are large mechanical industries, in which 
beauty of form and nicety of execution are required, and which have 
been secured by the appropriate training of artists and artisans. 

The public educational establishments are adminislered by five co- 
ordinate authorities, in which the city and the four religious denom- 
inations are represented, each by one commissioner. The expendi- 
tures for" teachers (salaries and pensions), buildings, apparatus, and 
equipment generally by the city, are very liberal, but would be more 
eifective by a simpler administration. The schools, except the gym- 
nasium and the special schools, are mainly denominational in their 
management, and may be classified as follows : 

I. Elementary Schools. — Eight country schools of a higher char- 
acter, with 2.820 pupils ; 4 Protestant burgher schools, with 2,230 
pupils ; 4 Catholic schools, with 950 pupils ; 2 Jewish burgher schools, 
with 940 pupils. Total elementary pupils, 6,940. 

II. Secondary and Sri'perior Schools. — One gymnasium, with 20 
teachers, a ten years' course, and an average of 160 pupils; 4 real- 
schools, with a Latin class in each, and about 900 pupils in all ; 3 
higher burgher schools, (Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish,) with a 
total of 1,350 pupils, male and female; and 3 female high schools, 
with 840 pupils, besides a large number (forty-four in 1863,) of pri- 
vate institutions with elementary and secondary classes. 

III. Special Schools and Institutions. — One normal school, with 
30 pupils ; 1 gallery of architecture, painting, and sculpture, with a 
school of fine arts ; 1 high school of arts and trades, with a prepara- 
tory school, and a total of 260 pupils ; 1 school of commerce, with a 
preparatory school, and public lectures; 1 institute for deaf mutes, 
with 20 pupils ; 1 orphan home, with 46 inmates ; 2 infant asylums, 
with 60 inmates ; 1 school of gymnastics ; 1 house of refuge, with 
24 inmates ; the Senkenberg museum of natural history ; public 
library of 70,000 volumes, &c. In addition, we may mention the 
Sunday, and evening industrial school of the Society of Public Wel- 
fare, which receives subventions from the government ; a private acad- 
emy of commerce ; a permanent museum for the exhibition of ma- 
chinery ; a school for medical gymnastics. 



The Schsol of Commerce at Frankfort includes : (1.) An improvement school 
for clerks ; (2.) A regular commercial school; (3.) An academy of commerce 
and industry. The school, like that at Leipsic, belongs to the chamber of com- 
merce, and its direction is confided to a committee chosen by it, which com- 
mittee renders a monthly report. 

(1.) The Improvement School is open to pupils after they leave the primary 
schools. They m.ust undergo an examination before being admitted. If they 
fail in this, they enter into a supplementary school annexed to the establishment, 
where they remain until they receive the necessary preparation, or fail in a second 
examination, in which last case they are advised not to pursue their studies. 

The course lasts two years. The term begins after Easter and continues until 
Michaelmas ; there are two lessons daily, one in the morning, and one in the 
afternoon, the hours varying according to the season and the press of business, 
being fixed by the chamber of commerce. 

The studies pursued are German, French, English, commercial correspondence, 
the arithmetic, geography, and history of commerce, book-keeping, and callig- 
raphy. The school is well attended, and the teaching is successful. 

(2.) The Commercial Division is open to all who have finished the burgher school, 
or all but one of the classes of a gymnasium, or can pass an examination show- 
ing an equivalent grade of cultivation. By these means, pupils with a fair de- 
gree of secondary, general, and classical instruction are secured. 

The course includes two classes of one semester each, and the branches taught 
are as follows, the hours being three hours in the morning and three in the after- 
noon : German, French, English, the arithmetic, correspondence, geography, and 
history of commerce, book-keeping, physics, chemistry, articles of commerce, 
calligraphy, and political economy applied to German commerce. 

The following branches are optional, given at extra hours, and for a var}'ing 
fee, according to special agreement : Italian, Spanish, and stenography. 

(3. ) The Academy for Commerce, open to all who desire to attend, on payment of a 
fee, is a course of lectures or conferences, which may be considered an additional 
semester to the last. The plan was boiTowed from Faraday's lectures in the 
Royal Institution in London. Its aim is to give a high commercial education to 
the burgher class. It is administered by a committee of eight, chosen by ballot. 

The course commences after Easter ; the lectures occupy two or three hours 
in the morning and two or three in the afternoon. There are coTirses upon the 
languages, ethics, commerce, and science. The course upon the languages ex- 
plains the principles of comparative grammar, illustrating with English, French, 
and German. It also includes remarks upon the literary styles of these tongues, 
and extracts from the best authors are repeated. That upon ethics embraces re- 
marks upon the principal systems of philosophy, ancient and modem, the pro- 
gress of material and moral civilization, and the influence of literature, and the 
growth of the arts upon social manners throughout the world. The course upon 
commerce embraces commercial law and convention, political economy, particu- 
larly in regard to the comriierce of Gennany, commercial geography and histor}--, 
and the universal history of the industrial arts. That on science treats of t!ie 
present condition of science, of the most recent discoveries in physics, and of 
chemistry applied to the knowledge of merchandise. There is also an afternoon 
course of Italian and Spanish, the fee, which varies according to the number of 
courses, being from ten to thirty francs the semester. 



The Frankfort Trades' Schools were founded by a society, formed in 1816, 
and'called the " Society for the Promotion of useful Arts and Allied Sciences." 

They include: (1.) A Sunday school for artisans; (2.) An evening school; 
(3.) A higher trades' school. The first aims at the completion of elementary 
education for such young persons as have already left the popular school. The 
second offers exclusive instruction in industrial technical drawing. 

The Hi(jher Trades' School imparts general and special instruction to those 
about to enter a trade, and prepares those about to devote themselves to some 
branch of technical industry for the special classes of higher institutions and the 
polytechnic school. Each class is complete in itself, every pupil leaving Aviien 
fitted for his futui-e business. For instance, those intended for the building trade 
leave after the second class ; those who wish to devote thems-clves to architecture 
or engineering go on through the first. 

The branches taught are mathematics, (including algebra, geometry, trigo- 
nometry, analytical and practical geometry, analysis,) natural philosophy, pbysics, 
chemistry, mechanics and machinery, descriptive geometiy, architectural and 
machine drawing, topographical and free-hand drawing, German, French, history, 
literature, geography, and calligraphy. 

Free-hand drawing is begun from copies, and goes on, as soon as possible, to 
drawing from casts. Particular attention is paid to ornamental drawing. Only 
the best pupils are allowed to undertake shading, and then only with the stump. 
Linear drawing begins Avith the construction of geometrical figures by which the 
pupil is practiced in the use of the rule, the compass, and the drawing pen, after 
which comes drawing from simple implements, then from wooden models, and 
finally the pupil is exei'cised in construction. 

The fees for the evening school are six florins annually. There are none for the 
Sunday school, but a moderate entrance money is charged. In the higher trades' 
schools the fees vary from 30 to 50 florins, according to the class, of which there 
are four. 

These fees, together with the contributions of the society, pay the expenses 
of the trades' schools. The cost of the Sunday and the evening schools is de- 
frayed by the monthly fees, by contributions from the treasury of the society, and 
by the interest from a special school fund which is in the trusteeship qf the society, 
and is increased by donations, by entrance fees to the Sunday school, and the 
interest of that portion of the fund which is less than 1 ,000 florins complete. 

The administration of these schools is in the hands of a board of directors, 
consisting of nine members chosen by the society, of which three go out annually. 
They choose among themselves a director Avho presides, a vice-director, a secre- 
tary, a treasurer, a manager, and an assistant librarian. The immediate direc- 
tion of the school, the maintenance of the fixed plan of studies, the care for the 
health and conduct of the pupils, and the conduct of the masters, and the execu- 
tion of the orders of the board, is in the hands of the head-master, who has a 
seat in the board. The director conducts all business matters, and represents the 
school at the meetings of the society. The board has for its duties, to arrange 
the plan of studies, and to name the books, to provide apparatus, to appoint 
and dismiss teachers, to an*ange prize competitions and holidays, and to manage 
the funds. They must consult the teachers in forming the plan of studies, and 
m.ust attend the recitations from time to time. 




The free city and State of Lubeck, the nominal capital of the 
Hanse towns, on several isolated ponions of territory, had a total 
population of 44,357, of which 31,898 were in the city and immediate 
suburbs. It has considerable commercial activity, but no special 
school calculated to prepare young men for it. 

The public schools, although numerous enough for the poor, are inef- 
ciently organized, and administered by conflicting authorities, civil, ec- 
clesiastical, and corporate; the statistics may be classified as follows : 

I. Elementary School. — 1 city school for 700 poor children ; 15 
schools of educational societies with an aggregate of 4,800 pupils. 
There are numerous private schools, both elementary and secondary, 
which absorb the interest of the educated and wealthy families. 

II. Secondary and Superior Schools. — 1 gymnasium, founded in 
1163, and known as Catharineum, \\\\h. 128 classical scholars, 111 
real scholars, and a preparatory section with 82 scholars, — a total of 
321 scholars, and 19 teachers; 3 endowed schools, with Latin classes, 
and 450 pupils. The public library has upward of 50,000 volumes. 

III. Special Schools. — There are several institutions for orphan 
and neglected children ; and for special classes, but of these we ha\ e 
no information except the 


The trade school, at Lubeck, dates from 1841, and owes its origin and support 
to the Lubeck Society for the "Promotion of objects of Public Utility." Its plan 
is to give such theoretical instruction to apprentices as may be usefiil to them in 
their several trades, but it is open to all lads above the age of twelve Avho intend 
to enter upon some mechanical occupation, or wish to fit themselves for the agri- 
cultural and polytechnic schools, &c. They must be acquainted with the first 
four rules of arithmetic and write readily from dictation. Most are, in reality, 
farther advaifced than this. 

The present head teacher was educated at the Hanover Polytechnic, the others 
in teachers' seminaries, after having attended the trade school. Their ability to 
teach is ascertained by examinations and testimonials. They are engaged per- 
manently, but may be dismissed at six months' notice. 

No special mode of instruction is prescribed, it being thought that diflFerent 
matters require different methods, and that the individual action of the teachers, 
in this regard, ought not to be interfered with. The endeavor is to stimulate con- 
tinually the minds of the pupils, and cultivate independence of thought. All 
subjects, however, are illustrated by experiments, for which purpose there is a 
large and increasing stock of apparatus, models, plans, and chemical prepara- 

The total number of pupils, in 1867, was 200. The expenses of the school are 
discharged by the tuition fees, at the rate of about $5.00 per head, the annual 
cost of the whole, not including the rent, being $1,250. Orphans are received 
free of charge, and the fees for apprentices are sometimes discharged by the mas- 
ters. The institution has proved itself to be useful, and is well patronized. 



The free city of Bremen had in 1864 a population of 98,575, on a 
territory of 106 square miles. Of the entire population, 31,358 live 
without the city. The city has extensive commercial interests. 

The superior administration of the schools is in the hands of the 
Scholarchat, of four members of the senate, each school having a 
municipal commission or a school delegation. 

I. Public Primary Schools, a. Nine parish schools, v^ith 2,939 
pupils, in four classes, both sexes being mingled in the three lower. 
Each is governed by the Bauherren or representatives of the com- 
m'uie, presided over by the pastor. h, Nine free schools, with 
2,062 pupils, all state institutions, school materials being supplied gra- 
tuitouslvs c. Twenty-four private schools, Avith 2,118 pupils, opened 
after special permission, and directed by females, who receive half 
their rent from the state if their annual pay is under 1 2 thalers. 
d. Two schools of the women's societies, or industrial schools, with 
78 pupils, e. Asylums for children. 

The masters of the parish schools receive from 175 to 500 thalers, 
with lodging; of the free schools, 180 to 485 thalers. The first 
masters receive 20 thalers additional every five years, until the whole 
salary reaches 550. The masters of the free schools are pensioned 
by the state ; of the parish schools, from a special fund. There is 
also a fund formed by contributions of four thalers from each teacher, 
which is for the widows and orphans. 

/. Twenty-four rural schools, mostly over crowded, with an insuffi- 
cient number of teachers. They receive an annual subvention of 
8,740 thalers 

II. Higher and Private Schools, a. Gymnasium, 11 teachers, 
117 scholars, b. Preparatory school, 12 teachers, 278 scholars. 
c. Six private schools, preparatory to gymnasium and burgher 
schools, 366 scholars. cL Four private burgher and real schools, 
555 scholars, e. Nine higher female schools, private institutions, 
648 scholars, f. Fifteen elementary schools for children of the 
wealthier classes, 627 pupils. 

III. Special and Professional Schools, a. Commercial school 
15 teachers, 227 scholars, h. Teachers' seminary, 30 pupils. 




1. Military Marine. 
There are in Austria several kinds of naval schools, as follows : One each 
for sailor lx)ys, for marines, for quartermasters, for naval pupils of the first class, 
for naval pupils of the second class, a theoretical school for naval cadets, and a 
superior establishment for naval officers. 

1. The school for sailor boys is intended to train, as petty officers for the navy, 
young men from the Slave and German provinces, admitted between 12 and 14 
years of age into the naval service. The instruction lasts until the pupil has 
attained the age for the conscription ; he is then entered as a sailor and becomes 
a petty officer as soon as he gets sufficiently used to the sea. The highest post 
he can attain is that of upper boatswain {Hochbootsmann.) 

2. The schools for marines [Zeugscorps) receive men drawn from different 
corps of the army. They are trained as petty officers, and a part receive the 
uniform. Those who are fit to become officers receive their promotion when they 
leave their corps to enter the school, 

3- The school for naval cadets of the first class is kept on board a war vessel 
selected for the purpose. The object is to prepare for the naval sei-vice youths 
of 16 or 18 years of age, who, on entering the school have already received a 
complete civil technical education. The teaching here consists, therefore, chiefly 
of pi'actical seamanship, and also of the application of previously acquired scien- 
tific knowledge to navigation and nautical astronomy. The course occupies a 
year ; on leaving, the pupil is received as a naval cadet. After passing two or 
three years at sea these cadets enter the theoretical school for naval cadets. 

4. The school for naval cadets of the second class is intended solely to prepare 
them to become officers. In this school, beside the pupils placed there at the 
cost of the State, there are others maintained by cndoAvmcnts, and also others 
who pay for their instruction. The sons of officers and State functionaries are 
entitled to enter this school at the public expense, and any Austrian subject who 
has the necessary qualifications is admitted on payment. Foreigners are also 
admissible as paying pupils, provided they can obtain authorization from their 
own government to enter the Austrian service. To be- admitted, candidates 
must be between 12 and 14 years of age, of sound health without bodily defect, 
and able to pass a previous examination. The instruction is given in accordance 
with a determined plan, on board a vessel prepared expressly to receive thepupils. 
After three years' instruction the pupils leave the school as naval cadets and are 
sent to sea. At the end of two or three years' active service the cadets are ad- 
mitted to the theoretical school. This school receives from 40 to 50 pupils. The 
chaplain on board is charged with the religious instruction ; the other teaching 
is given by professors from the hj'drographic schools. The naval officers of the 
school-ship give the instruction in practical seamanship. 

5. The theoretical school for .naval cadets is on shore, and its course occupies 
a year, after which the pupil undergoes the examination prescribed for his com- 
mission as an officer. On leaving this theoretical school the pupils are still naval 
cadets, but become officers when appointed to a ship. 

6. The superior school for naval officers is intended for the further improve- 
ment in mathematical and hydrogi-aphic studies, of such young men as have 
shown decided talent and taste for those sciences. 



. The kingdom of Hanover, before its absorption into Prussia, on an 
area of 14,846 English square miles, in 1864 had 1,888,070 iirhab- 
itants. In the Hartz mountahis extensive mining operations are 
carried on, and the total annual produce is valued at 5,523,b85 
thalers. Agriculture and the raising of cattle, form, however, the 
most important sources of income. On the coast, in the rivers, and in 
2,0 00 fish-ponds, a large amount of fish is caught every year. The 
number of manufactories, mostly linen, was in 1861, 7,141, employ- 
ing 41,855 people. The trade is largely absorbed by Hamburg and 

The total annual expenditure in 1864, amounted to 20,066,011 
thalers, of which sum 184,000 thalers were expended on public in- 
struction — 116,000 thalers on primary, and 68,000 thalers on second- 
ary schools. The institutions of public instruction are administered 
by the minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs, and embrace : 

1, Primary Instruction. There are 3,584 primary schools, with 281,348 schol- 
ars, and 3,812 teachers. 

•2. Secondary Instniction. There are 8 real schools, with 965 scholars, and 
39 teachers; 11 higher burgher schools, with 2,181 scholars, and 112 teachers; 
17 gymnasia, with 5,192 scholars, and 205 teachers ; 3 progymnasia, with 272 
scholars, and 23 teachers; 11 higher girls' schools, with 1,862 scholars, and 
107 teachers ; making a total of 44 secondary schools, with 10,472 scholars, and 
486 teachers. 

3. Superior Tnfitruction. The University at Gottingen, with 4 faculties, had in 
1868, 809 students, and 119 professors. 

4. Special and Professional Instruction. Eleven teachers' seminaries, with 254 
pupils, viz: 1 (preparatory institute) at Hanover, Avith 32 pupils; 1 (head semi- 
nary) at Hanover, with 24 pupils ; 1 (after-training) at Hanover, with 1.2 pupils; 
1 (city and county teachers) at Alfeld, with 50 pupils ; 1 (boarding seminary) at 
Liineburg, with 32 pupils; 1 at Aurich, with 26 pupils; 1 at Stade, A\dth 20 
pupils; 1 at Neuenhaus, with 10 pupils; 1 (catholic) at Osnabriick, with 12 
pupils; 1 (protestant) at Osnabriick, with 24 pupils; 1 (catholic) at llildcsheim, 
with 12 pupils. 3 navigation schools; 3 commercial academies; 1 agricultural 
school ; 1 polytechnic school, at Hanover ; I mining school ; 1 school of forestry ; 
1 military academy; 3 theological seminaries ; 1 asylum for the blind, at Hano- 
ver, with 75 pupils; 1 institution for the deaf mutes, at Ilildosheini, with 120 
pupils; 1 do. at Emden, with 25 pupils; 2 with normal schools, at Stade and 
Osnabriick, with 48 pupils ; 1 for imbeciles ; 3 rescue houses ; 1 Pestalozzi home 
and refuge ; 5 orphan houses ; 20 infant schools and gardens. 

Since 1866 Hanover forms part of the kingdom of Pnissia, constituting the 
province of Hanover. 




Of the educational institutions of Hanover designed or used to prepare young 
persons for their special career, and to meet the demands of the public service 
or of particular industries or special classes, we select a few for brief notice. 


An apprentice can not become a member of his trade without the approba- 
tion of a committee of the guild, over which presides a member of the municipal 
council. One of the conditions imposed by the^committee is evidence of regu- 
lar attendance on the evening and the Sunday classes estabhshed at the expense 
of the town, and under the supervision of a government board. These im- 
provement classes include drawing and geometry, besides a review of the pri- 
mary studies. Of these schools there were 37 in 1863, with ItO teachers, 4,077 
apprentices, and 3,763 journeymen. 

artisans' school at HANOVER. 

Besides the apprentice improvement schools, there exists in the capital a 
trade or artisan school, with a preparatory class. In the latter, tliere is an 
average attendance of 234 pupils, and in the school proper over 600 workmen 
GVQ^y year. Drawing constitutes the principal subject of instruction, and in 
1864, out of 344 attending to it, 102 were classed as free-hand; 149 special, 67 
geometrical and architectural ; and 26 from the cast. 

woEKiyrEx's societies' classes. 
Connected with societies of workmen, which exist in the chief towns, there 
are classes (taught by paid professors) which in Hanover were attended in 1864 
by 814 members, of whom more than one-half were taught in different classes 
of drawing, modeling, and wood-carving. 


The real-school was originally established in 1835 for young men whose 
parents intended them to follow a trade, but it was deemed best to exclude all 
matters special and technical, and the municipality instituted an independent 
course of commercial instruction, book-keeping, and kindred subjects, distrib- 
uted through two years, of four terms of six months each, held four evenings 
in the week. The merchants' guild selects the pupils who apply, and their mas- 
ters are bound to give them the necessary time, and to enforce their regular 


In Nienberg there . is a special school for workmen in the building trades — 
open in the winter from October 21 to the end of March, and divided into three 
classes, in which sixty hours a week are devoted by practical masons, joiners, 
and those pursuing other trades, mainly to technical studies. 
- Lowest Class. — Compositions in the German language, 8 hours per week ; 
Arithmetic and algebra, 9 ; Plane geometry, calculation of areas, 7 ; Linear 
drawing and descriptive geometry. — jointing roofe, framing, &c., 15 ; Element^ 


of physics, 4; Architectural drawing, 5; Free-hand drawing, and ornament, 12 
— ^.i totiil of 60 hours for live raoiiUis. 

Stcond Class. — Syntax, punctuation, business letters in German, 4 hours ; Al- 
gebra, 6 ; Plane and solid geometry. — Bimiliiude, polygons, the circle, planes, 
cubature, 4 hours per week ; Descriptive geometry. — framing of roofs, vaults, 
staircases, compound apparatus, parts ol machines, shadows, perspective,. 8 ; 
Technical physics. — Ibrces, eflects, centre of j^raviiy, simple machines, 4; Les- 
sons on buildings for stone-cutters, masons, carpenters, slaters, with drawing of 
plans, sections, elevations, orders, enUiblatures, details, 21; Lessons on building 
materials, 3 ; Drawing of ornaments, from models, 6 ; Modeling in clay or 
plaster, wood or stone, 4. Total, 60 hours per week. 

Fi7-d doss. — German language. — Written and oral compositions, 2 hours ; 
Manufacturers' book-keeping, 2 ; Algebra, geometv}', plane and solid, (repeti- 
tions and exercises.) 4; Practical geometry. — Surveying of land, roads, parts of 
towns, leveling, plotting, 4; Technical physics. — Machines employed in build- 
ing, resistance of materials, pressure of water, hoisting machines — Mechanics 
connected with building, 6; Course on building. — Erection of houses. &c. — 
Study of ground — Foundations — Establishment of comi)]ete projects with esti- 
mates — Design of building — Laws affecting buildings. 80 ; Drawing of orna- 
ment, 6 : Modeling in plaster and clay, stone and wood, 6 to 12. Total, 60 to 
66 lessons per week. 

This school, in 1863-64, had 14 professors and 195 pupils, of whom there 
were 89 masons, 87 joiners, 2 tilers, 9 millwrights and fitters, 7 cabinet-makers, 
1 locksmith. 

The majority of the pupils were from 17 to 25 years of age ; the youngest 
was 15, and the eldest 37. 


The first impulse towards the erecting of this institution was given by the 
old Industrial Club in Hanover, which urged upon the ministers of state (in 
1830) the necessity of a technical school. The. ministry entered into the idea, 
caused means to be furnished, and appointed the distinguished Karmarsch, still 
at its head, to take immediate charge of the school, under the Eoyal Commis- 
sioners of Technical Schools. The first terra of the higher industrial school, 
which name it took, commenced October 3d. 1S31. In 1834 the hired buildings 
proved insufficient, and a new building was begun for its accommodation and 
completed in 1837, at an expense of $80,000. A careful choice of teachers, 
watchful superintendence of the instruction, and a marked progress in the ex- 
tension of the latter, made this school soon famous, and won confidence, espe- 
cially in foreign lands. Ifext to Carlsruhe it has the greatest number of 
foreigners. In 1847 it received the name of Polytechnic school, which it had 
really been for a long time. 

The aim of the school is in general the same as that of other institutions of 
the kind, viz , a preparation for technical State service in architecture, railway 
building, and the making of machinery, as well as to give a scientific education 
and special studies to those who wish to fit themselves for carrying out scien- 
tific and industrial undertakings. The instruction is divided into a preparatory 
course, and the school proper, which includes the higher special studies. 

A comparison can not be instituted between this preparatory course and the 
general mathematical classes of other schools, since differential and integral 
calculus is not taught here. In hke manner, the school proper is not, as else- 
where, divided into special departments, but tlie whole course is given in single 
subjects, more or less of which, according to circumstances, form the scientific 
education of the pupils for any particular department. To prevent pupils from 


taking an unsuitable course of study, certain acquirements are necessary for 
entering each class, whereby, in an indirect way, a definite course is secured. 

To meet the increasing demands for special instruction, additional studies 
have from time to time been added to the printed announcements, and in these, 
certain fixed courses are recommended to students for special technical depart- 

The chief subdivisions of the teaching are regulated with a view to giving 
tlie instruction necessary: 1. For manufacturing chemists; 2. For agricul- 
turists; 3. For surveyors; 4. For mechanicians and constructors of machines; 
5. For architects ; 6. For hydraulic, railway, and road engineers. 

To be admitted as a pupil in the preparatory school, candidates must be six- 
teen years of age, and seventeen for the upper school or for special divisions. 
The instruction required for the preparatory school comprises the German lan- 
guage and the habit of composition therein, the use of decimal fractions, the 
rules of three and of proportions, the elements of algebra, plane geometry, and 
general notions of geography and history. As for the special courses of the 
superior school, candidates must be masters of the matters taught in the pre- 
paratory school, of which we give the details below. However, the pupils who 
intend to follow only the courses of natural history, are not obliged to undergo 
an examination in mathematics. No examination is imposed on those who 
mean to attend only the lessons on drawing and modehng. 

Programme of the Preparatory School. — Elementary mathematics: algebra 
as far as equations of the third and fourth degrees ; elements of geology and 
botany; elements of mineralogy ; free-hand drawing ; linear drawing; elements 
of descriptive geometry. 

Programme of the Polytechnic School. — Pure mathematics, in two courses, as far 
as the calculus of variations ; descriptive geometry ; practical geometry ; me- 
chanics ; higher mechanics, theoretical and applied; construction of machines; 
study of machines ; study of prime movers and other machines ; building con- 
struction, in three courses; roads and railways; bridges and hydraulic con- 
structions ; geology, mineralogy, and physical geography ; pure physics ; applied 
physics ; chemistry, theoretical and applied with manipulation ; manual labor, 
including instruction in working in metals and in wood, spinning and weaving, 
modeling, and the construction of small models. 

To enable the pupils to select the courses which they may attend, and to pre- 
clude numerous inquiries, the general regulations state that the preparatory 
school comprises, in the course of a year, the following subjects: zoology, bot- 
any, mineralogy, elementary mathematics, free-hand and hnear drawing. 

The order of the studies, after leaving the preparatory school and for special 
branches, is shown by the following programme : 

For Chemists. — First Year. — Preparatory school. 

Second Ytar. — Theoretical chemistry, technology, theoretical and apphed 
physics and meclianics. 

Third Year. — Geology and physical geography, or instead, general knowledge 
of machines and applied chemistry. 

Fourth Year. — Chemical manipulation. 

For Agriculturists. — First Year. — Preparatory school. 

Second Year. — Theoretical chemistry, technology, physics, mechanics. 

Tiiird Year. — General knowledge of machines, first course of building con- 
struction, practical geometry and drawing of plans, or else chemical manipula- 
tion, practical chemistry. 

For Surveyors. — First Year. — Preparatory school. 

Second. Year. — First course of higher mathematics ; theoretical and applied 
physics; descriptive geometry. 


Taird Year. — Practical geometry with drawing of plans. Geology and phy- 
sical geography. 

Foii Mechanicians and Machine-makers. — First Year. — Preparatory 

Second Year. — First course of higlier mathematics; mechanics, technology, 
descriptiv.e geometry, theoretical physics. 

Till id ^''mr.— Knowledge of machines, construction of machines, first course 
of construction, higlier meclianics. 

Fourth Year. — Knowledge of special machines ; second course of higher 
mathematics, pure chemistry, applied physics. 

For Architects. — First Year. — Preparatory school. 

Second Year. — First course of higher mathematics ; technology, descriptive 
geometry, mechanics, tlieoretical physica 

Third Year. — First course of construction and ornamentation, practical geom- 
etry and drawing of plans, general knowledge of machines, modelmg, drawing 
from the cast. 

Fourth Year. — Second course of construction and ornamentation, physical 
geography, construction of roads and railways, modehug and drawing from the 

Fifth Year. — Third course of construction and ornamentation, bridges and 
hydraulic constructions, theoretical chemistry. 

For Civil Engineers. — First Year. — Preparatory school. 

Second Year. — First course of higher mathematics; technology, descriptive 
geometr}^ theoretical physics, and mechanics. 

TJiird Year. — Second course of higher mathematics; first course of building 
construction; practical geometry and drawing of plans, construction of ma- 

Fourth Year. — Road and railways ; second course of building construction ; 
higlier mechanics, pliysical geography, and applied physics. 

Fifth Year. — Hydraulics and construction of bridges, third course of building 
construction ; special machines, and theoretical chemistry. 

The French Commission submit the following observations on the above 
courses : 

The details which have been given show that the order of the teaching is so 
regulated that, for certain important divisions, such as those of mechanicians 
and architects, pupils may receive a very serviceable amount of technical in- 
struction, with the aid of elementary mathematics, and enter upon the practice 
of their professions without going through the whole course of studies. Such 
an arrangement is very suitable for many young men, and in no way injurious 
to the soundness of their education. 

Thiis, to enable them to attend the first course of mechanics, the course of 
construction of machines, those of hydraulics, prime movers, and of the prin- 
cipal machine-tools, and for the drawing up of projects relative to these ma- 
chines, the meclianical engineers do not require more than the elementary and 
fundamental principles of geometry, algebra, trigonometry, and descriptive 
geometry. Tliere is no necessity for them to study the higher pure mathe- 
matics, which, notwithstanding their utility, present considerable diflBculties to 
certain minds, and require no little time and effort. The same may be said of 
the instruction given to architects ; for, after attending the first two courses of 
construction, the pupils may have acquired the knowledge necessary for ordi- 
nary buildings. 

This gradation of instruction greatly diminishes the inconvenience, above 
mentioned, of the high reading in the second course of pure mathematics. 
Moreover, the table showing the distribution of the students among the different 
branches of learning, which we are about to give, justifies our observations ; 
for it will thereby he seen that whilst 89 pupils are inscribed for elementary 
mathematics, and 83 for the first course of higher mathematics, there are only 
1-4 for the second course of the same studies. It is therefore more than prob- 
able that a small proportion of the 83 pupils of the first course really profit by 
those lessons. 


The pupils were distributed among the diflFerent branches as follows: 

Elementary mathematics, 89 Mineralogy, 57 

Pure mathematics, P^* course, 83 Geolojry. , 40 

' p^d course 14 Hieoretical physics, ,24 

Mechanics 93 Technicul physics, 10 

Higher mechanics, 60 Theoretical chemistry 50 

Practical geometry .'i? Technical chemistry, 27 

Descriptive geometry 73 Practical chemistry, 29 

Study of machines, H^y^omse, 86 Technology,. 82 

■' ^ 'J(l course, .ii Lmenr drawing, /9 

Construction of machines, 65 Free-hand drawing 96, 

1st course,. 79 Drawing from the round and reliefs, .'. . 10 

Construction of buildings, >^ 2d course, . 45 Modeling 5 

I 1st 

s, ^ 2d ( 

course,. 27 French langunge, 11 

History of the (irt of building, ( „q English language, 21 

Construction of roads and bridges, ji * " ' H istory 16 

Hydrnulic constructions, 30 Law and police of buildings, 20 

Zobiogy and botany, 52 

This table clearly shows what courses best suit the requirements of the class 
of persons who attend institutions of this kind. 

They are in the order of the preceding tab!e : — Elementary mathematics ; 
first course of pure mathematics (which might be simplified;) elementary me- 
chanics (which might be extended;) practical geometry; descriptive geometry; 
the study of machines, first course (which might be made more elementary;) 
tlie construction of machines; building construction; zoology and botany; 
theoretical chemistry ; technology ; linear drawing ; free-hand drawing. 

It would seem therefore that attention ought to be directed principally to 
these ditlerent branches of learning, and every effort made to facilitate their 
study by the adoption of the simplest methods. It seems clear that the teach- 
ing of the sciences of a high order has a repellant effect on the pupils. That 
physics should be among the number of the studies least followed is remarkable 
and much to be regretted.' There are, perhaps, particular causes for this, but, 
in anj^ case, that science ought to hold a higher rank in the programme and to 
have greater facihties for experimenting. 

The number of pupils for the last three years has averaged about 440, of 
whom 380 were regular — the age ranges from eleven to twenty, a majority 
being under sixteen years. 

There are 21 regular professors, 3 tutors, and several special teachers. 

The State pays all expenses over the receipts from tuition, (w'hich amount to 
about $6,500 a year,) and supplies the building and equipment. 

Prof Koristka, in his account of the Higher Polytechnic Institutions' of Ger- 
many, speaks of this school: 

The school at Hanover rightly enjoys great reputation in foreign lands.. It 
stands firm by its first organization, which followed closely that of Austria. It 
is not divided into separate schools, but its whole course is given in single sub- 
jects, which are, however, combined in such a waj'- as to give most of the 
advantages of special schools. Its experience is proof that success depends 
as mucli on the excellence and cooperation of the teachers as on organization 
and courses of study. All the teachers (twenty-four, of whom six have the 
title of professors and three of assistant-professors) constitute a board, which 
meets once a month in council and decides on all general rules as to studies 
and discipline. All submit to tlie "directory," which is lodged in two persons 
appointed by the government — one, the principal, is responsible for the finances 
and the collections, and the other, for the discipline. The general supervision 
belongs to a royal commission, consisting of the two directors, and four other 
members. This commission appoints the professors and must visit the class and 
lecture-rooms, and report annually. Terms in the preparatory school, $24; 
and in the Polytechnic there is a fee for each coursC; which varies according to 
the length from $3 to $16. 



The Electorate of Hesse- Cassel, on an area of 4,430 English 
square miles, in 1804 had 74o,0G3 inhabitants. . It is chiefly an agri- 
cultural and cattle-producing country ; factories are only to be found 
in the larger towns, and these chiefly devoted to linen, and of late 
years also to cotton fabrics. There are also some paper, glass, iron, 
and other workshops, and 338 distilleries. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Hesse-Cassel 
in 1865, amounted to 4,897,680 thalers, of which 90,330 thalers were 
expended for general instruction. The amount of school-fees is 
estimated at 60,000 thalers annually. 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by the 
minister of the interior, and under him by the provincial and district 
autjiorities, and include : 

1. Primary or Common Schools ( Volksschulen). Of these there 
were in 1865, about 1,300, of which 117 are burgher and city 
schools, with about 126,000 scholars, and 1,163 teachers. 

2. Secondary Schools. 2 Latin schools, with 89 scholars, and 5 
teachers ; 2 progymnasia, with 128 scholars, and 13 teachers ; 6 gym- 
nasia, with 1,333 scholars, and 92 teachers ; 10 real schools and higher 
burgher schools, with 2,254 scholars, and 110 teachers; making a 
total of 20 secondary schools, with 3,804 scholars, and 220 teachers. 

3. Superior Schools. The University at Marburg, with four facul- 
ties (theology, law, medicine, philosophy), had 50 professors, and 
310 students. 

4. Special and Professional Schools, 
3 Teachers' seminaries. 

1 Higher industrial school. 

1 School of forestry. 

1 School of agriculture. 

A catholic seminary at Fulda. 

A cadet school at Cassel. 

An academy of arts at Cassel. 
After the war of 1866, the Elector was deposed, and the whole 
country annexed to Prussia, of which kingdom it now forms, together 
with Nassau and Frankfort, the province of Hesse and Franken. 




The Grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on an area of 3,240 Eng- 
lish square miles, in 1864 had 816,902 inhabitants. Hesse-Darm- 
stadt is chiefly an agricultural country ; on the Rhine the vine is 
extensively cultivated, and the region of the Odenwald and the Wet- 
terau are famous for excellent fruit. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Hesse- Darm- 
stadt in 1866, amounted to 9,372,962 florins, of which 44,463 florins 
were extended for primary instruction, and 28,040 florins for second- 
ary instruction. 

The institutions of public instruction, administered by the minis- 
ter of the interior, embrace : 

1. Primary Schools. Of these there are 1,756, with 150,568 
scholars, and 1,382 teachers. 

2. Secondary Schools. 6 gymnasia, with 1,171 scholars, and 81 
teachers; 10 real schools, with 1,818 scholars, and 110 teachers; 3 
higher burgher schools, with 646 scholars, and 29 teachers; making 
a total of 19 secondary schools, with 3,635 scholars, and 220 teachers. 

3. Superior Schools. The University at Giessen, with four facul- 
ties (theology, law, medicine, ,and philosophy), had in 186§-9, 45 
professors, and 326 students^. 

4. Special and Professional Schools, 
2 Teachers' seminaries. 

1 School of forestry. 
1 Commercial academy. 

1 Military academy. 

2 Schools of agriculture. 

1 School of veterinary surgery. 

2 Polytechnic schools. 

2 Deaf and dumb asylums. 
1 Institution for the blind. 




The Grand Ducliy of Meckleriburg-Scluverin, on an area of 4,834 English 
square miles, in 1864, had 552,612 inliabitants, entirely agricultural, the rural 
population being little removed from the condition of serfs. The trade in corn, 
cattle, butter, &c., is chiefly carried on by the two ports of Wismar and Rostock. 

The total annual expenditure in 1865 was 3,430,028 thalers, of which sum 
about 30,000 was expended for public instruction. 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by the Minister of 
Education, who at the same time is Minister of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs. 

1. Primary Schools. — There are 1,334 elementary schools and 45 burgher- 
schools. The exact number of scholars and teachers is not given officially, but 
by estimation there were in 1864 about 69,000 pupils, under 1,517 teachers. 

2. Secondary Schools. — There are 5 gymnasia, with 2,083 scholars and 91 
teachers; and 8 real-schools and higher burgher-schools, with 1,429 scholars 
and 62 teachers; making a total of 13 secondary schools, with 3,512 scholars 
and 153 teachers. 

% S'rperior Schools. — There is 1 university at Eostock, with 4 faculties (the- 
ology, law, medicine, and pliilosophy,) with 38 professors and 171 students. 
4. Special and Professional Schools : 

2 Teachers' seminaries, one at Neukloster with 64 pupils, and a second 

at Dobberau with 10 pupils. 
1 Deaf and dumb institution at Ludwigslust, with 58 pupils. 
1 Couimercial academy. 
1 Military adademy. 
1 School of agriculture. 

3 Nautical schools (Wustrow, Eostock, and Wismar.) with an aggregate 

of 200 pupils. That at Wustrow has a three years' course, and a 

preparatory class. 
1 School of veterinary surgery. 
1 Polytechnic school. 
40 Evening trade-schools, for apprentices and journeymen. 


The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, on an area of 997 English square 
miles, in 1861, had 99,060 inhabitants, who are mainly engaged in agriculture 
as tenants. 

There is only one "Minister of State," who manages all the affairs of the 
Grand Duchy, including the public schools, viz. : 

1. Primary Schools. — There are 231 primary schools. The number of schol- 
ars and teachers can not be ascertained from official documents, but it is esti- 
mated that there were in 1864 about 13,000 pupils, under 250 teachers. 

2. Secondary Schooh. — There are 3 gymnasia, with 814 scholars and 33 
teachers; and 4 real and higher burgher-schools, with 1,162 scholars and 33 
teachers, making a total of 7 secondary schools, with 1,976 scholars and 66 

3. Special and Professional Schools. — 1 Teachers' seminary at Mirow, with 16 
pupils : 3 institutions for neglected children, with 65 pupils ; 5 industrial 
schools for girls (teach sewing, &c.,) with 95 pupils. 



The Duchy of Nassau, on an area of 1,802 English square miles, 
in 1865 had 465,636 inhabitants. There are considerable iron, lead, 
and copper, as also a few silver mines, employing about 10,000 men ; 
but more than mining, agriculture employs a large proportion of the 
population. The vine is cultivated on the banks of the Rhine, and 
the wines raised in Nassau, (Riidesheimer, johannisberger, Hock- 
heimer, &c.,) are considered the best in Germany. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Nassau in 
1862, amounted to 5,117,831 florins. 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by the min- 
ister of state, and embrace : 

1. Primary Schools. Of these there are 716, with 1,059 teach- 
ers, and 72,296 scholars. 

2. Secondary Schools. There are 3 gymnasia, with 50 teachers, 
and 711 scholars; 4 progymnasia, with 26 teachers, and 274 schol- 
ars ; 13 real schools, with 109 teachers, and 1,345 scholars ; making 
a total of 20 secondary schools, with 2,330 scholars, and 185 teachers. 

3. Special and Professional Schools. Of these there are the 

2 Teachers' seminaries, 1 for catholic teachers (62), at Monta- 

baur, and another at Usinglen, for protestant teachers (7^9). 
2 Theological seminaries. 
1 Military school. 
1 Commercial academy. 

1 Agricultural school, at Geisberg, with 35 pupils. 
27 Mechanical, or trade schools. 
1 Institute for the deaf and dumb. 
Since 1866, Nassau has formed part of the kingdom of Prussia, to- 
gether with Hesse Cassel and Frankfort, constituting the province of 
Hesse and Franken, 




One of the most important steps of this Society, has been the establishing in 
various parts of the Duchy, of what are called Gewerbe-schulen, or industrial 
schools, consisting of — 

Firstii/, Evening classes, (Apend-schulen^) held in winter time for the purpose 
of giving young Artizans and others an useful complement to their elementary 
education, in such branches as commercial reckoning and correspondence, and 
practical geometry. 

Secondly^ Sunday Classes, (Suntag-schulen,) intended for departments of 
study y.h\(ih are not so well taught in the evening as by daylight, and held 011 
Sundays for the benefit of young men, chiefly apprentices, whose occupations 
would not allow them to attend conveniently during the week. They comprise 
the various branches of drawing required for the industrial trades, and geometry 
applied to the arts of design. 

According to the annual Report, read at the General Meeting of the Gewerbe- 
Verein, on the 11th of May, 1853, by the able Secretary, Dr. Casselmann, the 
number of Industrial Schools in activity in various parts of the Duchy, is at pres- 
ent twenty -five, with an aggregate number of about two thousand students. 

A MoJeling School has also been established at Weisbaden, and is attended at 
present by between thirty-five and forty students. 

The Report gives 7419 florins, or about 6l8i. sterling, as the amount expen- 
ded in the last financial year, for founding and maintaining the above schools, 
whereof about two thousand florins were furnished by the Society, and ^our 
thousand florins were covered by a government grant 5 the remainder was sup- 
plied by the localities. 

To secure a proper degree of intelligence and practical skill in all 
who parsue any trade, there is a legalized system of apprenticeship, 
which Mr. Twining thus describes. 

The would-be Artizan must be able to exhibit proof of having concluded his 
attendance at school, (which as I have mentioned elsewhere, is obligatory from 
the sixth to the fourteenth year,) by satisfactorily passing his final examination; 
he must also have passed his confirmation, which takes place about the same 
time ; it is pi*eceded for a considerable period, by strict religious instruction, and 
is solemnized by both Protestants and Catholics in a veiy impressive manner. 

If a lad is quite a dunce, and especially if he can not satisfactorily get through 
his Catechism, he may be retained under tuition another year ; or if his vicious 
propensities are found incorrigible by ordinary means, he may be sent off* to a dis- 
ciplinarian school, called Rettungs-haus. One of these establishments was 
founded in 1851, near the little town of Nassau, by the Countess von Gieeh, and 
now contains about ten boys; another has just been erected near Weisbaden by 
a pious Evangelical Society. 

If all is tolerably right, the lad receives in due form his educational certificate, 
and he and his friends set about looking out for the right sort of shop, and a 
comfortable master ; but before a definite agreement is come to, German prudence 
steps in very appropriately, and prescribes two weeks' preliminary trial. If this 
turns out to mutual satisfaction, a contract is drawn up, of which the legalization 
is obtained with very little expense, or none at all, if the parties are poor. 

For ordinary trades, such as those of the shoemaker, tailor, joiner, baker, <fcc., 
the usual term is three years, and the total sum to be paid to the master varies 
from thirty to sixty florins, (Si 2 to $20 ; ) or a term of four years is agreed upoUj 
without payment, the work of the apprentice in the last year being expected to 
form an equivalent. 

With respect to more difficult trades, such as those of the watchmaker, mech- 
anician, lithographer, &c., the term is usually three or four years, with a payment 
of eighty to two hundred florins, ($33 to $40.) Some few trades, requiring lit- 
tle or no technical training, are exceptional with regard to payments ; thus ap- 
prentices engaged in the operations of building, whitewashing, &c., not only have 
nothing to pay, but i*eceive at once a daily remuneration of a few kreuzers. 

In no case does an apprenticeship last longer than four years ; serious disagree 


ments between masters and apprentices are in some measure obviatfd by the ex- 
amination which must be undergone before an artizan can settle anywhere as mas- 
ter ; but in all cases redress is facilitated by the practice of paying the stipulated 
sum by installments, so that one-third or one-half the amount sfcmds over to the 
conclusion of the term. If an apprentice has just cause for complaint, he is 
releasjd by the local authorities from further obligations towards his master, and 
his friends from further payment. 

At the expiration of his term, the apprentice must furnish proof of the extent 
of his acquirements, by executing some appropriate piece of handiwork, in the 
presence of the official judges of the trade, forming a kind of jury, which, from 
its usefulness, deserves some attention. 

Every three years the masters in each trade residing in a district, or in a^ group 
of districts if the trade is a scarce one, assemble to elect, or re-elect, three repre- 
sentatives for the purpose of ex-.imining the certificates, and of testing and record- 
ing the abilities of industrial candidates. 

If the examiners are not satisfied with the j^oung man's performance, he must 
find means of improving himself, within half-a-year, against another trial ; if, on 
thci conti-ary, they are well pleased, he obtains his certificate as Gesell^ or jour- 
neyman, and sets out for his travels. 

When the Gesell arrives at a town, he goes forthwith to the Herberge^ or spe- 
ciMlly appointed inn of his trade, where the Herberge Vater, (inn father,) from 
whom he is entitled to receive paternal attentions and advice, shows him a regis- 
ter, in the form of a slate, or blackboard, on which is inscribed the name of any 
master wanting a hand. If the register is a blank, and the Gesell has no cash 
in purse from previous savings, he may claim his Viaticum, or traveling money, 
which is either paid from the treasury of the town, or from a subscription purse 
of the trade, or made up by small donations which he gets at the several work- 
shops of his calling, where he applies in succession for that purpose ; in so doing, 
he generally makes good his claim to brotherly assistance by some token which he 
b 'ars, or by mysteriously symbolicalical signs and passwords, analogous to those 
usei in freemasonry. 

At Frankfort, where trade affairs are reckoned to be on a more liberal, or more 
antiquated footing than elsewhere, an itinerant servant of the proud company of 
hiir-eutters receives from a special purse as much as thirty-six kreuzers, (one 
shilling ; ) but Jhis may be accounted exceptional, and in the generality of cases, 
the total amount which a common journeyman obtains by legitimate means, is no 
more than a few pence. At all events, the sum is definitive ; except in case of ill- 
ness, no further sum can be claimed, and it will be w^ell if the next morning's 
dawn sees our wanderer trudging contentedly onward, his knapsack on his back, 
with a boot sticking out at each end of it, and his faithful pipe dangling at the 
side of his mouth, whilst he sings some classical ditty of the brotherhood. . 

There was a time when the industrial vocabulary construed the word fechten 
as a justifiable kind of begging, which did not disgrace a needy journeyman, but 
now it is inscribed in the bl ick-book of the police 5 and if a poor fellow, com- 
pelled by sheer necessity, extends an unwilling hand toward a stranger, and a 
gend'arme espies him in the act, he is not only punished with arrest, but this fact 
is noted down in his pass-book, and subjects him, wherever he goes, to be 
watched with a suspicious eye, and to increased severity in case of a repetition 
of the offence. 

Before the journeyman can become a master in his art, or profession, and fix his 
aboie as such in a place of his choice, a few important steps remain to be taken. If a 
native of another state, he must obtain the freedom of the one of which he wishes 
to become a denizen ; if merely of anoth.-r parish, he must still get admission to 
parochial rights, wh'ch are sometimes expensive: in every case, he is required to 
accomplish single-handed, for strict inspection by the Prufungs Coimnission, 
some model piece of workmanship, sufficient to show, not merely a moderate 
amount of skill, as when he was a candidate for a journeymanship, but his thor- 
ough knowledge of the arcana majora of his calling. If he can follow up 
the display orally, with theoretical evidence, he is entitled to be admitted forthwith 
to -the Honorable Company of the Masters of the Trade. 



The agricultural institute at Geisberg, near Wiesbaden, stands on an elevated 
plateau, overlooking a most enchanting region of country, witli the fashionable 
invalid resort of Wiesbaden close by, while at a little distance rolls tlie winding 
Rhino betwerjn its vine-clad hills. Tlie celebrated vineyard of Johannisberg is 
not far down the river. This school differs from most others in giving instruc- 
tion only in winter. 

It is on the isolated and independent plan, and is designed for the instruction 
of practical farmers, without teaching practice on the place. Apphcants 
be sixteen years old, possess a good elementary education, and a good 
"character." Tliey have to bring a written certitlcate of willingness on the 
part of the parent or guardian that they should enter the sethool, and it is 
expected that the pupils shall have spent one or more sumnurs in work on the 
farm, before thay enter. If the requisite certificate of profieienc}^ in tlie 
elementary studies cannot be produced, or if it is not satisfactory, the applicmt 
is examined, and either rejected or accepted with conditions, not unlike the 
practice in entering Harvard College, where comparatively few gel in without 
"conditions." Each pupil is required to attend all the lectures; but they liave 
a class of pupils, as they have at Hohenheim, called huspitante7i, or students who 
take only the partial course. 

The theoretical instruction is given in a regular course of two winters, the 
term beginning on the 15th of October of each year, and ending on the 31st 
of March. During the intervening sunmier they are either at home, at work on 
the farm, or if they desire it, the director of the institute procures them suitable 
places with skillful practical farmers. 

Natives of Nassau pay no tuition. Outsiders pay forty-four florins, or about 
eighteen dollars a year. All the pupils board in the town of Wiesbaden. The 
instruction is by lectures and written and verbal questions on the studies. 
After the return of the students from their summer's work on the farm, they 
are required within six weeks to present a full written detail of operations, 
which, after suitable corrections, are returned to the writer. 

The parents or guardians are informed, from time to time, of the industry and 
conduct of the pupil. G-ambling, so fashionable and exciting at Weisbaden, is 
forbidden, and no student is allowed to smoke or to keep a dog. 

The institute possesses a library, which appeared to be tolerably well stocked, 
very good collections and fine lecture and study rooms. It is on ratlier a small 
scale as^ compared with some others, though it may be called one of the 
superior class. It was founded in 1835, and as may be inferred from what has 
been said above, on the principle that it is of no use to try to teach theory 
and practice at the same school. There is a small farm connected with the 
school, but, judging from the helter-skelter, or generally mixed-up condition of 
every thing about the premises, I should think they were quite right in not 
attempting to teach practice there. Old ploughs, drags, carts, harrows and 
every thing else lay around the buildings in no small confusion. When I drove 
into the yard I felt sure we had made some mistake, and had got upon the 
premises of a very slovenly farmer, but the driver was sure he was right, and. 
the result justified his topographical knowledge. 

The farm buildings are irregular and crowded, not large or imposing, but 
rather oidinary in every respect, though the building used by the students and 
tlie collections was better. 

These collections consisted of minerals, birds, quadrupeds, seeds, grains, and 
grasses, and a fine collection of wax fruits. 

The instruction embraces, in the first term or winter, the German language, 
arithmetic, botany, mineralogy, physics, general agriculture, cultivation of 
meadow-:, rural architecture, and veterinary science. In the second winter 
the boys take up zoology, physics, farm accounts, special agriculture, special 
zojteclmy, horticulture, technology, veterinary medicine and composition. 

The price of farm labor there, I learned, was thirty-six kreutzers, or twenty- 
four cents a day, the men boarding themselves. 
— — ^ _ — ___ ___ 

' * Report of C. L. Flint on Agricultural Schools, &c. 



The Grand-duchy of Oldenburg, on an area of 2,417 English 
square miles, in 1864 had 314,416 inhabitants, chiefly engaged in 
agriculture, with very few engaged in manufactories and other forms 
of industry. Though favorably situated for maritime commerce, it 
has but a small seafaring population, and its trade is principally 
confined to coasting traffic. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Oldenburg in 
1865, amounted to 2,386,110 thalers, of which 70,900 thalers were 
expended for public instruction (46,200 for primary, and 24,700 for 
secondary instruction). 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by the min- 
ister of education, who at the same time is minister of the grand- 
ducal house, of justice, and of foreign affairs. 

1. Primary Schools. There were in 1865, 490 elementary schools, 
with 43,174 scholars, and 630 teachers. 

2. Secondary Schools. There are 10 higher burgher schools, with 
1,395 scholars, and 58 teachers ; 4 gymnasia, with 644 scholars, and 
47 teachers ; 1 progymnasia, with 65 scholars, and 10 teachers ; 
making a total of 15 secondary schools, with 2,104 scholars," and 115 

3. Special and Professional Schools. 

2 Teachers' seminaries for evangelical teachers, at Oldenburg, 

with 30 pupils, and another at Vechta, with 20 pupils. 
1 Deaf and dumb institute. 
1 Military academy. 
1 Nautical school, with 30 pupils. 
1 Trade school, with 30 pupils. 
1 Agricultural school, with 44 pupils. 
1 Orphan home, at Varel, with 30 inmates. 
7 Infant schools and gardens. 



The kingdom of Prussia, on an area of 107,757 English square 
miles in 1864, (before its recent accession of territory and people,) 
had a population of 19,269,563, of which number 8,395,418 were 
engaged in agriculture, 178,903 in mining, 1,067,593 in mechanical 
and manufacturing pursuits, and 215,078 in commerce. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of Prussia in 
1865 amounted to 169,243,365 thalers, of which sum 1,865,309 
thalers were expended for public instruction, art, and science, in ad- 
dition to communal and provincial appropriations. 

The institutions of public instruction are administered by the 
Minister of Public Instruction and Ecclesiastical Afiairs ; the mili- 
tary ^schools are under the Minister of War ; and the special schools 
of trade, mines, and agriculture, are under the control of the several 
ministers charged severally with the administration of those interests. 

1. Primary or Common Schools. — Of these there were in 1864: 

25,056 elementary schools, with 36,157 teachers and 2,825,322 scholars. 
.271 burgher-schools for boys, with 1,171 teachers and 43,731 scholars. 
906 licensed private schools, with 1,683 teachers and 52,692 scholars. 
2.^5 private schools for boys, with 515 teachers and 8,421 scholars. 
239 licensed private schools for girls, with 1,456 teachers and 47,321 

396 private schools for girls, with 2,161 teachers and 27,593 scholars. 
Making a total of 27,073 primary schools, with 43,143 teachers and 3,005,080 

2. Secondary Schools. — There were in 1864: 

117 Hitfher burgher and real-schools, with 1,210 teachers and 27,189 
28 Progymnasia, with 223 teachers and 3,058 scholars. 
147 Gymnasia, with 2,117 teachers and 49,331 scholars. 
Making a total of 292 secondary schools, with 3,550 teachers and 79,578 

3. Superior Schools. — In 1864 there were 6 universities [Berlin, Bonn, Bres- 
lau, Halle, Kcinigsberg, Greifswald.] each with four faculties, viz., theology, 
law, medicine, and pliilosophy, and 1 Catholic academy at Miinster with two 
f leulies, viz., tl)eology and philosophy. These 7 institutions have a total of 389 
professors and 170 private professors \privat docenien,] and 6,077 students. Be- 
sides these there were 2 Catholic theological seminaries [Paderborn and Brauns- 
berg.] 1 Protestant theological seminary [Prussian State-church] at Witten- 
berg, and 1 Moravian theological seminary at Gnadenfeld, Silesia. There are 
large scientific collections and libraries connected with most of these institu- 
tions, and the Royal Library at Berlin numbers upwards of 500,000 volumes 
and 10,000 manuscripts. The two chemical 'laboratories at Bonn and Berlin 
recently erected are the most complete in Europe. 




4. Special cmd Professional Schools. 

60 Teachers' seminaries, [19 Catholic and 41 Protestant] with about 
3,800 students; besides 44 small institutions and classes, which 
are not recognized as government seminaries. 
•? Seminaries for secondary school teachers and professors. 

3 Academies of art [Berlin, Dusseldorf, and KiJnigsberg.] 

1 Academy of architecture. 

5 Art and building {baugewerk) schools. 

2 Technical academies or institutes (at Berlin and Cologne.) 
27 Provincial technical schools, with 2,600 pupils. 

2 Superior weaving-schools. 
1 Weaving and pattern-drawing school. 
265 Industrial schools for mechanics. 
1 Royal military academy. 
1 Artillery and engineer-school. 
5 Cadet-scliools. 

1 Militarj'^ academy of surgery and medicine. 
1 Military school of surgery. 
1 School of veterinary surgery. 
1 Military school of veterinary surgery. 
1 Central school of gymnastics. 

4 Military schools. 

16 Garrison schools (for soldiers' children.) 

5 Nautical schools. 

14 Schools of midwifery. 
26 Schools for deaf-mutes. 
10 Schools for the blind. 

1 Conservatorium and 6 schools of music. 
34 Schools of agriculture. 

1 Mining academy (Berlin.) 

8 Schools of practical mining. 

6 Schools of commerce. 
4 Schools of forestry. 

The only statistics of Prussian schools since the accession of ter- 
ritory and population in 1866, are for the Secondary Schools, which 
we give from Dr. Wiese's Report on High Schools for 1869. 



Sold Provinces. 
I. Gymnasinms. 

RegulnT Classes 42.973 

Preparatory Classes, 4,046 

Total of both, .* . 47,019 

n. Pro-Gymnaaia. 

Regular OInsses 2,430 

Preparatory Classes, 167 

Totalofbnth, 2,597 

ni. Real Schools. 

Resnlar Classes, 18,741 

Preparatory Classes, 3,362 

Total of both 22,103 

rV. Higher Burgher Schools. 

Regular (^hisses 1,991 

Preparatory Classes, 4.52 

Totalofbnth 2,443 

V. Secondary Schools of all kinds. 

Regular Cbisses .66,135 

Preparatory Classes, 8,027 

Total ofboth 74,162 


old Provinces. 

3 new Provinces 






























87,492 17,129 





Sunday schools, for instructing the young people of a parisli in 
the catechism, and biblical and church history, existed in Prussia and 
throughout Germany, certainly as early as the sixteenth century, but 
their recognition as part of the public school system dates from 17G3, 
when Frederick 11, in his General Regulations of Schools (section G), 
ordains that " on Sundays, besides the lesson of the catechism or repe- 
tition school given by the minister in the church, the school-master 
shall give in the school recapitulary lessons to the unmarried people 
of the township. They shall there practice reading and writing.'* 
In the General regulations for the Catholic schools in Silesia, opened 
in 1765, "the older children are required to attend the Sunday in- 
struction in Christianity every Sunday afternoon, and after that to 
participate for two hours in the lessons in reading and writing given 
in the school, which lessons the teachers shall give under the direc- 
tion of the pastor, that they may become useful to the young. Those 
also who have left school, and are not yet twenty years of age, 
myst attend these lessons, and their employers are bound to send 
them to school at such time, that they may review what they learned 
before, and acquire necessary knowledge." On this basis of law and 
habit, by degrees the instruction of the Sunday school was extended 
and systematized, and became an important portion of the elementary 
education of the people. In the large villages and cities, drawing, 
and the firs* principles of natural history and mechanics, composition 
in the form of business correspondence, and other branches bearing 
on the occupations of the pupils, were gradually introduced into this 
class of schools, which were also held on Monday mornings, in the 
evening of other days, as well as on the half-holidays of Wednesday 
and Saturday, and on holidays. They were also connected with the 
real schools and trade institutes, and got the name of Further Im- 
provement Schools. In Prussia in 1854, there were 220 such schools, 
with 18,000 pupils; and in BerhA, the trade improvement schools are 
taught on Sunday by the teachers of the higher schools, and consti- 
tute an important agency in the technical instruction of apprentices 
and workingmen. 


The real school, which in Prussia now occupies a well-defined place 
in the system of general education, had originally a direct technical 
aim, in the plan of Francke in 1698, and of Semler in 1706 and 


1738, and of Hecker in 1747.* Francke projected a special pedago- 
g:iim for children, who wished to become " secretaries, clerks, mer- 
chants, administrators of estates, or learn useful arts." Semler calls his 
school " a mathematical trades school," and in the mathematical, me- 
chanical, and economical real school," opened by him in Berlin in 
1738, the instruction given was "in connection with models and real 
objects," — things^ as he designates them. 

Rev. J. J. Hecker, in the programme of his " Economical Mathe- 
matical School," opened in the schools of Trinity church in 1 747, he 
pledges to all his pupils " a preparation to facilitate their entry into 
any trade they may choose." Among his classes was one of " archi- 
tecture and building," another of " manufacture, commerce and trade," 
and another of " agriculture ; " moreover, " drawing shall be prac- 
ticed." The views of Hecker were encouraged by Frederick II, who 
named his institution the " Royal Real School." This school became 
the normal school for teachers of schools on the crown domains ; and 
to it, Felbinger sent a number of pupil-teachers, who became the or- 
ganizers of improved schools in Austria, in which realistic studies and 
methods were prominent. 

In connection with the real school should be mentioned the Higher 
Burgher School — the high school of the primary system in all large 
towns, and which received its earliest and highest development in 
Leipsic, but which in Ka3nigsberg, Dantzig, and other large provincial 
centres, aimed to fit their pupils for practical careers. Both the real 
school and the higher burgher schools, although they no longer aim 
to bo technical or professional schools, even for a commeftial career, 
do give a scientific preparation for such higher vocations of 4:he 
State as do not require an academic career, and they also prepare 
students for the special and purely technical schools. Without them, 
the subordinate departments of the public service would not be, so 
well filled, and the special schools of trade, commerce, agriculture, 
and forestry could not attain their present high development. 


The immense strides made in mechanical, manufacturing, and com- 
mercial industry, and the gigantic works in engineering and construc- 
tion which the public service in peace and in war have required in , 
the last half century, have made necessary the establishment of spe- 
cial schools, in which architects, builders, machinists, engineers, artil- 
lerists, and technical chemists could be taught and trained. Hence 

* For an account of the educational labors and views of Francke and Hecker, see Barnard's 
Educational Reformers of Germany. 


in every State we find government schools for these purposes, and in 
all the great centres of population and special industries, these insti- 
tutions are as varied in their independent organization or associated 
classes, as are the industries and wants to be supplied. Prussia has 
felt deeply these necessities, and side by side with the thorough re- 
organization and extension of her general system of education — the 
multiplication and improvement of primary, secondary, and superior 
scliools — has grown up a system of special instruction — schools of ag- 
riculture, forestry, commerce, navigation, architecture, engineering, 
construction in wood and metal, and trades of all sorts, which will 
compare favorably with the best in other countries of Europe. Al- 
though not as early in the field as some of the smaller States, and 
not acting with such entire disregard of the general system as some 
others, in which the manufacturing and mechanical establishments are 
relatively more numerous and important, this class of institutions in 
Prussia are worthy of particular study on account of the superior 
system of general education on which they all rest. 


^The earliest Trade Schools, ( Gewerhe Sclmlen, as they are called, 
the word gewerhe being used in its restricted meaning, equivalent to 
the improvement of material for the purposes of gain,) in Prussia, 
were organized by Beuth in 1817-18, at Berlin and at Aix la Cha- 
pelle, to meet a want of government for better workmen in building 
operations. The school at the latter place was expressly founded to 
improve the general and special education of carpenters, mill-wrights, 
masons, stone-cutters, cabinet-makers, locksmiths, house-painters, bra- 
ziers, pewterers, and other handicrafts. They were first connected 
with the Sunday schools. 

Those established at that time were called Handiuerher forfhildunq 
schulen, and belonged to the class of "improvement schools," being 
planned to add to the knowledge of the local handicraftsmen and 
their apprentices. Schools for special trades or industries did not 
rise until a few years later. The whole system underwent a reorgan- 
ization in IS'JO, when all the establishments of this character were 
assigned to the Department of the Minister of Commerce. 

There are now not far from 500 giving instruction in almost all 
branches of industrial activity, and all being exclusively devoted to 
technological studies. The real and burgher schools, (of which there 
were in 1868, over 190,) through which those pupils who are intend- 
ing to enter the higher technical institutions generally pass, and 


which, moreover, give some instruction in commerce, are not included 
in this Hst. 

The technical schools may be divided into those imparting general 
industrial instruction, and those devoted to special branches. 

I. — The class giving general instruction embraces the following : 

(1.) Establishments corresponding to Improvement Schools. — There 
are a number of varieties of these : the evening, Sunday, and finish- 
ing schools ; societies for apprentices to which improvement schools 
are added ; journeymen's schools, and workmen's societies, which also 
make provision for technical instruction. 

This class does not carry technical studies very far, except in draw- 
ing, the general aim being to extend the knowledge gained in the ele- 
mentary schools, and nothing more than this is required at admission. 

(2.) Foremen's Schools. — These aim to train foremen for various 
mechanical occupations. The institution at Koenigsberg has 7 teach- 
ers and 69 scholars, (1867) ; tlie fees are about six thalers per half 
year. The requirements for admission are the studies of the primary 

(3.) The Provincial and Municipal Trade SclTools. — These two 
classes of establishments form the next grade in technical instruction, 
and prepare pupils to enter the central academy at Berlin. They re- 
ceive those who have had a partial course in the gymnasiums, real 
schools, or burgher schools. There are in Prussia about 30 of these, 
averaging four or five teachers, with 2,600 scholars in all. The fees 
vary exceedingly. There is a journeyman's improvement school con- 
nected with each. 

(4.) Central Trade Academies. — The highest grade of education 
for mechanicians, chemists, and ship-builders is obtained at these- estab- 
lishments, which approaches the character of a polytechnic univer- 
sity. There are now two — the Academy, {Gewerhe Acadeinie, form- 
erly called Gewerhe Institut.) is at Berlin; another, recently organ- 
ized (1867), at Aix la Chapelle. The Berlin Academy receives 
scholars who have completed the course at the provincial trade 
schools, real schools, or the gymnasiums. Of this institution, J. 
Scott Russell, in his elaborate treatise on systematic technical educa- 
tion for the English people, thus speaks : 

Here in Berlin, I found a large and handsome building, close by the king's 
palace, in one of the best parts of the town, and this was called, at that time, a 
•' Gewerhe Schule," or royal school for trade teaching This very humble desig- 
nation did not lead me to expect the high scientific education and training which 
was there provided for the young professional men of Berlin. The truth is, that 
in Berlin, everything but the three learned professions, law, medicine, and theol- 
ogy, were still called trades, and not yet admitted to the rank of professions, just 
as, in our country, the time was when Brindley, the canal engineer, was still 


reckoned a sort of superior ditcli-dioger, and Georcre Stephenson a sort of superior 
engine-driver. The tradition had still enough influence in Berlin to call a tech- 
nical university for the modern professions a " trade school." 

Since that time, the dignity of the " Gewerbe Schulc " has been recognized. 
Its buildings, its cndownieuts, the rank and salaries of its professors, the number 
and preliminary qualifications of its pupils, have all been raised. It has now 
the recognized rank of a technical university, with professors of equal dignity, 
and degrees of equal weight. 

Berlin being the first technical university with which I became acquainted, and 
also one of the earliest, I should naturally quote, as an example of a " technical 
university abroad," this Gewerbe Institut, or Gewerbe Academie, of Berlin. I 
recommend those of my countrymen who care for such things, to visit that insti- 
tution, which is admirably conducted, systematically organized, and a great boon 
to the professional men of Prussia. Tliey will find that it in every way lends 
itself, by means of evening as well as morning lectures, by trade associations con- 
nected with it, by free libraries and museums, to the education not merely of the 
higher professional men, but also of the working men who have leisure and dis- 
position to desire high trade knowledge. 

In very many respects, therefore, I consider Berlin a model technical university. 
I do not quote it, however, as my type of what such a university might be, be- 
cause it laboi-s under some traditional and local disadvantages, which somewhat 
narrow its sphere, derange its symmetry, and cramp its development. It is not 
symmetrical in the highest degree, because in Berlin there had already existed, 
before it attained its present growth, surrounding institutions, which had monop- 
olized a portion of its ground. 

I^ndred academies, institutions, or universities, had already provided educa- 
tion and training for some of the arts and professions which a more isolated uni- 
versity would have systematically included in its curriculum ; and which it was, 
therefore, unwise, unnecessary, or inconvenient to include in the new organization, 
Preeisely, therefore, because the Berlin Geioerbe Academie fits its place, and an- 
swers its special purpose, it is less fitted to serve as a type of a symmetrical insti- 
tution than some others of more recent growth, more remote from the overshad- 
owing influence of rival and more ancient institutions. 

II. — Listitiitions giving instruction in special professions, include : 

1. Building Professions: {I.) Building Schools. — There are 
many of these open to all building artisans who have received an 
elementary education, and imparting theoretical and practical instruc- 
tion in their special departments. They rank w^ith " improvement 
schools." The fees are about six thalers per half-year. 

(2.) Building Academy, — This academy at Berlin educates archi- 
tects and engineers of the highest grade. 

2. Mining Pursuits : (1.) Mining Schools. — These correspond 
in grade to the provincial industrial schoolsj and educate foremen and 
master workmen in the mines. 

(2.) Mining Academy at Berlin, which gives the highest education 
in mining and in metal working, and prepares mining engineers. 

3. Weaving AND Dyeing: (1.) Weaver's Schools. — The weav- 
ing schools belong to the grade of improvement schools. There are 
3 of them in Prussia, with 12 teachers and 9G pupils in all. The 
fees are 20 thalers per half-year. 

(2.) Superior Weaving Schools. — There are 5 superior weaving 
schools, with 12 teachers. They require the same qualifications as 


the provincial industrial schools. The fees are about 20 thalers per 

(3.) Industrial Drawing School. — The industrial drawing school 
at Berlin gives a3sthetic and practical instruction to designers for va- 
rious tissues and to weavers. It is a distinct institution. 

4. Commerce. — Commercial instruction is given to some extent 
in schools of a general literary aim. Of the special institutions . of 
this class, the school of commerce for young women, at Berlin, de- 
serves attention. 

0. Navigation. — There are six schools intended to train young 
men to be pilots and captains of merchant vessels. These are at 
Memel, Dantzig, Pillau, Grabow, Stettin, and Stralsund. 

6. Agriculture. — There are thirty-two institutions, in which 
both the theory and practice of agriculture, and kindred occupations, 
are taught, and several of them, in the range and thoroughness of in- 
struction, are not surpassed in any country of the world. The work 
of the school is carried home to neighborhoods by itinerant teachers 
paid by the government, who go from village to village, and the re- 
sults of improved methods are seen and disseminated by the action 
of upwards of five hundred agricultural associations, which by con- 
ferences, exhibitions, and prizes, keep up a lively interest in agricul- 
tural improvement. 

7. The new laboratories, as well for original research as for higher 
instruction, may be regarded not only as " arsenals '* of science, but 
as mighty engines of industrial development. 

The teachers of the lower and middle grades of technical schools 
become prepared by giving instruction in a gymnasium or real school, 
and afterwards studying in the Berlin trade academy for three years. 
Teachers from other schools are also employed, and, in the lowest 
grades of technical schools, instruction is often given gratis by private 

To all of these institutions are attached libraries, and to many be- 
long collections of models, and other aids of instruction ; especially 
full is the collections of the central academy at Berlin. 

The result of the system has been to convert workmen into refined 
and thinking men, and to develop rapidly the industrial resources 
of the country, as was shown in the late international exhibition at 



The Sunday School of the Society of Industry, (Gewerbe Gesellschaft) at 
Konigsber^ instructs apprentices in the ordinary trades. It requires no previous 
practical edu.-ation, the only requirement being that the candidate has passed 
through the elementary schools, which implies some rudimentary knowledge of 
religion and Bible history, German, history, geography, natural history, arith- 
metic, mensuration, drawing, singing, and gymnastics. 

Instruction is given by the professors of the Provincial Trade School in the 
same city, Avho receive extra pay for serving. The branches pursued are the fol- 
lowing: algebra, arithmetic, gravitation (planimetry and geometry), elementary 
mechanics and mechanical technology, physics and chemistry in their funda- 
mental doctrines, knowledge of wares and tools, drawing (architectural, machine, 
free-hand, and geometrical), modeling in clay, wax, wood, &c., book-keeping and 
business writings. 

The course lasts one or two years. There is no charge, the expense being 
borne by the Society of Industry of the Province of Prussia. There are from 80 
to 100 scholars. 


The Working- Men's Union, at Berlin (Betiin Handw&i-ker Verein), stands in 
the first rank of associations of this class in Germany. It was founded in 
1843, dissolved in the revolutionary period of 1848, and again re-organizcd. It 
has for its object to promote good morals, general culture, and special professional 
knowledge among its members. Its doors are open to artisans of all degrees, 
masters, workmen, and apprentices. Every young man, of good character, can 
join it on being introduced by a member, and paying a fee of three silver groschen 
(about seven cents) a month. In its organization is a Committee of Instruction, 
composed of friends of industry and of the working classes who volunteer their 
services, among whom are sgme of the most prominent men in the capital. 

The objects of the Society are accomplished by debates, instruction, both gen- 
eral and special, free lectures and social gatherings. The meetings take place 
four times a week, in the evening, after working hours, and are occupied with 
study and debating, always ending with choral singing. 

Debates. The debaters are generally members of the Committee of Instruc- 
tion, the subject being chosen, and the names of the participants published three 
months beforehand. Between 1861 and 1865, there were .592 such debates, about 
half of the subjects being questions relating to industry and science. In general, 
each meeting completes a subject, but sometimes the subject is carried through 
several in succession. All subjects except politics and religion may be dis- 

Lectures. The lectures are held on the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, 
Saturday and Sunday. The subjects are very various. In 1867, lectures were 
given, during the first nine months, on the following subjects, many of them oc- 
cupying only one lecture : physics, chemistry, technology, natural history, unity 
of natural forces and agencies, history and mode of lighting with gas, value of 
machinery, laws of exchange, public law, national rewards, paper money, security 
of insurance companies, cultivation of industry, manufacturing towns in France, 
weaving, lace making, calling and position of the female sex, relations of man 
and wife, of parents and children, woman in literature and in art, sanitary laws, 



physiology, anatomy of the intestines, music, history and works of art, history, 
history of religion, Egmont and Orange, severance of the Netherlands and Spain, 
literature, trick and romance, lyrics, Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea, Faust, 
Lessing, Don Juan Fabel, translation of that work, Arkwright, Wedgewood, 
upon Grabbe and Hcbbel, Franz Dunker, Zimmermann and village education, 
Paris exhibition, Brelcck, Born and Ebert's report from Paris, sketches of a jour- 
ney, German emigration, German life in London, Venice, education, education 
in the Verein, medicine, domestic economy. 

Lectures begin at 8^, and are not to last longer than forty-five minutes, on 
Monday evenings fifteen minutes. Members of other societies pay one silver 
groschen ; those who do not belong to the societies 2|- groschen. Once a week, 
on Wednesday evening, each member can bring two ladies, without entrance fee. 

The courses of instruction are as follows, the principle of demanding special 
payment having been adopted after mature consideration : 


1. Calligraphy and reading, . . - 

2. Orthography " " 

3. German (grammar and reading), 

4. " (syntax and reading), 

5. " (composition and epistolary style), - 

6. Arithmetic. — Course I, - 

7. « " II, . - . 

8. Geometrical and architectural drawing ( Sunday 

niorning), - - - - - 

9. Geometry, ----- 

10. Book-keeping by single entry, theory of hills of 

exchange (Sunday morning), 

11. Commercial arithmetic (Sunday morning), 

12. Book-keeping, double entry, " " 

13. Mechanical designing, " " 

14. Projection, 

15. Singing, in two courses, each 

16. Stenography (Sundays), - . - 

17. Modeling, - 

18. French (2 courses), - 

19. English (2 courses), 

20. Pattern reading for weavers (Sunday), 

Hours Weekly. 

Fee for 3 Months. 

7^ groschen. 



n " 

7| " 

10 " 

7i « 


15 " 

H " 

1 thaler. 


15 groschen.' 

1 thaler. 

7^ groschen. 

^2 " 

1 thaler. 

15 groschen. 


1 ^ thaler. 


H " 


15 groschen. 

In pursuance of the purpose of opening classes in special trades, a school for 
the building-trades has been opened, under the supervision of two architects con- 
nected with the Committee of Instruction, imparting the theoretical knowledge 
necessary for a young artisan in a building-trade, and to enable him to pass the 
examination for becoming a master in his guild. There are four courses, each 
occupying four winter months, comprising eight hours of instruction daily. The 
subjects taught are : German, arithmetic, theory of proportions, algebra, geome- 
try, geometrical projection, elements of physics, theory of mechanical powers, 
theory of heat, theory of architecture, agricultural architecture, ornamentation, 
architectural and free-hand drawing and modeling in clay. The fees are from 
4 to 6 thalers monthly, but there is a deficit of from 400 to 500 thalers annually, 
made up by the Union. 

The recreations, which may be considered as means, and powerful means, of 
moral education, are participated in by the female relations of the members. The 


days selected for this purpose are Sundays and holidays ; the amusements con- 
sist of di.scussions suited to the capacity of tlie female auditors, coiicerts, choral 
singinjj, dramatic readings, balls and scenic representations, held in the Society's 
hall, or in a large park outside of the city. Excursions into the country take 
place often. 

There is a savings bank for tlve members; on the plan of Schulzc Delitzsch, 
and an insurance company affiliated to the great Germania company. 

As a minor arrangement of great possible utility may be mentioned the box 
for questions by workmen on matters pertaining to practical life, or arising from 
their reading. It is filled every evening, and emptied by the teachers at each 
successive general meeting. 

The Union now numbers 3,000 permanent members, nine-tenths of whom be- 
long to the industrial classes. As many as 10,000 temporary members have 
been inscribed in one year. The lectures are attended by 10,000 to 12,000 hear- 
ers, and the school by 1,300 students, of all grades, apprentices, journeymen, 
workmen, and masters. 

The building of the Union cost, in 1864, together with the land, 68,000 thalers. 
It is the first in Germany, exclusively devoted to the instruction of w^orking- 
men. The ccnti*al hall is SO feet long, 60 wide and 20 high, and will contain 
more than 2,000 persons. It opens directly on a garden, the two together afford- 
ing sufficient room for all the members and their families on festive occasions. 
Two entire stories are occupied by the lecture-rooms, &c., and the library. The 
latter is free to all the members, books being exchanged two evenings in the 
week. The number of volumes (1865) is 3,500, of which from 250 to 500 are 
taken out weekly. The average number of readers is, in summer 500, in winter 
700. There is a great demand for books upon commerce and industry. The 
reading-room is mostly furnished by the generosity of the editors of the various 
periodicals, and contains 70 journals, besides political, technical, literary and 
religious reviews. It is visited by a very large number. 


The Provincial Trade School at Dantzic, which may be considered as a fair 
example of its class, has for its object to instruct commercial assistants and mas- 
ters or overseers in small manufactories. A further object is the preparing can- 
didates for the polytechnic institutes at Berlin. It is governed by a director, who 
with four other persons appointed by the provincial government, forms a school 
committee, regulating the financial and other affairs of the school. The profes- 
sorships are, one for mathematics, mechanics, engineering, and mechanical tech- 
nology, one for the natural sciences, namely, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, and 
chemical technology, and one, with an assistant, for sketching, modeling, and 
geometrical drawing. The director is one of the two first, the others rank ac- 
cording to seniority. They are considered government officers. 

Professors are appointed by the provincial government, after an examina- 
tion before a special board, but the province may appoint assistants temporarily 
without this formality. All appointments are to be confirmed by the minister, 
to whom also the board reports the results of its examinations, and who may 
dispense with the latter in the case of those who have undergone it at a previous 
period, or have the reputation of having had experience in giving instruction. 

If the candidate has not had practice in teaching, the engagement is made for 
six months only, but he is definitely settled if he has been m active service for a 


period of from three to five years. He is entitled to a pension, his time of service 
being counted from the date of the beginning of his probation, and a regular an- 
nual deduction being made from his salary. 

The Minister of Commerce exercises supervision over the plan of instruction 
to render the system of the provincial trade schools uniform. This plan is 
forwarded to him every year, in August, together with a detailed report on the 
condition of the institution from the provincial government. 

It receives scholars at fourteen, who can read and write correctly, who have 
some practice in drawing, can explain any German book within the capacity of 
their age, " be able to vise books for self instruction," and possess a knowledge 
of arithmetic as far as vulgar fractions, besides being acquainted with the solu- 
tion of ordinary questions, such as measuring the superficies of polygonal planes 
and prismatic bodies. 

Young mechanics, with only the knowledge acquired in the primary schools, 
can obtain the necessary preparation in the journeyman's Sunday and evening 
improvement sckool, which is connected with the institution. But if it is thought 
necessary, a preparatory class may be opened, supported by the community, and 
not as an integral part of the higher establishment ; it is also desired that its 
course be so arranged as to be profitable to those not intending to pursue their 
studies farther. If such a preparatory class be organized, it is to be provided 
with a good elementary teacher, and to be under the control of the director of the 
. provincial trade school. 

The course lasts two years," and is divided into a junior class for theoretical 
studies and drawing, and a senior class for application of the instruction received 
to the differ ent branches of industrial pursuits. The term commences at the 
beginning of October, and there are only two months vacation in the year. The 
number of hours of lessons is not to exceed 36 a week ; the director gives 16 to 
18 hours, the other professors 20 to 24. As the number of scholars in the school 
is over forty, they are divided, according to the law, into two drawing classes, 
and an assistant is engaged for the lower class. The cm*riculum includes the 
following studies : German composition, arithmetic, with extensive exercises in 
its practical application, theoretical and applied geometry with practical appli- 
cations to surveying, algebra, trigonometry, descriptive geometry, conic sec- 
tions, stereotomy, physics, with strength of materials, mechanics, theory of 
wheel- works, chemistry and the technology of chemistry, mineralogy as applied 
to practice, various architectural constructions in the various materials used, ge- 
ometrical drawing carried to constructing parts of machines from logarithms, 
free-hand drawing of ornaments, and outline sketches from models, in pencil, 
ink, chalk, and elpia ; finally, clay modeling from plaster casts. There is no 
religious instruction. 

Between the senior and junior classes is an examination. Those failing are 
allowed to continue in the junior class another year. Any one who can pass this 
examination is allowed to enter the senior class, whether he has studied in the 
school or not. 

This institution enjoys, as well as some of the other provincial trade schools, 
the right of issuing certificates after a final examination of those who have com- 
pleted the course of study. This privilege is obtained, in all cases, after special 
petition, accompanied with specimen drawings and written exercises from all the 
members of the senior class. This petition is granted if a favorable report is re- 
ceived by the Minister of Commerce from a commissary sent to examine the class. 



The final examination for the "certificates of maturity " is held in July, or at 
the beginning of August, and is open to all who choose to announce tlu-ir inten- 
tion in writing, whether they have been pupils in the institution or not. It is 
held before a board consisting of a government commissary, the director and the 
professors of the senior class, and is both written and oral. From the oral part, 
however, those proposing to engage in certain trades in house-building are ex 
cused. Four compositions are to be written under the eye of a professor, without 
books or aids of any kind ; one in four hours, in German, on some subject well 
known to the pupil that he may have little to do but to arrange his thoughts, 
and three others to be finished in seven hours each ; one on a subject taken from 
physics, one from chemistry and chemical technology, and one from mechanics 
and engineering. 

Those passing the examination are excused from two of their three years' mili- 
tary service, and may be admitted to the Royal Trade Academy, (gewerbeaca^emie,) 
at Berlin. Like other provincial trade schools, that at Dantzic has the right of 
conferring a stipend and a free place at the gewerbe academie. 

There are (1867) 25 in the first and 35 in the second class. Few of these are 
preparing for the Berlin academy. The fees are 12 thalers a year. It is a day 
school. The building is furnished by the city, the Government having paid the 
first expenses of opening it, which amounted to about 4,000 thalers, half of which 
was for instruments and half for a library and drawing models. The annual 
cost is shared by the State and the city, and amounts to about 3,200 thalers. 


Excellent and useful as are the provincial schools of arts and trades in Prussia, 
we must look to Berlin and its neighborhood for the most complete development 
of the system of scientific studies, and facilities for the practical application of 
the same to national industries, although there is no graded or administi'ative 
connection between the institutions The two schools which give a thorough 
preparation for the highest special schools, are the Royal Real School, and the 
City Trade School. The programmes of these excellent schools were drawn up 
by eminent teachers, assisted by the suggestions of successful business men, and 
will be found in the following account by Prof. Bache. They are valuable as a 
general preparation for business life, as well as for the higher ti'aining of a poly- 
technic school. 

The Royal Real School, whose history is given in another place,* as well as 
the City Trade School, had its origin in the conviction that Latin and Greek were 
not the only nor the highest objects of study, either for mental discipline, or for 
the use of pupils who are to grapple with practical problems of life in the public 
service or in national industries ; and its continued work for 100 years has 
demonstrated the value of modern languages, drawing, mathematics, ( including 
algebra, geometry, and trigonometry), physics, natural history, and chemistry, 
for the highest purposes for which public schools, for the great majority of the 
community, are instituted It was the pioneer institution in that great revolu- 
tion in pedagogy which has asserted the claims of science in agriculture, archi- 
tecture, commerce, and manufactures, in modern systems of public instruction. 

♦Special Report of Commissioner of Education on Condition and Improvement of Public 
Schools in the District of Columbia, 1861-S.— Appendix.— Notes on the Public Schools of Berlin 
and Prussia. 


The Frederick William Gymnasium is regarded by Dr. Bache, as a 
fair specimen oftiiis class of schools in Prussia; in the organization and 
instruction of which a good degree of liberty is tolerated by the govern- 
ment, to enable them the better to meet the peculiar circumstances of 
each province, and the peculiar views of each director. 

The Royal Real School, and City Trade School of Berlin, furnish a 
course of instruction of the same general value for mental discipline, but 
better calculated for that class of pupils who are destined in life, not for 
what are designated as the learned profession, but for tradesmen and me- 
chanics. There is less of verbal knowledge but more of mathematics 
and their application to the arts ; and the whole is so arranged as to fa- 
cilitate the acquisition of those mental habits which are favorable to 
the highest practical success. 


The Royal Real School of Berlin was founded as early as 1747, by Counsellor 
Hecker. At the period in which this school was founded, Latin and Greek were 
the exclusive objects of study in the learned schools, and the avowed pui-pose of 
this establishment was that " not mere words should be taught to the pupils, but 
realities, explanations being made to them from nature, from models and plans, 
and of subjects calculated to be useful in after-life." Hence the school was called 
a " real school," and preserves this name, indicative of the great educational 
reform which it was intended to promote, and the success of winch has been, 
though slow, most eei-tain. 

The successor of Hecker, in 1769, divided this flourishing school into three de- 
partments, the pedagogium, or learned school, the school of arts, and the German 
school : the whole establishment still retaining the title of real school. The first 
named department was subsequently separated from the others, constituting the 
Frederick William gymnasium ; the school of arts, and the German, or elemen- 
tary school, remain combined under the title of the royal real school. The same 
director, however, still presides over the gymnasium and the real school. 

The question has been much agitated, whether the modem languages should be 
considered in these schools as the substitutes for the ancient in intellectual educa- 
tion, or whether mathematics and its kindi-ed branches should be regai'ded in this 
light. Whether the original principle of the " realities" on which the schools 
were founded, was to be adhered to, or the still older of verbal knowledge, only 
with a change of languages, to be substituted for it. In this school the languages 
will be found at present to occupy a large share of attention, while in the similar 
institution, a description of which follows this, the sciences have the pre- 

In the royal real school the branches of instniction are — ^religion, Latin, French, 
English, German, physics, natm-al history, chemistry, histoiy, geograj'hy, draw- 
ing, wi'iting, and vocal music. The Latin is retained as practically useful in some 
branches of trade, as in pharmacy, as aiding in the nomenclature of natui-al his- 
tory, and as preventing a separation in the classes of this school and that of the 
gymnasium, which would debar the pupils fi'om passing from the former to the 
latter in the upper classes. It mvist be admitted that, for all purposes but the last, 
it occupies an uimecessaiy degree of attention, especially in the middle classes. 

The following table shows the distribiition of time among the courses. There 
are seven classes in numerical order, but ten, in fact, the third, fourth, and fifth 
being divided into two ; the lower fourth is again, on account of its numbers, sub- 
divided into two parallel sections. Of these, the seventh, sixth, and fifth are ele- 
mentary classes, the pupils entering the seventh at between five and seven yeare of 
age. In the annexed table the number of hom-s of recitation per week of each 
class in the several subjects is stated, and the vertical column separating the ele- 
mentaty classes from the others, contains the sum of the hours devoted to each 
branch in the higher classes, o?vc1u'l'n<:( th? lower section of the foui'th class, 
which has not a distinct course from that of the other division. 






Latin, . 


Mathematics,* . . 
Natural History, 


Chemistry, .... 
(x.-ography, .... 

Writing, . 
Singing, . 


36 36 35 35 32 32 32 

6 5 
3 4 

3 4 



•S ' £ . -5 

4 5 

8 8 

2 3 

4 3 

2 2 

2 2 

4 4 

26 26 26 26 


Proportion of other 
studies to German 
in the 
















Pupils who enter this school between five and seven years of age, and go regu- 
larly through the elementary classes, are prepared at ten to pass to its higher 
classes, or to enter the lowest of the g}'mnasium. It is thus after the fifth class 
that a comparison of the two institutions must begin. The studies of the real 
school proper, and of the gymnasium, have exactly the same elementary basis, 
and they remain so far parallel to each other that a pupil, by taking extra instruc- 
tion in Greek, may pass from the lower third class of the former to the lower third 
of the latter. This fact alone is sufficient to show that the real schools must be 
institutions for secondary instruction, since the pupils have yet three classes to pass 
through after reaching the point just referred to. It serves also to separate the 
real schools from the higher burgher schools, since the extreme limit of the 
courses of the latter, with the same assistance in regard to Greek, only enables 
the pupil to reach the lower third class of the gymnasium. In general, a pupil 
would terminate his studies in the real school at between sixteen and eighteen 
years of age. The difference between the subjects of instruction in the real 
school and the Frederick William gymnasium, consists in the omission in the 
former of Greek, Hebrew, and philosophy, and the introduction of English and 
chemistiy. The relative proportions of time occupied in the same subjects in the 
two schools, will be seen by comparing the two columns next on the right of the 
numbers for the seventh class, in the table just given. The first of these columns 
contains the proportion of the number of hours per week devoted to the different 
subjects in the six classes of the real school above the elementary, the number of 
hours devoted to the German being tciken as unity; and the second, the same 
proportion for six classes of the gyujnasium, beginning with the lowest, the same 
number of hours being taken as the unit, as in the preceding column. To bring 
the natural historj' and physics into comparison, I have taken thenumbei-s for the 

* Including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, and trigonometry. 
t These numbers include the entire course. 


upper classes of the gymnasium in which these branches are taught. Of the 
courses common to the two schools, those to which nearly equal attention is paid 
in both institutions, are — the religious instruction, the German, geography and 
history, writing, and vocal music. The French, mathematics, physics, and nat- 
ural history, predominate in the real school, the Latin in the gyiimasiimi. The 
effect of reckoning the fii'st, second, and upper third classes of the gymnasium, 
does not materially change the proportionate numbers of the courses which are 
common to the two schools, except as to Latin and mathematics. To show this, 
the column on the extreme right of the table is introduced, containing the pro- 
portions for all the nine classes of the Frederick William gymnasium. 

There were, in 1838, five hundred and ten pupils in this real school, under the 
charge of fourteen regular or class masters, teaching several subjects in the lower 
classes, and of six other teachers. Each of the eleven class divisions thus aver- 
ages about forty -six, who are under the charge of one teacher at a time. 

The elementary course in the real school is similar to that described in the 
burgher schools, beginning with the phonic method of reading, the explanations 
of all the words and sentences being required at the same time that the mechani- 
cal part of reading is learned. Written and mental arithmetic are taught together 
in the lowest class. The religious instruction consists of Bible stories adapted to 
their age ; and verses are committed to improve the memory of words. The ex- 
ercises of induction are practiced, but in a way not equal to that with objects, 
introduced by Dr. Mayo in England. Some of the pupils are able to enter the 
gj'mnasium after going through the two lowest classes. 

In regard to the real classes proper, as I propose to enter into the particulars of 
the course of study of the trade school, I shall here merely make a few remarks 
upon two of the branches studied in them, namely, French and drawing. The 
remarks in regard to the French will serve to show how great a latitude 
a teacher is allowed in the arrangement of his methods, the result of which 
is, that those who have talent are interested in improving their art by observation 
and experiment. The French teacher to whom I allude had been able to secure 
the speaking, as well as the reading, of French from his pupils. From the very 
beginning of the coui*se this had been a point attended to, and translation from 
French into German had been accompanied by that from German into French : 
the conversation on the business of the class-room was in French. The pupils 
were exercised especially in the idioms of the language in short extempore sen- 
tences, and the differences of structure of the French and their own language 
were often brought before them, and the difficulties resulting from them antici- 
pated. Difficult words and sentences were noted by the pupils. Declamation 
was practiced to encourage a habit of distinct and deliberate speaking, and to 
secure a correct pronunciation. The chief burthen of the instruction was oral. 
Without the stimulus of change of places, the classes imder this gentleman's in- 
struction were entirely alive to the instruction, and apparently earnestly engaged 
in the performance of a duty which interested them. K such methods should 
fail in communicating a greater amount of knowledge than less lively ones, which 
I belive can not be the case, they will serve, at least, to break down habits of in- 
tellectual sloth to prornote mental activity, the great aim of intellectual education. 

The drawing department of this school is superintended by a teacher who has 
introduced a new method of instruction, particularly adapted to the purpose for 
which drawing is to be applied in common life and in the arts ; a method which 
is found to enable a much larger proportion of the pupils to make adequate jiro- 
gress than the ordinary one of copying from drawings.* In this method the pupil 
begins by drawing from simple geometrical forms, those selected being obtained 
from models in wood or plaster, of a square pillar,t a niche, and a low cylinder, 
(the form of a mill-stone.) The square pillar separates in joints, affording a cube 
and parallelepipeds of different heights. The hemisphere which caps the niche 
may be removed, leaving the concave surface of its cylindrical part. The exer- 
cises of the pupil ran thus : First, to place upon a board, or upon his paper or 

* Mr. Peter Schmidt, who now. in his old age. has received from the government a pension 
in rf Turn for the introduction of his method, and the instruction in it of a certain number ol 

t Seven and a half inches high, and one inch and a hail ii» .v.. ~^-3Xt section. 


slate, a point vertically above another, or so that the lines joining the two shall 
be parullol to the rijirht or left hand edge of the board, paper, or slate. Second, 
to join them. Third, to place a point hoi-izontally from the second, and at a dis- 
tance equal to that between the fii-st and second points. Fourth, to place one 
vertically over the third, and at a distance equal to that below the first, and to 
join the third and fourth. The first and fourth being then joined, a square is 
formed. After practice in this, the simple elevation of the cube is drawn. Next, 
a perspectis'o, by the use of a small frame and silk threads, such as is common in 
teaching the elements of this subject, and by means of which the pupil acquires 
readily a knowledge of the practice. The drawing of lines in various positions, 
and with various proportions, terminates this division of the subject. The niche 
and cylinder afford a similarly graduated series of lessons on the drawing of curved 
linos, and the drawing of lines of different degrees of strength and of shadows is 
introduced. This is accompanied with some of the more simple rules of shadow 
and shade. ^lore difhcult exercises of perspective follow from natural objects 
and from works of art or mechanism, according to the direction to the pupil's at- 
tainments and the amount of taste which he displays. This method of teaching 
has been introduced quite generally in Prussia, and with the best results as to the 
formation of accuracy of eye and of hand. 


Tlie City Trade School was founded to give a more appropriate education for 
the mechanic arts and higher trades than can be had through the courses of clas- 
sical schools. It is a great point gained, when the principal is admitted that dif- 
ferent kinds of education are suited to different objects in life ; and such an ad- 
mission belong-s to an advanced stage of education. As a consequence of a gen- 
eral sentiment of this kind, numerous schools for the appropriate instruction of 
those not intended for the learned professions grow up by the side of the othei-s. 
^ The city of Berlin is the patron of the trade school which I am about to notice, 
as the king is of the real school already spoken of. Its stability is thus secured, 
but the means of furnishing it with the necessary materials for instruction are 
liberally provided.* The trade school is a day school, and consists of five classes, 
of which the lowest is on the same grade as to age and qualification at admission, 
as the fourth class of a gymnasium. It is assumed that at twelve years of age it 
will have been decided whether a youth is to enter one of the learned professions, 
or to follow a mechanical employment, or to engage in trade, but the higher classes 
are not closed against pupils. Of the five classes, four are considered necessary 
for certain pursuits and the whole five for others ; the courses of all but the firet 
class last one year, that of the first, two years, a youth leaving the school at from 
16 to 17 or 18 years of age, according to circumstances. During the year lb36-7, 
the number of pupils in the several classes were, in the first class, eleven : in the 
second, twenty-nine ; in the upper third, forty-three ; in the lower third, fifty- 
two ; in the fourth, fifty ; total, one hundred and eighty-five ; from which num- 
bers it appears that a considerable proportion of the pupils leave the school without 
entering the first class. The number of teachers is nineteen, five being regular or 
class teachers, and fourteen assistants. The director gives instruction. 

The following list of the callings to which pupils from this school have gone on 
leaving it, will show that it is really what it professes to be, a school for the in- 
struction of those who intend to follow occupations connected with " commerce, 
the useful arts, higher trades, building, mining, forestry, aorriculture, and military 
life ;" and further, that its advantages are appreciated by the class for whom it is 
intended. The list includes the pupils who have left the school from the first and 
second classes, in the years 1830, 1832, 1833 and 1837. From the first class, two 
teachers, five architects, one chemist, twenty-six merchants, one machinest, two 
calico-printers, two glass-workers, one cloth manufacturer, one silk manuf;>cturer, 
one miner, thirteen agriculturalists, eight apothecaries, two gardeners, one painter, 
one mason, one carpenter, one tanner, one miller, one baker, one potter, one 
saddler, one soap-boiler, one cabinet-maker, two soldiers, one musician, five to 

*The present director of fV'''- school, Mr. Kloden, was formf^j-ly director of the higher 
burgher school ai Potsaam, and is one of the most distinguished teachers iu his line in Persia. 



public offices, one to the trade institution, six to gymnasium. From tlie second 
class, forty-one merchants, one teacher, one chemist, one machinest, one ship-car- 
penter, nine agricuhurist, one sugar-refiner, three dyers, one tanner, one brewer, 
two distillers, one miner, two lithographers, one dye-sinker, three apothecaries, 
one dentist, two painters, two gardeners, three masons, five carpenters, one miller, 
four bakers, one butcher, one to the trade institution, three to public offices, two 
to a gymnasium, one musician, one veterinary surgeon, one soldier, being ninety 
from the first class, and ninety-seven from the second, in the period of four years. 

In the course of instruction, the sciences and kindred branches are made the 
basis, and the modern languages are employed as auxiliaries, the ancient languages 
being entirely omitted. The subjects embraced in it are — religious instruction, 
German, French, English, geography, history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, 
technology, natural history, writing, drawing, and vocal music. 

The courses are fully laid down in the following list, beginning with the studies 
of the lowest or fourth class. 


Religious Inst iiicti on* The srospel according to St. Luke, and the Acts of the Apostles 
explained, with a catechetical development of the truths of reUgion and ethical applications. 
Two hours per week. 

German. Gi-ammatical exercises in writing. Recital of poetical pieces. 

Frejich. Grammatical exercises. Regular and irregular verbs. Reading from Lauren's 
Reader. One hour of conversation. Four hours. 

Arithmetic. Mental and written, including proportions and fractions, with the theory of 
the operations. Four hours. 

Geometry. Introductory course of forms. Two hours. 

Geography. Elementary, mathematical, and physical geography. Two hours. 

Natural History. In the summer term, elements of botany, with excursions. In the win' 
ter. the external characters of animals. Two hours. 

Physics. Introductory instruction. Genei-al properties of bodies. Forms of crystals, 
specific gravity. &c. Two hours. 

Writing. Two hours. 

Drawing. Outline drawingand shadows, from models and copy-boards. Two hours. 

Vocal Music. Two hours. 


Religious Instruction. The Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles read and explained. 
Two hours. 

German. Grammar with special reference to orthography and etymology. Written exer« 
cises upon narrations made by the teacher. Delivery of poetical pieces. Four hours. 

French. Translation from French into German from Gredicke's Chrestomathy. Grammar ; 
irregular verbs. Extemporalia, and translations from German into French. Four hours. 

Arithmetic Partly abstract, partly practical, from Diesterweg's Instructor. Four hours. 

Geometry. Determination of angles in triangles and polygons. Equality of triangles. 
Depeiidance of angles and sides of triangles. Constructions. Three hours. 

Geigrnphy. Physical description of the parts of the earth, except Europe. Two hours. 

Natural History. Mineralogy. In summer, botany, the class making excursions for prac- 
tical exercise. Man. Three hours. 

Physics. General properties of bodies and solids in particular. Doctrines of heat and 
their "application to natural phenomena and the arts. Two hours. 

Chemistry. Introduction. Atmospheric air. Experimental illustrations of chemistry, 
applied to the arts. Two hours. 

Writing. Two hours. Architectural and topographical drawing. Two hours. Drawing 
by hand (or those who do not take part in the other. Two hours. 

Vocal Music. Two hours. 


Religious Instruction. Christian morals, from Luther's Catechism. Two hours. 

German. Simple and complex sentences. Compositions on special subjects. Poems ex- 
plained and committed. Four hours. 

French. Translation from Gredicke's Chrestomathy, oral and in writing. Written trans- 
lations from Beauvais' Introduction, from German into French. Gi'ammar, examples treated 
extempore. Four hours 

Arithmetic. Properties of numbers. Powers. Roots. Decimal fractions Practical 
Arithmetic from Diesterweg. Four hours. 

Geometry. Similar figures. Geometrical proportion. Exercises. Mensuration of rectili- 
near figu res. Three hours. . 

Geography. Physical geography of Europe, and in particular of Germany and Prussia. 
Two hours. 

Natural History. Continuation of the mineralogy of the lower third class. Review in 
outline of zoology and the natural history of man in particular. Botany, with excursions in 
summer. Three hours. 

♦Roman Catholic pupils are not required to take part in this instruction, which is comma' 
nicated by a Protestant clergyman. 


Physics. Electricity and maffnetism, witn experiments. Two hours. 
Chemitfry. Water and non-metallic bodies, with experiments. Two hours. 
Writing Two iiours. ArchitcctuTcU and topographical drawing. Two hours. Some of 
the pupils dnrinjf this time are engaged in ornamental drawing. 
Vocal Music. Two hours. 


Rrligious Instiiiction. Explanation of the first three gospels. History of the Christian 
religion and church to the reformation. Two hours. 

German. Correction of exercises written at home, upon subjects assigned by the teacher. 
Oral anil written exercise^;. Introduction to the history of German poetry Three hours. 

French. Grammar; extemporalia for the application of the rules. Written and oral 
translations froni German into French, from Beauvais' Manual, and vice versa, from Ideler 
and Nolte's Manual. Four hours. 

English Exercises in reading and speaking. Translation into German, from Burkhardt. 
Dictation. Verbs. Two hours. 

Arithmetic. Commercial Arithmetic. Algebra, to include simple and quadratic equa- 
tions. Logarithms Three hours. 

Geometry. Circles. Analytical and plane trigonometry. Three hours. 

Geography. The states of Eurojje, with special reference to their population, manufac- 
tures and commerce. Two hours. 

History. Principal events of the history of the middle ages and of later times, as an intro 
duction to recent liistory. One hour. 

Natural History. Mineralogy. Physiology of plants. Three hours. 

Chemistry. Metallic bodies and their compounds, v^'ith experiments. Three hours. 

Architectural, topographical., and plain drawing. Drawing with instruments. Introduc- 
tion to India ink drawing. Beginning of the science of constructions. Two hours. 

Druicing From copies, and from plaster and other models. Two hours. This kind of 
drawing may be learned instead of the above. 

Vocal Music. Two hours. 


Religious Instruction. History of the Christian religion and church continued. Refer- 
ences to the bble. One nour. 

German. History of German literature to recent times. Essays. Exercises of delivery. 
Three hours. 

French. Reading from the manual of Buchner and Hermunn, with abstracts. Classic 
authors read. Review of Grammar. Exercises at home, and extemporalia. Free delivery. 
"Correction of exercises. Four hours. 

English. Syntax, with written and extempore exercises from Burkhardt. Reading of 
classic authors. Writing of letters. Exercises in speaking. 

Arithmetic Algebra. Simple and quadratic equations. Binomial and polynomial theo- 
rems. Higher equations. Commercial arthmetic continued. Three hours. 

Geometry. Plane trigonometry and its applications. Conic sections. Descriptive Geome- 
try. Three hours. 

History. History of the middle ages. Modern history, with special reference to the prog- 
ress of civilization, of inventions, discoveries, and of commerce and industry. Three hours. 

Natural History. In summer, botany, the principal families, according to" the natural sys- 
tem. In wi iter, zoology. The pupils are taken, for the purpose of examining specimens to 
the Royal Museum. 

Physics. In summer, optics with experiments. In winter the system of the world. 
Three hours. 

Technology. Chemical and mechanical arts and trades, described and illustrated by mo- 
dels. Excursions to visit the principal workshops. Four hours. 

Architectural and machine drawing. Two hours. Those pupils who do not take part in 
this, receive lessons in ornamental drawing from plaster models. 

Vocal Music. Two hours. 

The pupils of this class are, besides, engaged in manipulating in the laboratory of the insti- 
tion several hours each week. 

The courses require a good collection of apparatus and specimens to carry 
them out, and this school is, in fact, better furnished than any other of its grade 
which I savp in Prussia, besides which, its collections are on the increase. The 
facilities for the courses are furnished by a collection of mathematical and physical 
apparatus, a labratory, with a tolerably complete chemical apparatus and series of 
tests, a collection of specimens of the arts and manufactures (or technological col- 
lection,) a collection of dried plants, and of engravings for the botanical course, 
and a sinall garden for the same use, a collection of minerals, a collection of insects, 
a collection in comparative anatomy, a series of engravings for the drawing course, 
and of plaster models, a set of maps, and other apparatus for geography, some as- 
tronomical instruments, and a library. The pupils are taken from time to time, 
to the admirable museum attached to the university of Berlin, for the examination 
of zoological specimens especially. 

That this school is as a preparation for the higher occupations, and for profee- 
eions not ranking among the learned, the equivalent of the gymnasium is clearly 
shown by the sulijects and scope of its courses, and by the age of its pupils. 



Some of these occupations require no higher inslruction, others that the pupils 
shall pass to the special schools introductory to them. So also, many of the pupils 
of the gymnasia pass at once into active life, others enter the university. 

The class of schools to which the two last described belong, are most important 
in their influence. In many countries, an elementary education is the limit beyond 
which those intending to enter the lower grades of the occupations enumerated in 
connection w-ith the City Ti'ade School of Berlin, do not pass -, and if they are in- 
clined to have a better education, or if intending to embrace a higher occupation, 
they desire to be better instructed, they must seek instruction in the classical 
schools. The training of these schools is, however, essentially different from that 
required by the tradesman and mechanic, the verbal character of the instruction 
is not calculated to produce the habits of mind in which he should be brought up, 
and the knowledge which is made the basis of mental training is not that which 
he has chiefly occasion to use. Besides, were the course ever so well adapted to 
his object, the time at which he must leave school only permits him to follow a 
part of it, and he is exposed to the serious evils which must flow from being, as it 
were, but half taught. 

In fact, however, he requires a very different school, one in which the subjects 
of instruction are adapted to his destination, while they give him an adequate m- 
tellectual culture 5 where the character of the instruction will train him to the 
habits which must, in a very considerable degree, determine his future usefulness ; 
and where the course which he pursues will be thorough, as far as it goes, and 
will have reached before he leaves the school the standard at which it aims. Such 
establishments are furnished by the real schools of Germany, and as the wants 
v.hich gave rise to them there, are strongly felt every where, this class of institu- 
tions must s})read extensively. In Germany they are, as has been seen, no new 
experiment, but have stood the test of experience, and with various modifications 
to adapt them to differences of circumstances or of views in education, they are 
spreading in that country. As they become more diffused, and have employed a 
greater number of minds in their organization, their plans will no doubt be more 
fully developed. 

It is certainly highly creditable to Germany that its " gymnasia." on the one 
hand, and its " real schools'' on the other, offer such excellent models of secondary 
instruction in its two departments. The toleration which allows these dissimilar 
establishments to grow up side by side, admitting that each, though good for its 
object, is not a substitute for the other, belongs to an enlightened state of senti- 
ment in regard to education, and is worthy of the highest commendation 









Geometry, . , 



Natural History, 






Vocal Music, 




Upper Lower 
Third Third 

34 32 32 32 28 




The Royal Trade Academy {Konigliche Geiverbe Acadamie), formerly the Royal 
Trade Insititute {Institut), at Berlin, was founded in 1821, and underwent a re- 
organization in 1849. 

Its object, according to the terms of a circular of 1860, is " to give the student 
an opportunity to qualify himself for the position of a superintendent or owner 
of a technological establishment." It stands at the summit of technical instruc- 
tion. It may be considered, together with the building and mining academies, 
of which a description is given elsewhere, as a polytechnic school. 

The institution is in the department of the Minister of Commerce, Industry 
and Public Works. It is governed by a Council of Studies, composed of a high 
official of the Bureau of Commerce, Industry and Public Works, of the director 
of the academy as his substitute, of two professors of the school, and of two 
other gentlemen "as independent representatives of science and industry." All 
the interests of the institution, and all changes in its organization, are deliberated 
upon by this Council, and the results of its deliberations laid before the ?»[inistry. 
The immediate management is in the hands of the director already mentioned. 
He is not a teacher. There ai-e ten titular professors, and twelve other teachers. 
Most of the former fill professorships in other establishments, as in the Univer- 
sity. The teaching corps forms a board, called together at the close of tlie term 
to a school conference on the order of classes. There is also in this institution 
a class of instructors called Privatdocenten, receiving fees from their private pupils, 
but no salary from the government. They must have completed the three years' 
course, and have been in practice as competent engineers. 

The conditions of admission are as follows : 1. The candidate must be be- 
tween 17 and 27 years of age, and must bring a certificate of birth to prove this. 
2. He must present a certificate of maturity from a provincial trade school, from 
a first class real school, or from a gymnasium. 3. Students in the shipbuilding 
division must prove that they have been engaged, for at least one year, in prac- 
tical work in the shipyard of a seaport, before they can go on in the special 
studies of their profession. The requirement of one year's practical work was 
originally made from all candidates, but it was repealed, because a great part of 
what had been acquired at the gymnasium was often forgotten during the inter- 
val. In the case of shipbuilders, however, the year's experience is absolutely 

The period of instruction is three years, with six half-yearly terms. Of these, 
the first three, Section A, are occupied with general and purely theoretical tech- 
nical studies, for all the students in common. During the last three, Section B, 
special courses are pursued, and practical exercises are added. The special de- 
partments are : 

I. Special technology, as mechanics. 
n. Chemistry and metallurgy. 
III. Ship-building. 

The studies of Section A are obligatory on all, but those students of chemistry 
who aim only at being assistants in factories. It is thought that " those having 
this modest object in view, can do very well without the mathematics of the third 
term, and will employ their time more usefully in the laboratory. The director 
may, therefore, allow that class of chemists to experiment in the laboratory after 
having attended the lectures in the fii-st theoretical section for one year." Those 


intending to establish or superintend chemical factories, must go through the 
whole course. The period of study can be prolonged by students of mechanics, 
who are allowed to spend an additional year in the workshops connected with 
the institution. 

The academical year begins October 1st, and closes August 15th, with a vaca- 
tion of ten days at Christmas, and one of the same length at Easter. 

In regard to the studies pursued, we extract from the circular of August 23, 
1860, already cited, the following paragraph, which shows the admirable spirit in 
which they are planned : 

The characteristic peculiarity of the course of instruction is this, that the 
students do not obtain the knowledge necessary to their future career by a series 
of lectures, independent of one another, as at the University, but that the lec- 
tures form a complete and well organized course, intimately connected Avith each 
other, and so arranged that the student passes through all the theoretical and 
practical branches of science and art, step by step from the moment he becomes 
a member of the second section to the time when he leaves the Institute. This 
is the reason Avhy teachers and students are not permitted to select the objects 
of teaching and study, that the students are obliged to pass through the general 
theoretical section, and that the professors must arrange their lectures in har- 
mony with the general plan of the Institute. Free choice is, however, allowed 
within certain specified limits. 

The curriculum, which has undergone many changes, is as follows : 


a. Complement to general knowledge of figures ; higher equations. 
6. Spherical trigonometiy. 

c. Differential and integral calculations. 

d. Analytical statics and mechanics. 

e. Theory of mechanical effects of heat. 

/. Descriptive geometry, and application of it to perspective construction of 

shadows and lithotomy. 
g. Special inorganic chemistry. 
A. Physics. 

i. General experimental chemistry. 
h. General knowledge of constructive building. 
/. Knowledge of simple machines. 
m. Dra^wang. 
n. Modeling. 


I. — For mechanicians : . ■ 

a. Theory of solidity of buildings, and of parts of machinery ; calculations 
with regard to buildings put together; theory of Arone's counterpoise; 
and {Futter mauern) building of sluices. 
h. Motion of water and air in natural and artificial ducts ; practical hydrau- 
lics ; theory of heating apparatuses ; fireplaces. 

c. General theory of machines ; their resistance and regulation, particularly 

the theory of hydraulic motors and steam engines. 

d. Calculations with regard to simple parts of machinery; general princi- 

ples of their construction. 

e. Details of machines ; power machines. 

f. Mechanical technology. 

g. Chemical technology. 

h. Practice in plans of parts of machines, and whole machines. 

i. Practice in plans of power machinery. 

k. Practice in plans of machines and factory grounds. 

l. Plans and drawings of such artistic forms as can be executed in cast iron. 

m. Mathematical foundation of the most important physical laws. 


n. — For chemists and smelters : 

a. Spociiil inorganic chemistry. 

b. Special organic chemistry. 

c. Mineralogy. 

d. Geognosy. 

e. Metuliurgic chemistry. 
/: Chemical technology. 

o. Special knowledge of machines and machine power. 
A. Practice in planning chemical works. 
i. Practical studies in the laboratory. 

III. — For ship-builders : 

a. (up to i) as in II. 1. 

k. I) rawing of vessels and parts of vessels. 

/. Art of ship-building, general displacement and stability, first part ; hy- 
drostatic calculations. 

m. Art of ship-building, knowledge of stability, second part; theory of sail- 
ing and steam vessels, general principles with regard to form of vessels ; 
knowledge of construction of wooden and iron vessels. 

n. Practice. 

o. Planning and calculating cost and capacity of vessels. 

At the close of every term a review of the studies pursued during the term is 
held. This review, which is a kind of examination, and is called "repetition," 
is obligatory only upon the stipendiaries, and that class of students who avail 
themselves of the free places in the school. 

On leaving the Acadeiiy, the student receives a certificate, signed by the 
council of teachers ; it enumerates all the lectures and practical exercises he has 
attended ; reports his standing in the repetitions and adds a critique on the skill 
and judgment displayed by him in the practical department. 

There is a fine collection of models, which has recently been re-arranged and 
newly classified. They are in bronze, and plaster of Paris, and consist of models 
of ornaments and of the plastercasts for the drawing class, models for wood and 
cotton manufactures, and some illustrating descriptive geometry. Most of them 
were made at the school. There is a rich collection for machinery and mechan- 
ical technology. The library is open to the public at stated hours. The pupils 
can use the collections under certain restrictions. 

There is a laboratory for organic chemistry, with room for 50 pupils, and one 
for inorganic chemistry with room for 20. 

The reagents are arranged on tables, each large enough for six pupils, and 
provided with cupboards and shelves. Evaporating processes are carried on in 
glazed and closed stoves, with gas burners, and hot sand baths, the whole well 
closed and ventilated. 

The workshops connected witi^the academy are more extensive than at any 
other technical establishment, and not only give practical instruction in mechan- 
ics and ship-building, but encourage the construction of new machines, and man- 
ufacture models for the drawing-school, and for general industrial uses. There 
are consequently always a certain number of regular workmen employed in them. 
The pupil begins with the making of a screw, and proceeds in regular order to 
the most difficult mechanical operations, for which the large machines and mon- 
uments made here afford a good opportunity. 

The number of pupils- in the Academy was 440 in 1867. In 1861-62 there 
were 374 pupils, of whom 67 were mechanics, 20 chemists, and 3 ship-builders. 
The fees are twenty thalers per half year ; forty-five thalers for those who work 


practically in the chemical laboratory, and the student must pay for all breakages, 
&c., caused by his negligence. For practical work in the workshops, the fee is 
one thaler per half year ; for work in the photographic atelier once a week, two 
thalers per half year. Masters of establishments, working-men's unions, <S:c., often 
pay these fees for gifted young men whom they send. 

The institution has a large number, 150 in all, of free places. These are — 
1 . StipencUa. Every province of Prussia can give a stipend of 200 thalers to a 
pupil who excels at the Provincial Trade School. 2. Free places. Besides the 
stipendiaries, each province can send up a pupil to whom the fees are remitted. 
The same privilege is given to the directors of various scholastic establishments. 
In exceptional cases, the State government does the same. Stipendiaries and 
those who fill the free places are obliged to take all the courses in their depart- 
ment, and to attend the repetitions. If they do not succeed well in the repeti- 
tions, they are liable to lose their subsidies. 

The professors are paid at the rate of a hundred thalers annually for every 
hour spent weekly. Most of them eke out their incomes by teaching in other 
establishments, as the resulting salaries are only from 1,200 to 1,600 thalers a 
year. The whole annual expenses of the school are as follows : 

Salaries of director and teachers, 

Collections, - - - - - - - 

Three chemical laboratories, - - . - 

Machine shops, superintendent's salary, - _ - 

Machine shops, materials, _ - - - 

Library, __.---- 

Stipendia, aid, excursions, &c., - 

Heating, lights, maintaining of repairs, . . - 

Administration, servants, . . . . 

Total, . - - . - 


The Industrial Drawing School [Muster Z^ichnen Schule), trains designers of 
patterns for printing silk, woollen and cotton tissues, and paper hangings, together 
with all the theoretical and practical branches of weaving. It has its own director. 
The candidate must be foiirteen, and be acquainted with rudimentary drawing. 

The course, covering two years, is as follows* First year .— Drsiwin^ fi-«m 
models in relief, 24 hours a week; applied physics and chemistry, 4 hours; in- 
dustrial drawing, 4 hours. Second year. — Composition and execution of designs' 
for prints and figured tissues, 36 hours ; preparing looms for quiltings, velvets, 
and practice in weaving, 16 hours; decomposition of tissues, and preparing the 
cards for weaving them. 

Instruction is also given in drawing patterns for paper hangings, for oil cloths, 
silk, cotton, woollen, or linen prints, figured stuffs and ribbons, upholstery, fabrics, 
carpets, embroidery, and lace. The course of industrial drawing commences 
with the copying of flowers from nature ; then from select drawings, ftnd no pains 
are spared to accustom the pupils to the composition of new patterns. Drawing, 
is, in all cases, commenced from models or from nature, not from prints. 

During the vacation of each year there is an exhibition of the pupil's draw- 
ings. Part of the drawings executed by the pupils remain in the establisliment. 

Certificates are given stating the extent of the instmction of each pupil. 

The school fee is 12 thalers per half-year. 

22,000 thalers. 





















The Academy of Architecture at Berlin (Bau Akadanie), has for its aim to 
train public and private architects, and civil and assistant engineers. The teach- 
ing statt' of the institution numbers twenty-nine, five being' titular and six as- 
sistant professors. 

The course of instruction pursued at the Academy is divided into two sections, 
the first designed for assistant supervising architects (Baufuhrer), the second for 
architects proper and engineers in the Government service. 

For admission to the first section, the candidate is required to bring a certificate 
of having been in the highest class of a gymnasium, or of having finished the 
course of a real f chool of the highest class ; he must also prove, by certificate, 
that he has been practically employed for at least one year by an examined archi- 
tect, and must produce several drawings executed under his supervision. A 
knowledge of leveling and measuring is also required. After passing this exam- 
ination, he is matriculated, and is entitled to admission to all the lectures deliv- 
ered in connection with the course, at the schools, the University, or the poly- 
technic, and to the various collections and the exhibitions at the Academy of 

The instruction is given by means of lectures, and the following are attended 
by those desirous of obtaining the title of Baufuhrer. There are two semesters 
in each year. 

First Semester. Solid, analytical, and descriptive geometry, with the applica- 
t4on of the latter to constructions ; spherical trigonometry ; analysis, including 
differential calculus and conic sections. Physics, particularly as applied to light, 
heat, electricity, and magnetism. Chemistry, the elements and compounds, par- 
ticularly those having relation to building materials. Architecture, construction, 
beauty and symmetry of form and practical usefulness, ancient architecture, its 
character and applicability to modern needs. Outline and ornament drawing. 

Second Semester. Integral calculus and its applications. Scientific and prac- 
tical study of perspective and shadows. Mineralogy and geognosy. Systematic 
study of building materials and their cost. Architecture ; constructions ; ancient 
architectui-e. Drawing ; architectural and ornamental, with landscapes in pencil 
or sepia. 

Third Semester. Dynamics ; on statics of solid bodies and strength of mate- 
rials. Machinery and mechanical action, such machines as are used in architec- 
ture being specially considered. Architecture ; ancient, agricultural, Avith various 
industrial agricultural establishments ; hydraulic architecture and bridge con- 
struction. Dravdng ; pi'ojecting and draughting of buildings ; elaborate draw- 
ings from ancient architecture. 

Fourth Semester. Dynamics as applied to architecture ; mechanics, hydrosta- 
tics, aerostatics, and pneumatics. Surveying and leveling, with practical exercises. 
Building materials ; their cost, source, and the means of obtaining them ; their 
artificial manufiicture. Architecture, hydraulic, bridges and roads ; mills. Pro- 
jecting and draughting of buildings Estimates ; superintendence'; laws of the 
country regarding buildings and their construction. 

Besides the above there are certain architectural designs to be drawn up and 
handed in at stated periods. These are the following : Four architectural draw- 
ings ; one illustrating the laws of projection ; one of perspective ; four studies in 
ancient architecture ; four elaborate di-awings of ornament ; two of engines and 


theii- parts ; two projects of siipj)le buildings ; two of agricultural establishments. 
After the examination, the title of Baufuhrer is conferred ; the candidate chooses 
the district Avhere he will practice his art, reports there and is sworn in. He is 
obliged to send in an annual report of his occupations, and must be ready to 
respond to any call from government if he should desire to be admitted to the 
examination as government architect. If he intends to enter the government 
service as architect or engineer, he returns to the school after two years of pro- 
fessional labor. The lectures now pursued are different for architects and engi- 

For Architeots. First Semester. — Ancient architecture. Italian architecture 
during its highest development. Projecting and drawing of architectural subjects, 
especially of the first class and public buildings. Ornament. 

Second Semester. — Technology. Principles of construction as applied to ex- 
tensive buildings and cases presenting special difficulty. Internal arrangement 
and exterior style of dwellings and edifices of art. Public buildings, their pro- 
jection. Drawing and projecting. Gothic ornament, with drawings and lectures. 

For Engineers. — First Semester. Computation of probabilities applied to 
the theory of the reliability of observations and experiments. Mechanics, and 
engine construction. Sketching and computations regarding construction and 
power of engines. Hydraulic architecture. Railroads and all matters connected 
with them. 

Second Semester. Analytical dynamics, and all its applications in architecture 
and engineering. Geodesy, with practical exercises. Draughts of engines. Pr-o- 
jection, draughting, and computation of cost of hydraulic works. Railroads ; 
construction of stations, depots, and " running stock." Architectural technology. 

Modeling, foreign languages, &c., are taught, but form no part of the exam- 
inations for government situations. The examinations are open also to persons 
who have not pursued the course at the school. Candidates for the title of pri- 
vate architect must be a master in one of the three trades of mason, carpenter, or 
stone-cutter. Assistant engineers are not examined, their attendance in the past 
is examined and they are then sworn in. There are no prizes, but the one suc- 
cessful in an annual and optional competition, receives a donation of about 2,000 
francs for traveling abroad. 

The fees are as follows : — One at matriculation, of 10 thalers, and lecture fees 
of about 18 thalers, annually. The titular professors receive 2 thalers for the 
hour's lesson, the others, 1^ thalers, and the assistants, 1. The school fees 
amount (1865), to 11,500 thalers; the expenses were 25,975 thalers. Half of 
the excess was furnished by the Government, the other half came from various 

In the same year there were 472 pupils ; 314 being entered for the service of 
the State, 34 as private architects, 55 as foreigners, and 69 as free auditors. 


The Building School, (Baugewerbe Schule,) at Berlin, gives theoretical instruc- 
tion to all classes of building artisans, as carpenters, masons, roofers, potters, &c. 

The course includes German, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, physics, elements 
of force and heat, lessons in proportions, construction of buildings, fundamental 
doctrine of projection, agricultural buildings, architectural and free-hand drawing, 
and modeling in clay. Fourteen thalers are paid for the whole course ; for th« 
winter course alone, five. 



The Superior Weaving Scliool at Elbeifeld, a town owing its rapid growth 
principally to this branch of industry, has for its object to impart theoretical and 
practical instruction in the various departments of the art, and also includes a 
departriient of general technical drawing. It is open to pupils of all countries. 

The course is divided into three cHvisions, and the pupil can attend them all if 
he pleases. These are — (1) weaving; (2) pattern drawing ; (3) the chemical 
processes of weaving and dyeing. 

Division I. The first division teaches the whole art of weaving, theoretical 
and practical, the instruction being carried so far that the pupil can undertake 
the independent management of a manufactory or of an establishment trading in 
these fabrics. It occupies 36 hours a week for a year and a half, the course 
commencing twice a year, and consisting of two parts, the analytical lasting 
twelve months, and the composition course lasting six. By analysis [decomposi- 
tion) is imderstood the elements of weaving, a knowledge of the machines and 
materials used ; analysis of the modes of making patterns in plain fabrics, practi- 
cal exercises in the various operations of weaving, the elements of Jacquard 
weaving, analysis of and mode of setting patterns for these fabrics, practical ex- 
ercises ^\^th the Jacquard looms, free-hand drawing, painting and modeling from 
nature. The second part, for composition, can be entered upon only by those 
who possess the knowledge imparted in the preceding. It comprises further in- 
struction in materials, their prices, and in all processes connected with the weav- 
ing of linen, cotton, woolen, and silk; the choice and calculation of the quantity 
of yarn to be used for various materials with reference to the changes caused by 
dyeing, and the loss sustained in weaving ; knowledge of the composition of all 
kinds of textile fabrics from the simplest to the taost complicated, and of all the 
technical and artistic processes connected with their production ; calculation of 
the special items, and of the entire cost of the fabrics ; and practical exercises in 
all the details of the preparation of weaving with all the different kinds of looms, 
and in the composition of designs, patterns, &e. 

The pupils of this division may attend the lectures on chemistry and physics 
in the chemical department without adding to their term-fees. The practical 
exercises in the workshops are hjld from 8 to 12 A. M., and from 2 to 7 P. M. 
The fee for the entire division is 120 thalers, the second part alone costing 90. 

Division II The second division teaches the art of drawing and inventing 
resigns and patterns for all woven and printed goods, and pattern-card makers 
who are able to arrange every pattern correctly on the cards. There is also in- 
struction in general technical drawing. The method adopted is that of Dupuis, 
in wliich the pupil begins with drawing from nature or from the model in relief. 

The course is divided into two sections, beginning twice a year, and occupies 
twenty-four hours a week. Lessons are given in free-hand drawing, and paint- 
ing, first from models, afterwards from natural objects, such as plants, flowers, 
vases, &c. ; knowledge of the colors used in manufactures, and the mode of ap- 
plying them ; composition of patterns, and knowledge of and practical exercise 
in pattern-making from textile fabrics, drawing, &e. The annual fee is 30 tha- 
lers. There is a special morning and evening class for scholars who cannot at- 
tend the regular course, held eight hours a week, at two-thirds of a thaler the month. 

Division III. The third division imparts thorough theoretical and practical 
instruction in technical chemistry to dyers, printers, manufacturers of colors and 


chemicals, &c., and also to those who wish to qualify themselves to become tech- 
nical teachers There are two courses, the first being for practical chemists in 
general, the second for dyers, printers, bleachers, color manufacturers, and man- 
ufacturers of chemicals specially. . Each lasts a year, with a summer and winter 
course, and no one can enter the second without being prepared in the first. 

The instruction given in the first course is as follows : 

1. Inorganic chemistry , A full course. Connexion between chemistry and the 
other branches of natm-al science. The objects to be accomplished by chemistry ; 
its progressive development. Stoichiometry. The lectures are illustrated by the 
use of a large collection of specimens, and by constant experiments ; 4 hours 
weekly. 2. KnovAedge of chemical substances (Droguen). Inorganic chemicals. 
Particular inorganic substances (as sulphurous acid, soda, chlorine, &c.,) of es- 
pecial importance to technical chemists are selected and thoroughly discussed. 
Visits to manufactories, examination of the chemicals belonging to the school 
and practical exercises further complete the lessons. 3. Analysis. Qualitative 
and quantitative analysis, extended to all substances important to technical 
chemists, the course of qualitative analysis being general, that of quantitatiye 
adapted to the future calling of each pupil. Particular attention given to tiitu- 
ration (trituren), 2 hours. 4. Physics applied to industiy, 2 hours. 

In the second course are taught : 1. Dyes and colors. — Special lectures on color- 
ing stuffs, with practical exercises. The collection is studied G hours. 2. Analysis. 
— Greneral anah'sis continued ; specialanalysisof dye stuffs, 2 hours. 3. Physics 
continued, 2 hours. 4. Theory of dyeing. — Chemical and physical consideration 
of raw materials (cotton, linen, wool, and silks); analysis of simple mixed 
stuffs; preparation of the yams for dyeing (bleaching of cotton and linen yam, 
removing the greasiness of woollen textures, scouring silk) ; influence of the re- 
actionary agents (air, light, he'at) ; relation of vegetable and animal fibres to 
dyeing stuffs ; substantive colors ; abjective colors ; theory of tanning ; tanning 
stuffs ; choice of dressing for printed goods ; its influence on the shades of colors, 
&c. Glazing (chemical and mechanical arrangements). All the lectures are 
elucidated by experiments, and, indeed, one of the chief objects held in view, 
is that the pupils have practice in dyeing and coloring all kinds of yarns and tex- 
tures, 6 hours. 5. Analysis of colored stuffs, 2 hours. 

Only dyers, printers, &c., need to go through both courses. For other techni- 
cal pursuits, the first is enough. The fee for the lectures is 20 thalers per half- 
year ; for participation in the laboratoiy practice, 40 thalers additional. There 
is no extra charge for gas or other materials. 

Each pupil in the school keeps a book in which are collected the patterns of the 
different kinds of tissues which he has to analyze and decompose, calculating 
their elements, and reproducing the perforations of the cards by sketches. He 
prepares a pattern, arranges cards, and then makes ready the loom, and sets to 
work. The school provides materials, but little work, however, is done. 

There are 78 pupils ; 45 in the first division, 25 in the second, and 8 in the third. 
The building was built by the town, the looms and other furniture provided by 
the State. It possesses 42 looms, and a large collection of every kind of machin- 
ery and other implements connected with weaving ; of specimens of ancient and 
modern tissues, home and foreign ; drawings, engravings, models, compositions, 
&.C., for the use of the scholars. There are well arranged laboratories, with room 
for twenty or thirty pupils, for special technical analysis. 

The annual expenditure is about 10,000 thalers, and the excess of the expendi- 
tures over the receipts is paid half by the town and half by the government. 



To a Prussian citizen is due the credit of having established tlie first scientific 
agricultural school in Prussia. This was the institution at Moglin, founded in 
1806 by the celebrated Thaer.* The first step taken in this matter by the 
Prussian government was in 1819, when the school of Moghn was made a royal 

The agricultural schools of Prussia are divided into primary, intermediate, 
and superior. In the superior schools the course is very full and includes many 
high theoretical studies ; in the intermediate class the pupils are prepared lor 
the higlier, and receive an exclusively practical instruction, except during the 
winter ; in the inferior class the pupils take the place of hired servants, pay 
little or nothing, or are paid for their services. They are occupied in manual 
labor or in tending horses and cattle. 

There are thirty-two of these schools in Prussia. Five are superior: Moglin, 
Eldena, Proskail, Regenwalde, and Poppelsdorf. The whole number of pro- 
fessors in these is thirty-three. Eldena is the best attended. Two are in con- 
nection with universities : Eldena with Greifswald, and Poppelsdorf with Bonn. 

There are two intermediate schools and twelve of the inferior class. 

There are thirteen special schools connected with agriculture, of which we 
will mention the following : two of meadow culture, one for shepherds, eight 
for the raising, dressing, and working of flax, and one, at Potsdam, of garden- 
ing. At Berlin there is a veterinary school. The two of meadow culture are 
at Kraraenz, in Pomerania, and at Janowitz, near Heyerswerda. There is a 
forestry school at Neustadt Eberswald. 

Instruction in pomology, or the cultivation of fruit-trees, is given in the 
normal and primary schools to an immense number of children. 

As an accessory to the system of agricultural education, may be noticed the 
large collection of farming tools and specimens of forest, farm and industrial 
productions at Berlin and Breslau. 

All of these establishments are under the supervision of the Minister of 

* Mbrecht Daniel Thair was born at Celle, in Hanover, May 14th, 1752. He studied medicine 
at the University of Gbttingen, and took a degree in that profession, and was very successful in 
its practice. During his leisure, he occupied himself with cultivating flowers, and in this way 
gardening and agricultural pursuits became a passion with him, and he withdrew from the pro- 
fession. He died October 26th, 1828. He published the fallowing books on agriculture: 

1798. English Agriculture, with a view to the improvement of German. 

1799. Annals of Lower Saxon Agriculture. 

1800. Cattle-Breeding — Additions to Bergen's work. 

1803. Agricultural Implements. 

1804. Bell's Agricultural E.-ssays, translated, with rhapsodical additions. 

1805. Annals of Agriculture. 

1810. Principles of Rational Agriculture. 

1811. Annals of Agriculture at Moglin from 1817 to 1823. 
1811. On Fine-wooled Sheep. 

1813. Attempt to ascertain the Net Produce of Farms. 

181.5. General System of Agricultural Knowledge. 

1815. My Farming, (at Moglin.) 

1815. Circular to obtain the Net Produce, as a Basis for Correct Taxation of the Land. 

1815. Wool and Sheep-breeding. 



The Royal Agricultural School at Annaberg, which we select as an example 
of the intermediate class, has for its object to train peasant farmers and bailiffs. 
It admits none but sons of small farmers, about twenty-five years of age, pro- 
vided with a certificate of baptism, of having attended school, of good mental 
capacity and conduct, and of the place to which they belong. 

The course of instruction lasts one year, and pupils are not allowed to quit 
before the close, or remain beyond the time. The plan is to make the pupilS' 
acquainted with all the branches of a well-organized farming business, and 
more particularly to explain the necessary connection of its several branches 
and the reasons why every thing is done. 

The theoretical instruction is, in summer, confined to explanations in connec- 
tion with the farm work performed. In winter, several hours daily are devoted 
to drawing up simple reports, agreements, receipts, &c., the leading principles 
of natural science, of special sciences applied to agriculture, and veterinary 
medicine. Popular hand-books are used as text-books, and the rich collections 
and apparatus of the Academy of Poppelsdorf. 

The practical instruction is pursued according to a fixed plan for gradually 
perfecting the pupils in all the varied work of a farm. They alternate therefore 
in feeding and tending cattle, in using manures, in cultivating and gathering 
crops, and the processes following the harvest, in draining, and in meadow work. 

The school farm is the royal domain of Annaberg, and is conducted on the 
plan of securing a high and permanent profit. It includes a large orchard, nurs- 
ery, and vegetable garden, besides meadows, and waste lands which are being 
gradually redeemed. The character of its soil is very varied, affording oppor- 
tunities for many different kinds of culture. 

The number of scholars is temporarily fixed at six, and board at $69 a year. 


The Eoyal Institute of Agriculture at Moglin was founded by Thaer in 1806, 
and kept in existence through those troubled times only by the great talents of 
the founder. In 1819, the Prussian government, following the example of 
Wiirtemberg, constituted it a royal institute and assimilated its professors to 
those of a gymnasium, both as to rank and salary, with the condition that cer- 
tain pupils, sent from Berlin, should receive gratuitous instruction. 

It is a boarding-school, and is governed by a director. The course lasts four 
years, beginning October 1st and closing on the 1st of August. The instruction 
includes lessons in mathematics and the physical and natural sciences as applied 
to agriculture, rural economy, veterinary art, and forestry. It gives more spe- 
cial instruction in farm accounts, raising fine wool, meadow irrigation, and 
potato cultivation on a large scale. The price of board and instruction is, for 
the whole course, $240. Pupils are admitted temporarily at $7,00 per week. 

The domain, which is yet in the hands of the Thaer family, consists of 1,050 
acres of poor, sandy land, 50 of natural meadows, and a wide extent of pine 
forest. There is a vast stock of sheep, cows and bulls, horses and swine. In 
all, at the time of the visit of M. Royer in 1844. there were 1,850 animals, 
among which were 1,600 sheep, 60 cows and oxen, and 12 horses, with 21 farm 
laborers. The principal industry was distilling potato spirit and raising wool. 
It admits 20 pupils; 611 have been through the four years' course. 



The object of this academy is: 1. To afford an opportunity to young farmers 
who have a certain amount of preliminary, scientific, and general knowledge, 
and who are skilled in handling the implements of their calling, to make them- 
selves "acquainted with the sciences specially applicable to agriculture, as also 
the auxiliary sciences, in as far as is required for the rational farming and ad- 
ministration of a landed estate in the present day ; and, 2. To offer to students 
of jurisprudence and of political science, as well as to all others whose future 
vocation may render some acquaintance with the rational mode of conducting 
an agricultural business useful (though they may not intend to become practical 
farmers.) the means of learning to know the theoretical as well as the practical 
principles of such a business, and to acquire a distinct notion of its organization 
and the mode of conducting it. 

The aim of the academy is thus not only to educate men to be thoroughly 
capable of conducting the business of larger or smaller estates, whether as pro- 
prietors, farmers, or land-stewards, but also to enable future officials in the 
administrative departments of government, who may require more than a super- 
ficial knowledge of rural economy, to obtain this. 

The studies in the academy are distributed as follows : 


A. Agriculture. — 1. Knowledge of the soil: 
" Upper stratum of the earth. Atmospheric action of constituents of the earth. 
The influence of mountain formations on the composition and fertility of the 
soil. Physical properties of the soil. The classification of soils. The distri- 
bution of soils. Sub -soil and surface soil. 

2. Studij of manures: 

Principles governing the nourishment of plants. The difference between 
wild and cultivated plants. Stable manure. Combination cf the different 
animal manures, with stable litter. Treatment of manure in the stable, the 
yard, and the field. Liquid manure, litter, nightsoil, other animal, vegetable, 
and mineral manures. Economic importance and use of the same. Different 
processes for preparing manures for sale, and different methods of applying 

3. Clearing, draining, and working the land. 

The most important process of tillage; different modes of culture required 
for woods, heaths, moors, and sandy places. 

Evils of dampness. Different methods of draining, more particularly by 
underground drains. Draining combined with practical demonstrations ; cost 
and results. 

Various objects and various methods of tillage, deep soil culture, fallows. 
Different methods of cropping, change of crops. Rules to be followed in sow- 
ing, reaping, and storing produce. 

4. Tlie Iciiowledije of agricultural implements and machines. 

The importance of agricultural implements and machines. Materials used in 
their construction. 

Implements for working the ground ; hand tools ; horse machines ; the 
plough. The importance and history of the plough ; what is expected from it. 
The work of the plough. Theory of the plough. Its different parts. Classifi- 
cation of ploughs. Judgment of the different kinds of ploughs with reference 
to the uses they are to be put to. The extirpator, the scarifier, horse chopper, 
drag, roller. 

Sowing machine system ; machines for broadcast, drill and dibble sowing. 
Criticism of the methods most in use. Machines for spreading manure. Ma- 
chines for pulverizing manure. Machiues for liquid manure. 


Various reaping machines, machines for mowing corn, grass mowing ma- 
chine, horse rakes, haymaking machines, potato-digging machines. 

System of threshing by machinery ; hand winch, and steam threshing ma- 

Criticism of the most important 

Machines for cleaning grain (cleansing and sorting machines.) 

Groat, flour, and crushing mills, and oil-cake crushers. 

Cliopping machines and root-cutters. 

Other machines and implements, pumps and hydraulic engines. Machines 
for making drainage pipes. Winchwork. Implements of transport, (carts, 
wagons, sledges.) 

5. The cultivation of grain and fodder : 

The special culture required for each plant ; requirements as to climate and 

Succession of crops; preparation and manuring of fields; arrangement; care 
during vegetation, harvesting, storing, and transport. 

6. Tiie cultivaMon of mattrials for manufacture: 
The special culture of each plant as in No. 5. 

The lectures on the cultivation of special plants will be elucidated by prac- 
tical demonstrations on the farms of Poppelsdorf and Annaberg. 

7. Tlie cultivation of grass lands : 

Examination of the different modes of culture, distribution of meadow land. 

The forming of meadows by sowing. 

The treatment of meadows which can not be irrigated. Clearing, leveling, 
manuring, breaking up or draining ; forming of water meadows, advantages of 
irrigation, implements used in the cultivation of meadows, trenching ; other 
operations connected with the artificial treatment of meadows, flooding, aque- 
ducts, special methods of irrigation, overflooding, the Peterson system, making 
valuations, the care and keeping up of artificial meadows. 

8. The cultivation of vines and vegetables : 

(a) The cultivation of grape-vines; on the nature of the grape. The places in 
which it is indigenous; the climatic requirements; the propagation and im- 
provement of vines; making and working vineyards; different methods of pro- 
duction ; treatment and cultivation; quantity and quality produced; the 
diseases of grape-vines. 

{b) The importance of the cultivation of vegetables, where there are accessible 
markets. The laying out of the vegetable garden. The cultivation of vege- 
tables on sound principles, with special reference to the kinds of vegetables 
suited for country populations, and for sale in large quantities. 

9. Tiie cultivation of fruit trees: 

Principal facts in the history of fruit culture. Knowledge of fruit culture, 
with demonstrations. The choice of the best and most useful varieties. Their 
requirements as to climate, situation, and soil. The raising of fruit trees, with 
demonstration!?. The laying out and management of nurseries for fruit trees. 
The planting, division, and management of the improving orchards. Improve- 
ment of the qualiiy of fruit trees. The theory and modes of proceeding as to 
different metiiods of grafting, with practice. Eearing, cutting, and shaping the 
grafted tree. Fruit tree plantations, mode of planting and tending them. The 
diseases of fruit trees. The use and storing of different fruits. The profits 
derived from fruit culture. 

B. Cattle-breeding. — 1. Tlie general rearing of animals : 
Relations of cattle-breeding to agriculture. Importance of this at the present 
time. The fundamental principles of cattle-breeding, &c. The art of breeding; 
the origin of races; artificial and natural races. Technical expressions ; breed- 
ing; descent; influence of both sexes on the breed. Influence of parentage; 
individual influence, cross breeds, thorough breeds. The school of Buftbn. 
Breeding in and in. Different methods of crossing. Darwin "On the Origin of 
Species.'" Instruction as to feeding. Different kinds of food and their con- 
stituent parts. Effects of different kinds of food. The natural inchnations of 
domestic animals with respect to different kinds of food. The volume of food. 
The amount of water contained in the fodder. The relation of protein to 
hydro-carbon. The effects of fat. Preparation of food. Salt as an ingredient 


of diet. Mixed fodders. Rules for determining the amount of nourishment in 
different kinds of food. Of the individual kinds of fodder. Matters to be taken 
into consideration in determining the quantity of food. Mode of estimating 
quantities to be given for substance, for fattening, and for diminishing fat. 

Tlie further care of domestic animals. The allotment of food for stated meal- 
times. Cliange of food. Drinks. Temperature of the stables. Air, light, 
exercise, treatment in other respects. 

2. The breeding of horned cattle: 

Importance of breeding horned cattle. Points in natural history. Breeds of 
oxen, the P]nglish breed in particular. 

Breeding, choice of breed, method of breeding, choice of individuals for 
breeding. The relation between bodily form and usefulness in various respects. 
Rearing of calves. 

Feeding and tending full-grown cattle : 

General principles on which cattle should be fed. Amount of food required 
Summer stall-feeding. Pasturing, a mixture of the two. "Winter food. Alter- 
nation of fodder. The stable arrangements. Persons tending the cattle. 

Employment of cattle on a farm: 

The dairy. Chemical and other properties of milk. Testing milk. Matters 
tliat intlaence the quantity and quality of milk. The making of butter and 
cheese. Fattening — Choice of stock for fattening. The process of fattening 
calves. The meat market. Classification of meat. The purchase of fat beasts. 
The use of oxen for labor. Choice as to breeding or purchasing. 

3. Horse-hreeding and knowledge of the external parts of horses : 
Horse-breeding. — Its importance. Natural history. Principal races of horses. 

Choice for the various purposes of breeding. Pairing. Keeping and tending 
stallions and mares. Tending of and feeding foals. The most important dis- 
eases incident to foals, A knowledge of the external parts of horses. Bodily 
structure of the horse. The relation of one part to the other, Difterences of 
form and development with reference to the various services for w^hich the 
horses are destined. Paces. Age of teething. Precautions to be observed in 
purchasing horses. Practical demonstrations. 

4. Rearing sheep and the knowledge of wools : 

(a.) Sheep-breeding; importance of breed. Natural history. Breeds of 
sheep. The history of merinos. Breeding, right method of breeding. Choice 
of direction of breeding. Process of breeding. Choice of stock for breeding. 
Register of breedings. Pairing, Lambing, Keeping of lambs and ewes. 

The nourishing and tending of the full-grown animals. General principles as 
to the nourishment of sheep. Amount of food required. Stall-feeding. The 
two methods combined. Winter fodder. The preparation of food. The choice 
of food. Persons attending the sheep. Arrangement of the folds. Utensils 
for holding food. 

Treatment and sale of produce. The uses of wool. "Washing. Shearing. 
The sale of wool. Use of the milk. Separating the sound animal from the 
unsound. The sale of fatted beasts. Sale of sheep for breeding. 

The use of sheep on the farm. Principles of different modes of sheep farm- 
ing. Composition of flocks. Calculation of the cost and profit of diiferent 
modes of sheep farming. 

5. The knowledge of wool: 

Of wool in general. Technical preparation. Cloth wool and carding wool. 

Special properties of wool. Fineness, curl, softness, strength of fibre, elas- 
ticity, length, color, gloss, oiliness. 

"Wool in staple and fleece ; quality of staple. Thickness of the wool ; out- 
ward form of the staple. Inward construction of the staple. Shortness, even- 
ness. Matters to be observed in judging of the yield of the wool. 

6. Bearing of smaller animals : 

(a.) Rearing pigs. Importance of rearing pigs. Natural history. Breeds. 

Breeding, Selection of breeds. Process of breeding. Choice of individuals 
for breeding. Register of breeds. Birth. Care of the litter. 

The feeding of piga General principles of feeding. Amount of food re- 
quired. Alternation of food. Gradual process of fattening. Sale of the fatted 



(b.) The rearing of domestic poultry. Knowledge of races, breeding, feeding, 
and tending. Different plans of management. 

Sanitary matters connected with the treatment of domestic animals. — General 
external influences which affect the bodily condition and health of animals, and 
the amount and quality of the animal ; product more particularly. 

(a.) Atmospheric influences affecting respiration, the developing heat, and the 
functions of the skin. Heat and cold, moisture, crowding, exercise, light, &c. 

(6.) Food and drink. General character of these. Their relations to the 
organs of digestion, and the different purposes of feeding. Amount of food to 
be given. Preparation of food, &c. 

(c.) Tending and care, housing. 

C. Theory of Farming. — 1. Principles of political economy involved in rural 
economy : 

Object of rural economy : land and soil, and their adaptability for different 
modes of culture. Position of the different classes of agricultural laborers. 
Work done by horses. Choice of cattle for draft. Number of laborers required. 
Application of machinery. Capital,-its distribution. Productivity of the capital 
invested in the various branches. Relative proportion of these sums to each 
other, to the land worked. Sale of products. Character, size, and distance of 
the market-town. Influence of trade relations on the entire business of the 
farm. The Farmer — His education. Administration of the estate by the pro- 
prietor. Letting to a farmer. Conduct of large and small farms. The relation 
of industry to agriculture. Agricultural associations and means for taking 

2. Farming systems: 

The management of large estates, and the preparation for carrying out plana 
for working. 

Nature of objects aimed at in the management of an estate. Different sys- 
tems oT farming and different rules of rotation. Critical examination of tlie 
same. The conditions on which they can be profitably carried on. Parceling 
out of fields. Diffusion of the established systems and alterations introduced 
by progressive civilization. Change to a new system and new rotations. Choice 
of collateral brandies of business in connection with the farm. Conduct of 
the business. Persons engaged in the management. Their duties and position. 
Choice and acquisition of estate by purchase or on lease. Agreements for pur- 
chasing and taking leases. Founding new estates. Instructions for laying out 
a farm. 

3. Valuation of. land and instruction in making estimates of productions : 
Meaning and object of valuation. Different reasons for valuation. 
Principles of valuation. Improvements. Different methods of classification. 

Estimate of gross revenue derived from the various branches, and from the en- 
tire outlay on the estate. Estimate of net profits. Estimate of the capital 
value. Special and general valuation. Practical instructions for making esti- 
mates of revenue. - 

4. Agricultural hook-keeping : 

As a guide to the lectures, treating of the importance, the principles, and the 
method cf the improved S3^stem of keeping agricultural accounts, the director, 
Dr. Havstein's work on the subject shall be used, and for practical exercise the 
pupils sliall make out a year's accounts of the Poppelsdorf estate, according to 
the S3'stem of double entry. 

5. Agricultural calculations : 

These lectures, which are illustrated by examples, treat of the solution of 
manifold questions connected with the administration of landed property by 
means of arithmetical formulas. For instance, calculation of the cost of pro- 
duction of, and of profits which ought to be realized on, various agricultural 
products ; proofs of the advantages of various operations, such as the use of 
particular machines, of new methods of cultivation, of the technical manipula- 
tion of products, &c. 

D.' History op Agricttlture. — 1. History and statistics of agriculture .* 
• History of the gradual development of agriculture, especially in Germany. 
Sketch of the present state of agriculture as shown by official statistios. The 


condition of Germany will hold a prominent place with regard to this branch 
of the subject also. 

2. Literature of agriculture^ with special mention 0/ the newest publications : 
The gradual development of agricultural literature, as shown b}^ the loading 

ancient works on the subject. Critical examination of the most important 
modern works on agricultural subjects. 

3. Gotnparative statement of the condition of agriculture in the principal Euro- 
pean countries, loith particular reference to England and Germany : 

Comparative account as above, taking into account the natural conditions of 
the various countries, their means of communication, &c., with a view to afford- 
ing German agriculturists a clear understanding of their own position in relation 
to those of other countries, and of the advantages and deticiencies of German 

II. Forest Economy. — 1. Forest culture : 

The importance of forest culture. Cursory view of forest botany. The arti- 
ficial and natural tirst growths and after growths of the useful forest products, 
with practical demonstrations. 

2. Forest industry, the protection of forests, and valuation : 

A knowledge of the quility and proper use of different woods. The ingath- 
ering and improvement of forest products (forest technology.) The transport 
and valuation of the useful produce of the woods. Measures of protection with 
regard to the damage done to woods by men, hurtful beasts, and bad 
weather. Accounts of the produce of woods, and calculation of the net profit 
thence accruing from them, and of the consequent capital value of the woods. 
In these lectures, particular notice will be taken of private woodlands, and the 
most important subjects relating to such will be treated in detail. 

3. Concerning hunting and fishing : 

Division of subjects. History. Breeding of game. Preservation of game. 
Hunting, and proceeds of hunting. Formation, mauitenance, and management 
of fish-ponds. 

III. Natural Philosophy. — 1. Inorganic experimental chemistry : 
Introduction. Properties of simple bodies. Laws of chemical combinations 

and decomposition. Description and conditions of compound inorganic sub- 
stances. The whole department of inorganic chemistry will be discussed in 
these lectures, and illustrated by experiments, a deeper study being devoted 
more especially to those elements and their combinations, which are of special 
importance in the economy of nature, and which play a prominent part in agri- 

2. Organic experimental chemistry. 

Introduction. Special character of organic combination. Substances of im- 
mediate and mediate organic origin, among the first, hj^dro-cavbon, vegetable 
acids, fatty substances, substances containing nitrogen, &c. ; among the second, 
alcohols, ethers, the products of dry distillation, &c. The extent of the in- 
struction given on these subjects will be in proportion to their importance with 
regard to the vital processes of plants and animals. The lectures will be illus- 
trated by experiments. 

3. Analytical chemistry, with practical exercises in the laboratory : 
Introductory lectures on analytical chemistry. The students receive, first, 

instruction in qualitative examination of minerals, vegetable ashes, soils, ma- 
nures, &c. ; and afterwards in quantitative analysis, for which the chemical 
laboratory has every requisite. Participation in practical work will only be 
allowed to those who have gone through previous study of inorganic chemistry. 

4. Ohemistry of soils : 

General survey of the process of chemical decomposition of arable soils, both 
with respect to its mineral and its organic constituents. The chemical theory 
of the exhaustion of soils, and of manures. These lessons are completed by 
lectures on the practical knowledge of soils. 

5. Animal chemistry : 

Chemical principles of the process of animal nutrition, and of change of sub- 
stances. A critical examination of the most important experiments in feeding 
characteristics of the animal substances most important in practical life. 


6. Literature of agricultural chemistry : 

History of agricultural chemistry. A survey and criticism of the most im- 
portant works of ancient as well as modern literature bearing upon tliis science. 
A detailed repetition of selected chapters on the subject of theoretical chemistry. 

7. Ej-perimental physics : 

(a.) Statics and dynamics. Introductory lecture. General properties of mat- 
ter. Laws governing the equilibrium and motion of solids, liquid, and aeriform 
bodies. The phenomena of diffusion and endosmose. 

(b.) Science of heat and meteorology. On conducted and radiated heat. The 
most important effects of heat. Expansion of bodies, alterations of the state 
of aggregation. Elasticity of steam. Detailed descriptions and illustrations 
of the steam-engine. Influence of heat on climatic changes. Origin and meta- 
morphosis of the atmospheric precipitates [Mederschldge.) 

(c.) Electricity, magnetism, sound and light. General physical theory of the 
laws governing the powers of nature. Explanation of their natural action, 
(Northern lights, tempests, their eflfects on vegetation, &c.,) and their applica- 
tions in practical life. Telegraphy, photography, &c. The course of lectures 
on physics will be illustrated by experimenta 

Each of these three sections of physics will form a connected whole, so that 
the study can begin with either without much loss. Besides the first section 
on statics and dynamics will be taught in the lectures given during one half- 
year of the second year's course on agricultural machinery and mechanics. 

8. Mineralogy and geology : 
A brief sketch of geology. 

Composition of the crust of the earth. Rock formations, their structure, po- 
sition, and origin. Mountain formations, upheavings and sinking, "Volcanic 
phenomena. The geological action of water, (springs, erosion, and deposits 
caused by rivers, seas, and lakes.) Characteristics of the most important sedi- 
mentary formations. Coal, peat, salt deposits, &c. History of the inorganic 
world. The characteristics of minerals which constitute the chief ingredients 
of rocks, and the products of the decomposition of which form the soil. Min- 
erals most important to miners and for technical purposes. 

9. Botany in general and the anatomy of plants : 

Morjihology. The outward form and anatomical characteristics of the organs 
of plants. 

Principles of systemization. Characteristics of the classes, orders, and most 
important families of the vegetable kingdom, their habitual, anatomical, and 
morphological distinctions. Reference to the general principles of natural sys- 

The most important facts t&uching the geography of plants ; limits within which 
plants are distributed over the earth ; their natural habitation and their emi- 

Paleontology of plants. Characteristics of the vegetation of various geological 

10. Physiology of plants: 

Detailed representation of the structure and functions of the organs of plants 
and of outward influences on vegetation, (for instance, of nourishment taken in 
through roots and leaves, assimilation and course of the sap, transportation, 
the influence of light, of warmth, of air, of the soil, &c., on the vital process of 
plants, &c.) 

1 1 . Agricultural botany and the diseases of plants : 

Monographic descriptions of all the agricultural plants and meadow grasses 
in Germany, their habits, germination, vegetation, and fructification. Reference 
to the relations of their physiological conditions, to their cultivation, country, 
history, and distribution of the several kinds of plants suited for cultivation. 
The lectures will be illustrated by demonstration on living plants, in the lecture- 
room and during excursions. 

In the description of agricultural plants, their diseases, and what is noxious 
to them, will be touched upon ; afterwards a general survey of the diseases of 
plants, and more especially of those caused by parasites, will be given. 

12. Selected sections of general botany and vegetable anatomy and physiology : 
The most important matters comprised in these departments will be specially 


dwelt upon, and the newest publications on these subjects will be mentioned, 
so as to enable the student to continue his studies in this direction. 

13. Praclical exercise in using the microscope, and experiments as to the physi- 
ology of plants: 

(a.) Use of the Microscope. Introduction to the use of the microscope. Ex- 
hibition and preservation of microscopic preparations, and practice in micro- 
scopic investigations ; (6.) Introduction to experiments on plants. The student 
will have the opportunity of personally testing the most important questions in 
the physiology of plants. For example, the examination of transpiration, nour- 
ishment, the influence of light, of warmth, &c. Only those students who have 
heard the necessary preparatory lectures can take part in these microscopic and 
and physiological experiments. 

14. Anatomical and physiological survey of the animal kingdom: 

The most important points bearing on the organization of the classes and 
orders of the animal kingdom. The influence of external and internal struc- 
ture on the habits of life. General remarks on the processes of nutrition, res- 
piration, and circulation, the action of the nerves and muscles, functions of the 
organs of sense and propagation. These lectures will be illustrated by numer- 
ous demonstrations. 

15. Natural history of invertebrate animals: 

The chief part of these lectures will treat of the natural history of insects 
important to the agriculturist and to the manager of forests ; and that of bees 
and silkworms will be fully elucidated by demonstration. The rest of the lower 
classes of animals will be briefly treated of, and theu" relation to man specially 
touched upon. 

16. Natural history of vertebrate animals: 

Characteristics of mammalia of birds ; of amphibious animals and of fish. 
Their chief anatomical and physiological features, with particular reference to 
Jhe species useful or hurtful to man. Anatomical demonstrations. 

17. Repetitions in natural philosophy : 

During these repetitions, students, and more particularly those who have 
been unable to follow and complete the two years' course of instruction, will 
have an opportunity of gaining an eucj^clopcedic insight into all the various 
branches of natural philosophy taught separately in the academy. 

IV. Mathematics. — 1. Practical geometry and exercises in measuring land 
and leveling : 

Theorems in practical geometry ; their use in the art of measuring fields. 
Application of the latter to agriculture Practical exercise in measuring fields, 
(with measuring bars, cross discs, the surveyor's table, the compass, the theod- 
olite,) and in leveling. 

2. Agrkultwral mechanics^ and the study of machinery : 

Laws of motion ; natural powers; estimation of their strength and working 
capacity -. friction, solidity of bodies, mechanical powers, their application and 
combination as agricultural machinery. 

Water pressure, motion of water, (in rivers, canals, and conduits.) Water 
power and water wheels. 

Atmospheric pressure, and its practical application. Steam power and steam- 
engines. Mills. 

V. Political Economy. — 1. The principles of national economy : 
Fundamental idea of property. Systems of national political economy. The 

characteristics of national wealth. Laws governing the production, the distri- 
bution, and the consumption of goods. 

2. Political economy : 

Relation of the State to the national wealth. Way and means of governing 
in order to obtain the maximum of national prosperity. 

Administrative measures and reguiations relative to the production, distribu- 
tion, and consumption of goods. 

VI. Jurisprudence. — 1. Introduction to the laws respecting agriculture: 

A short view of the existing works on land in Germany. Explanations of 
.the idea connected with the terms, person, things, action, agreement, &c. Laws 
concerning property, law of inheritance, law of entail, &c. 


The lectures on the general principles of law will hold constantly in view the 
relation of these to agricultural law, and the very extensive subject will thus be 
limited and determined. 

2. Agricultural laiv. 

3. Agrarian legislation [Agral Geseizgebung.) 

YII. Veterinary Science. — 1. Anatomy and physiology of domestic animals : 
These anatomical and physiological lectures, which are to be considered as 
laying the foundation of the knowledge of veterinary science, of sanitary sci- 
ence, of the laws of health as regards animals, and of the breeding of animals, 
treat of these subjects in detail, and in connection with numerous demonstra- 
tions on living and dead animals. 

2. Acute and contagious disorders of domestic animals: 

This lecture treats of the most common internal diseases, and of all infectious 
and contagious complaints of animals, their classification according to the parts 
they affect, (diseases affecting the organs of respiration and digestion, &c..) their 
causes and course. As the object is not to give profound veterinary knowledge, 
but rather to enable the farmer to recognize the first symptoms of illness, and 
so form a right judgment as to their danger, to treat slight illnesses himself 
and, in urgent cases, when the veterinary surgeon can not be obtained quickly, 
to apply the proper medical and surgical treatment ; that part of therapeutics 
will be taught, more especially, which has reference to the treatment of shght 
and acute diseases. 

3. Exter7ial diseases of domestic animals : 

Their division according to the seat of tlie disease in the various parts of the 
body. . In respect of these diseases, also their appearance, their usual course, 
their local and general importance, and their tendency to become hereditary, 
&c., will be taught more in detail than the therapeutical and surgical treatment 
of them. As far as possible, practical demonstrations will be added to scientific 
teaching. Besides this, practical exercise will be afforded by the performance 
of special slight operations, such as bleeding, cauterizing, &c. 

4. Shoeing and tending. 

(a.) Shoeing. — A short sketch of the anatomy and physiology of the hoof. 
The horse-shoe. Shoeing sound hoofs. Shoeing diseased hoofs. Shoeing in 
abnormal positions and for irregular paces. Practical illustrations. 

(6.) Tending, — All matters relating to the symptoms and treatment of female 
animals during bearing time. 

VIII. Technology. — 1. General Technology : 

Introduction. Study of materials for burning and lighting. Preparation of 
fuel. The technical importance and application of water. The manufacture of 
animal and vegetable fats, of weaving and spinnmg fibres. Clay, gypsum, and 

2. Technology of collateral branches of rural economy : 

Importance, application, regulation, and management of allied industries, 
showing the most recent scientific and practical improvements; for instance, in 
the manufacture of starch and sugar, brewing and distilling, the making of 
wine, the manufacture of vinegar, the preparation of bread, butter, and cheese. 

Illustrations by experiments, drawings, models, and visits to manufactories. 

IX. Architecture. — 1. Building materials and the art of building : 

The knowledge of building materials, the mode of obtaining them, and rules 
for their selection. Descriptions of the most important building works, their 
valuation, and terms which ought to be paid for their construction. 

2. Construction and arrangement of agricultural and industrial buildings : 
These lectures will be illustrated by drawings and models, as well as by 

buildings already erected. 

3. Construction of roads and canals : 

Constructing and keeping up roads, as well as the needful ditches, thorough- 
fares, and bridges. Constructions for protection against inundations and swamp- 
mg ; making of weirs and sluices. 

4. Exercise in drawing : 

The drawing of plans and of agricultural implements and machines, and de- 
signs for agricultural buildings. 


Mr. Flint, in the account of his visits to European agricultural institutions, in 
1863, thus speaks of his visit to Poppelsdorf: — 

The agricultural college at Poppelsdorf, connected with the university at 
Bonn, is some ten miles above Cologne, beautifully situated on the left bank of 
the river, within sight of the far-famed Siebengebirge, or seven mountains, and 
the Dracheufels. It is reached by a magnificent avenue leading from Bonn to 
Poppelsdorf, studded with superb chestnuts in double rows ou either side. 

I called at onc3 on Dr. Hartstein, the director of the agricultural school, who 
kindly gave me the information I sought in regard to its present position and 
prosperity'. Close by his house is an ancient castle, now used as a depository 
of the extensive scientific collections belonging to the university, to which the 
students in agriculture have access. The model farm of the agricultural insti- 
tute is also close at hand. This is used for the purpose of experiment, and the 
crops on the experimental plots were very striking. Extensive mulberry hedges 
surround the fields, and the silk-worm was in the full tide of successful operation. 

The scientific lectures extend over not only the branches requisite in the 
department of agriculture, but also the fundamental and auxiliary sciences con- 
nected with it, viz. : — 

(a ) Agriculture in its whole range as a leading science, and especially 

1. The science of tillage, which is divided into a general and special branch. 
In the one are the knowledge of soils, manures, and the working of the land, 
the seed, care of the crop, and harvesting of agricultural products in general is 
taught; in the other, more exact instruction is given as to the judicious culti- 
vation of each one of these products. In this connection the formation of 
permanent meadows, and especially artificial meadows, is considered. 

2. The science of cattle-breeding or the production of animals, which also 
include*,^.' general and a special course. In the first, instruction is given as to 
the different races, the pairing, breeding, feeding, care and fattening of cattle in 

^general ; in the second, the breeding of cattle, sheep, horses, swine, &c. 

3. The proper farm management, taking in the whole agricultural profession, 
and including general rules and principles. The principal divisions are, the 
objects of agriculture, land, capital and labor, sale and leasing of estates, 
d liferent systems of agriculture, the arrangements and du-ection of farms, and of 
taxation and book-keeping. 

To these lectures upon agriculture are added those on fruit management, 
garden, fruit and vineyard culture. 
(6.) Chief and auxiliary sciences. 

1. The natural sciences, chemistry and physics, zoology, botany and mineral- 
ogy, with special reference to agriculture, and so far as they are of importance 
to the farmer in the oversight and judicious direction of his estate. 

2. Mathematical sciences, especially applied geometry, stereometry, statics, 
hydrostatics and machinery, connected with the practice in field-measuring, 
leveling, drawing of plans, &c. 

3. Popular agricultural literature, so far as it serves as a safe ground-work 
for practical agricultural instruction. 

4. Agricultural technology. 

5. Veterinary science. 

6. Agricultural mechanics. 

7. Laws relating to agriculture and the cultivation of lands. 

8. History, statistics and literature of agriculture. 

The farm connected with the institute serves for practical illustration, as well 
as the excursions which, from time to time, are taken in the neighborhood, and 
during vacations, also, into more distant regions. The institute is in want of no 
auxiliary means of making the theoretical and practical ini^truction most use- 
ful. Among these are the chemical laboratory, erected especially for agricultu- 
ral investigation, the physical apparatus and the instruments for land measuring 
and leveling, the collection of minerals and ores, the zoological and veterinary 
collection, the collection of models and implements, and of wool, the library, 
the economic botanic garden, the botanical collection and the estate, with the 
experimental fields and the vineyard. Besides these peculiar means of instruc- 
tion of the institute, the use of the rich collections and apparatus of the 


university, the royal university library, botanic garden and natural history 
museum, is available. 

Students pay an entrance fee of six thalers, and a fee for tuition of forty 
thalers. or thirty dollars, for the first term. The amount for the second term is 
thirty thalers, the third twenty, and the fourth ten, making the fee for the whole 
course of two years, one hundred thalers, or seventy-five dollars. 

The lectures embrace a two years' course, the terms being arranged to con- 
form with those of the university. The special plan of instruction is made 
known each term. The school is designed for those v\ho desire to educate 
themselves for skillful farmers, and those who devote themselves to the studies 
of the university, and at the same time wish to become familiar with the opera- 
tions of agriculture. Students who are entered at the University of Bonn, and 
enrolled in any of the faculties, can attend the agricultural lectures on applica- 
tion to the director. 

Applicants have to bring certificates of good conduct. No proof of specific 
attainments in elementary school studies is required, but it is desired that, 
before visiting the institute, the pupU should be familiar with the practical 
manipulations of farming, and be able to show proof of it. 

On admission, the student is matriculated and enrolled in the faculty of 
philosophy at the university. By this he acquires all the rights and undertakes 
all the obligations'of the university students. 

The whole establishment is under the control of the royal ministry for agri- 
cultural aflairs at Berlin. 

The experimental farm, close by the school, contains, I believe, about seventy 
acres. I visited the barns and out-buildings, all of which appeared to be in 
admirable condition, a place for every thing and every thing in its place. 

But seven or eight cows are kept, and those are all Dutch, which are thought 
there to be among the best for milk. No experiments appear to be made there 
to test the comparative merits of dift'erent breeds. A long series of experi- 
ments in the fields near the house seemed to be conducted in the most careful 
manner. Many of the plots of wheat were of extraordinary growth. A great 
variety of plants are cultivated, chiefly for the purpose of instruction. 


The superior agricultural school at Eldena is connected with the University 
of Grriefswald. It was opened in 1834, and connected with the university on 
account of the vast manor connected with the latter, which was, moreover, suf- 
fering from lack of studeots. 

It is governed by a director, who is at the same time teacher of agriculture 
and rural economy. The professors of the university give instruction in vete- 
rinary art, the natural sciences, and mathematics. The students must matric- 
ulate there, but are bound only for one semester. They must be over seventeen, 
and must produce testimonials of good conduct and of having pursued classical 
studies. The instruction extends over two years, and includes : 

1. Political Economy : — Finances ; Rural police ; Constitutional law in Prus- 
sia; Governmental organization; Politico-economic discussions. 2. History 
and Statistics of Agriculture: — Agriculture in general; Agriculture special; 
Cultivation of meadows ; Zootechny in general ; Raising of sheep ; Raising of 
horned animals; Rural economy ; Systems of culture; Valuation of rural estates; 
Agricultural book-keeping, theoretic and practical. 3. Sylviculture in general, 
{culture of groves.) 4 Horticulture: — Culture of garden vegetables ; Culture 
of fruit trees ; Arboriculture, (culture of trees and shrubs for timber, &c.) 5. 
liaising of Horses : — Anatomy and physiology of domestic animals ; Yeterinary 
medicine ; Hygiene. 6. Chemistry : — Experimental and agricultural, organic 
and inorganic chemistry, (exercises in the laboratory,) physics, and meteorology; 
Technology, with practical demonstration in the distillery; Brewery; Tile-kiln, 
and dairj' ; Excursion to the saline of Griesswalde ; to the beet-sugar manufac- 
tory of Stralsund; Manufactory of instruments and mills. 1. Anatomy, Fhy- 


siology, and Geology of Plants : — Botany, general and applied to agriculture; 
Horticulture and Sylviculture ; Zoology, general and applied to agriculture; 
Excursions. 8. Arithmetic and Matheiiiatics : — Surveying; Leveling; General 
and applied mechanics. 9. Drawing: — Rural architecture ; Practical estimates 
of constructions. 10. Rural Law. 

It is. liberally endowed and possesses a collection of machines and tools. 

It has nine professors and eighty pupils, of which ten will devote themselves 
to the higher departments of government, where a knowledge of agriculture is 
needed. The fees are about $90, board not included. 


The Agricultural Academy at Proskau, in Silesia, was opened in 1847, and, 
up to 1867, had been attended by 1,067 students. Its curriculum is identical 
with that at Poppelsdorf There are eight professors, and a farm of 2,312 acres. 

There is also an inferior practical school for young farmers here, called prak- 
tikanten station. The instruction is given them by the administrator of Proskau 
and the farm-inspector at Schemnitz, in whose house they are boarded. 


The Superior Institute of Agriculture atRegenwalde was established in 1842. 
It has four professors, with a course like that given at Poppelsdorf. The fees 
are about $221 per annum. The farm includes about 1,100 acres. 


The gardening school at Potsdam was opened in 1823. It admits pupils who 
have passed two years in the preparatory school of Schonberg. There are six 
professors, and the course consists of a review of elementary studies, geometry, 
drawing, and the cultivation of trees, esculent vegetables, ornamental plants, 
and those employed in industry. The school possesses land for experiments, 
and a nursery of about eighty acres, whence fruit and forest-trees are sold. 

There are about thirty pupils, of which ten or twelve are bursars. 


The superior special forestry school at Neustadt Eberswald is administered 
and directed by the Minister of Finance. It was founded at Berlin in 1820, and 
united to the university ; in 1830 it was removed to its present site. 

The course lasts two years, with two terms in the year. The branches 
taught are forestry, general and special botany, the encyclopaedia of the natui'al 
sciences, entomology, general and applied to forestry, phytotomy, vegetable 
physiology, mineralogy and geognosy, arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, 
stereotomy, statics and dynamics. Conferences are held upon natural history, 
mathematics, political economy, and forestry; many excursions are made into 
the forests connected with the school, and one annually into those of the Elbe 
and Harz. Four botanical and surveying excursions are made weekly. For 
coppice-working there is a district appropriated to the school at Obersdorf, in 
Thuringia. The school receives only forty pupils. 

The fees are fifty thalers the term. There are many bursars. Toung soldiers 
who have practiced forestry and have served five years in a batallion of chas- 
seurs, and can pass an examination in geometry, are received free into the 
school, continue to draw their army pay, and after two years, may present 
themselves at the examination of forest-inspectors. 



The "Veterinary School at Berlin has for its chief object to teach the art of 
military veterinary surgery, and almost exclusively of the horse. 

There are nine or ten teachers and forty pupils. The course consists of anat- 
omy, physiology, zoology, the veterinary art, and horse-shoeing, and extends 
over three years. There is an examination every six months, and one at the 
close of the course, after which the pupils enter the regiments or are assigned 
to posts. A clinique where sick animals are treated is connected with the 
school, and is free of charge, but their' owners pay for food and medicines. 

French estimate of Prussian Agricultural Schools. 
M. de Laveleye, in the Bevue des Deux Mondes for September, attributes 
the great advance made by Prussia in agriculture, first, " to the complete system 
of general education throughout the rural districts;" and second, "to the tech- 
nical instruction provided not only for the manufacturing and mechanic classes, 
but for the agriculturists." 

Prussia maintains four Royal Academies of Agriculture, at which both the 
theory and practice of farming are taught during two years, at a cost to each 
student of less than 8?. a year for instruction in political and rural economy, 
the management of trees and woods ; in the mode of manufacturing sugar, beer, 
bricks and draining tiles ; in mineralogy, geology, botany, and chemistry, with 
experiments and excursions; and lastly, in mathematics, trigonometry, land- 
surveying, practical mechanics, veterinary surgery, rural law, the history of 
their country, and constitutional law. Excursions into the most interesting 
districts are common. The persons who attend these academies are those who 
have to make their living by their own farms, commonly of small extent. For 
amateurs a less practical course is provided at institutes connected with the 
Universities of Halle and Berlin. There are nineteen provincial schools of agri- 
culturs below the academies, subsidized by the State to the amount of about 
2,000Z., and generally taught by some large farmer, assisted by the neighboring 
apothecary, schoolmaster, and veterinary surgeon. Tliere are also numerous 
special schools, for particular branches, such as market-gardening, and the cul- 
tivation of meadows and woods. The care of fruit-trees is taught in one hun- 
dred and thirty-four schools in the ancient provinces alone. 

The system of paid instruction is extended by the institution of itinerant 
teachers, who go from village to village, criticising the cultivation and giving 
advice about rotation of crops and the most suitable kinds of manure. The 
State also maintains seven experimental institutes of organic and agricultural 
chemistry, which, on different soils and under different circumstances, are test-> 
ing and completing the theories of Liebig, and in proving the quality of the 
artificial manures of commerce. 

Finally, there are 519 voluntary agricultural association.s, which by confer- 
ences, exhibitions and prizes, assist in spreading information. Apart from the 
academies and institutes of chemistry, the State does little. There is a central 
commission, presided over by a Minister of Agriculture, but its expenses in 
1862 were only 177^. Three large stud farms, maintained at a cost of 20,000Z. 
a year, continually improve the breeds of horses for war as well as peace. 
Eleven hundred stallions, distributed from tliese forms through the provinces, 
get annually 35,000 foals^a number sufficient to modify the breeds throughout 
the country in any desired direction in a very few years. 

M. de Laveleye assigns much importance "to the simple and economic habits 
of the German farmer, and to the fact that Prussia is fortunate in having no 
Algiers, no large fleet, and especially no Paris to oppress agriculture by the 
draio of both money and men ; but the great secret of the success of Prussian 
agriculture is diffused education and technical instruction." 


In Prussia, the Real school, and even the Higher Burgher school, has heen 
regarded as sufficient to give all the appropriate and special instruction required 
for a mercantile career, the practical part of v/hich could, it was thought, be better 
acquired by a few years service in a subordinate position in the counting-room 
than in any school. 


The Cominercial School at Berlin, founded in 1848, by Dr. Schweitzer, and 
now under the direction of Dr. Frantz, has for its object the special preparation 
of pupils for. commercial pursuits. There are but few schools of this special 
character in Prussia, as it is generally maintained that the gymnasiums and real 
schools afford the best general culture necessary to the merchant of good social 
standing, while the counting-room is the best practical school. However, the 
government has sanctioned this establishment. 

The course of instruction covers two years, and there are four divisions : class 
III, class II B, II A, and class I. The branches taught are arithmetic, geom- 
etry, physics, history, geography, drawing, calligraphy ; the history, geography, 
statistics, and science of commerce ; history of mercantile staples, technical chem- 
istry, laws of exchange, coinage, &c. ; book-keeping, French, English, and Ger- 
man languages, and correspondence. 

There is a Government Board of Inspection of the final examination. Suc- 
pessful candidates are excused from two of their three years' military service. 
From 1856 to 1862, 122 pupils passed, of whom 21 were characterized as "ex- 
cellent," 64 " good," and 37 " passable." 

The number of pupils was in 1862, 100 in the first year, and 140 in the second ; 
in 1863, 173 and 176 ; and in 1864, 204 and 213 ; these statistics showing an in- 
crease of public confidence in the institution. 


The commercial institution for young women, at Berlin, was opened in 1866. Its 
purpose is to impart to young women already possessing considerable education, 
such theoretical and practical knowledge as will enable them to fill responsible 
commercial and industrial positions, especially those of book-keepers, accountants, 
and correspondents. It has seven professors. 

The course is divided into two divisions ; the first (A) extends over two years, 
giving general preparatory culture, with a view to future employment in com- 
merce or industry ; the second (B) of one year, suited to those who wish to obtain, 
as soon as possible, the knowledge necessary for entering at once into some prac- 
tical employment. Ladies over 15 are admitted to Division A; over 16, to 
Division B. The subjects and Itpurs, per week, are specified below. 

General knowledge of commerce and industry; definition of commerce; differ- 
ent kinds of trade ; auxiliary means of trade ; coinage ; weights and measures ; 
money ; banking and exchange business. The most important laws relative to 
commerce and industry, 1 hour during the first year ; 2 during the second ; 2 in 
Division B. Commercial and industrial book-keeping (by single and double 
entry,) 1 hour first year; 2 the second; 2 in Division B. Commercial hand- 
writing and practice therein by writing themes on commercial business, 3 hours 
first year; 3 in Division B. Ar thmetic general and applied to commerce and 
industry, 4 hours first year, 2 the second ; 4 in Division B. German language 
and composition, 2 hours first year ; 1 the second ; 3 in Division B. German 


commercial correspondence, 1 hour the second year ; English language and cor- 
respondence, 3 hours both years ; 2 hours in Division B. French language and 
correspondence, 3 hours in both years, and Division B. Drawing, especially 
free-hand and pattern drawing, 3 hours both years and in Division B. Stenog- 
raphy, according to choice. Elements of natural history, 2 hours in both years, 
and Division B, and the elements of physics and chemistry, 2 hours both years, 
and in Division B, to prepare for the study of commercial geography and history, 
2 hours in the second year, and 1 in Division B,and the knowledge of goods and 
technology, 2 hours in the second year, and in Division B. Knowledge of mat- 
ters connected with the vocation of women, more especially domestic economy, 1 
hour in the second year. 

The last branch applies science to domestic life, and treats the Object as fol- 
lows : Knowledge of susteniation — alimentary substances, varieties, source, value for 
nourishment, adulterations, and tests. Animal and vegetable food in all its varie- 
ties. Cheapest and best diets. Cooking ; materials for fire, utensils, modes of cook- 
ing. Preservation of food. Fermentations ; putrefaction, and modes of prevent- 
ing it. Various modes of preserving food ; the ice-house ; storing food. 

Dairy products. Alimentary stuffs, and household goods, and materials. Care 
of house linen, nursing, sanitary laws, management of servants, accounts, and 
various other household functions. 

The above plan of studies is only temporarily established, and is subject to 
change. Visits are made to workshops, goods depots, &c. 

At the close of the course, after an examination, a diploma may be conferred. 

The school fees are a matriculation fee of three thalers ; an annual fee of 50 
thalers ; in Division B there are 10, additional for English, French, and draw- 
ing. Pupils are not received for less time than a year, but may attend single 
courses for 1|^ to 2 thalers the course per semester. There are 49 pupils. 

Connected with the institution is a collection of books, specimens of goods, 
physical, chemical, and technological apparatus. 


This school is intended to train mariners and masters of merchant vessels. It 
is under the superintendence of a director, residing at Dantzig, who has the same 
control over the other navigation schools in Prussia, and is provided with two 
professors and an assistant, who teaches drawing. 

To be admitted to the lowest class, the candidate must be able to read and 
write, be acquainted with elementary mathematics, and must be able to make a 
fair composition in German. The lessons are given during 32 hours a week, and 
during three years, the first year being a course for pilots, while, during the last 
two is taught the art of navigating the high seas. 

The course in pilotage comprises the following branches ; arithmetic, plane 
geometry, carpentry, plane and spherical trigonometry, navigation, terrestrial 
and astronomical observations, drawing of sea-charts and astronomical maps, and 
English. That of the highei* division comprises the preceding studies carried 
farther, rigging, drawing the different parts of a vessel, the commercial rules rela- 
tive to ships' papers, and to the course of exchange at the principal commercial 
ports, &c. 

On leaving the school an examination is held, and a certificate of proficiency 
awarded to those undergoing it in a satisfactory manner. This certificate is the 
basis of all promotion to any and the different stations of command of a mer- 
cantile vessel. 

The fees, paid quarterly, are six thalers for the pilot's course, and ten for the 
highercourse in navigation. 



The Mining Academy (Berg Akademie) at Berlin, gives a superior finishing 
education to persons connected with mines or the working of metals. It is gov- 
erned by a director, and has a corps of nine professors, three attached to the 
school, and six connected with the University, who attend to give their practical 
courses. The pupils must inscribe their names for the courses they intend to fol- 
low, and persons not belonging to the school may hear single courses after the 
same formality. The school fees are calculated at the rate of 1^ thalers the term 
for each hour's lesson attended per week ; thus a course with six lessons in the 
week costs 9^ thalers per half year. Laboratory manipulations cost 20 thalers 
additional, and assaying 10. 

The course of instruction includes : 1. Mathematics; 2. Greometry; 3. Me- 
chanics, elementary, higher, and applied ; 4. Physics; 5. Construction of mining 
machinery; 6. Chemistry, theoretical, technological, and analytical ; 7. Mineral- 
ogy, crystalography ; 8. Geology, paleontology; 9. Surveying, general and 
practical; 10. Architecture, and construction in reference to mining; 11. Met- 
allurgy, assaying by the dry and the wet method, and the blow pipe; 12. Min- 
ing law and business system, including book-keeping; 13. Drawing, through 
the whole course, with reference to construction, platting of grounds, sections, &c. 

At the end of the course there is an examination, giving the pupil who passes 
it the title of el eve des mines (pupil of mines). If he is to enter the State service, 
he must pass two more, the first, for the title of auditor of mines (referendairedes 
n}in€s), after two years' practical mining ; and the second, for that of assessor of 
mines, after two years' of administrative labor under a chief engineer. 

The three professors attached to the academy and the director receive each 
1,000 thalers a year. The total expense of the establishment is 12,000 thalers, 
and the part not covered by the receipts is borne by the State, which has also 
provided the building, the cabinets, and the apparatus. There are xery complete 
geological and mineralogical collections, and very commodious and well-organized 
laboratories. Of the latter there are two, one for the dry and one for the humid 
method of assaying. Reagents are placed freely at the disposal of the students; 
only the more costly ones being given out under supervision. 


The Mining School at Bochura was founded in 1863, out of the surplus funds 
gf a miners' association. The management is in the hands of the Director of the 
Mining Bureau, and of the trustees of the old miners' fund. It is designed for 
superintendents of mines, and master workmen. 

The pupils must have worked three years in a mine before entering the school. 
They must enter early enough to finish the course before heing called out to 
military duty, or else have finished their period of service. 

The course occupies two years ; the first year is preparatory and optional ; the 
studies of the second occupy 30 hours weekly, and include mathematics, algebra, 
geometry, trigonometry, chemistry, physics, mechanics, and the elements of 
building construction, the law, administration and accounts of mining, and draw- 
ing. It is held only in winter, the summer being spent in work in the mines. 

Instruction is gratuitous to indigent pupils only, who, if they give promise of 
excellence, find no difficulty in getting pecuniary assistance. 

There is, connected with the school, an excellent library of works relating to 
mining matters and to the studies pursued, and a collection of geological and 
paleontological specimens. 



In connection with this brief description of the School for Practical Miners at 
Bochum, which we compile from the letter of Mr. Samuelson, on " Technical 
Education in various countries abroad" we introduce a few extracts from the same 
letter, to show the commercial importance of the region of countr}-^, in which this 
and other schools intended to give a high scientific training to the engineers and 
foremen of the great industrial establishments, which the wise policy of Prussia 
now fosters and protects, are located : 

The coal basin of Westphalia will be the foundation of an industrial develop- 
ment for the continent of Europe, second only to that of Great Britain, Its area 
is not yet fully ascertained, but the yield will last for centuries, even at a higher 
rate of production required to supply the steel and ironworks now in full activity, 
and the numerous factories which are springing up through all this region. 

At Essen, in the heart of the great coal basin and rich mineral district of West- 
phalia, are the celebrated steel works of Krupp. They consume 800 to 1 ,000 
tons of coal per day raised from pits within the walls of the works or immediately 
adjoining, the cost at the works being less than 5s. per ton, probably the lowest 
cost of fuel in any metallurgical works on the continent. The machinery is as 
perfect as the magnificent products of the work would lead one to expect. The 
range of crucible furnaces is a sight of its kind unparalleled in the w^orld, except 
perhaps at the neighboring works of Bochum. A steel 1,000-pounder breech- 
loading gun was nearly completed for Russia, and several 200-pounders and 300- 
pounder steel guns, hooped and rifled, also breech-loaders for the German Navy. 
Hundreds, I think I may say thousands, of steel guns, of every size, from those 
I have named down to 4-pounders, and for evei-y nation under the sun, all rifle 
breech-loaders, but of endless patterns, were in every stage of progress, from the 
solid ingot, passing under the ponderous steam-hammer to the bored and turned 
gun, fitted with its breech-piece, and sighted. Besides the gims, numberless rail- 
way wheels and tyres were in progress. I may notice a number of forged cast- 
steel cranked axles, one of enormous size, for a transatlantic steamer, building at 
Greenock, by the Messrs. Caird, and several steel hoops for the Elswick gun 
factory. Nearly 8,000 men are employed at these works, producing 60,000 tons 
of steel annually, or more than tAvice the entire export of steel from the United 
Kingdom ; and the human tide, as it pours from the numerous gates at the din- 
ner hour, is not the least suggestive of the sights of Essen. At the outbreak of 
last year's war, (1866,) a thousand men were called under arms, but 250 of them 
were quickly sent back, lest the manufacture of cannon should suffer interruption. 
The administration is like that of a small State. All the heads of the technical 
departments are pupils of the various Polytechnic schools of Gennany. The 
Commercial staff" includes a jurist, by whom all contracts are settled, and legal 
questions determined. The foremen have all risen from the ranks. 

In the very centre of the works stands the modest dwelling-house, and the very 
workshop in which Mr. Krupp succeeded to his father's trade at the age of 15, 
forty years ago, emplopng at that time a single journeyman at the forge, and 
himself traveling on horseback to sell his steel wares throughout the country. 

The wages of the puddlers here are about 4s. per day, but it is probably above 
the average of the district. Rollers earn 4s., mechanics up to 5s. ; the hammermen, 
at the enormous steam hammers, 5s. to 6s. ; their assistants, 3s. to 4s. 6rf. Here 
again, there is no sub-contracting — the share of every man, in the tonnage rate, 
is fixed by the managers and paid to him at the pay-table. 

The facility and certainty with which solid ingots of steel, weighing from 4o 
to 50 tons, are turned out of the works, are not more astonishing than the pro- 
duction of the largest as well as the most delicate moulded castings in steel at 
Bochum. The steel disc-wheels of Bochum, cast in a single piece, are now to be 
found on nearly every German railway, and while the price scarce exceeds that 
of iron wheels, their durability is incomparably greater ; about 20,000 of them are 
already nmning. Bochum, like Essen, is in the Westphalian coal-basin. 

Scarcely inferior in interest are the great iron and steel works of Hoerde, cm- 
ploying 4,500 work people. The heads of the technical departments licre, as 
elsewhere, are pupils of the higher schools ; the foremen are superior workmen. 



Drawing, since the establishment of the Academy of the Fine Arts in Berlin 
in 1690, and of the Real School by Hccker in 1747, has formed an important 
branch of instruction, not only in professional and technical schools, but in insti- 
tutions of general culture, of the highest and lowest grade. In the classical and 
scientific schools, in the trade schools and further improvement schools, in the 
primary and secondary schools, we are sure to find its place in the programme of 
studies. In 1831, it was made a matter of special regulation by the Minister of 
Public Instruction, which was revised by the same authority in 18G3, with sug- 
gestions as to the aims and methods of this branch of instruction. 

The following Regulations for instruction in Drawing in the Gymnasiums and 
Trade Schools of Prussia, was issued by the Minister of Public Instruction 
(Von Muehler), October 2, 1863 : 

Instruction in drawing is an important element in the education of youth, and 
forms an essential part of the programme of superior schools. 

Experience has demonstrated that the actual state and results of instruction in 
this brancl>, as well as the development of scientific teaching, and the condition 
of art and industry, require a revision of the regulations of March 14, 1831. 
With the advice of the royal academies of fine arts of Berlin, Dusseldorf, and 
Kceni^sberg, and of the provincial academic councils, and of several teachers 
of tried experience, the following regulations have been prescribed : 


1. Instruction in drawing in gymnasiums is given in four classes or consecu- 
tive coixrses, the trade school constituting the fifth class. 

Independent of this division of courses, pupils, as far as local convenience 
permits, shall be classed in special divisions, according to their capacities and 

Lower Class: 

2. Elements of the theory of drawing ; lines of different directions, and dimen- 
sions in various combinations. Drawing of straight and curved lines without 

In the first course, that steadiness of hand is not to be expected, which is 
necessary for drawing lines and circles with the perfection attained with the use 
of instruments. 

Second Class: 

3. First elements of perspective, with the occasional use of the ruler and com- 
pass if necessaiy. The pupils may draw after models of wood ; the apparent 
changes of aspect to which bodies are subject must be explained ; also the elfcct 
of light on the surface of bodies, and the shading of solids, beginning with those 
with plane surfaces. The models are to be turned successively to the right or 
left and placed at various distances from the pupil. 

Moreover, in this class free-hand drawing after engravings is entered upon, ad- 
vancing to parts of the face and to entire heads, giving at first only contours and 
slight indications of shade. 

Third Class : 

4. Advanced exercises in free-hand drawing after models and plaster cgsts, or- 
naments, leaves, parts of the human body ; copying engravings is to be continued, 
and landscape drawing to be begun. 

Progressive development of perspective ; drawing from models in various posi- 
tions and at various distances. Theory of the vanishing-point. 

Introduction to the use of the ruler and compass in the principles of architec- 
tural design. 

Fourth Class: 

5. Free-hand drawing after engravings, arabesques, animals, heads, and com- 
plete figures ; more difficult landscapes. 

Drawing from busts, full heads, use of stump and drawing with two crayons. 
Perspective continued to drawing apartments and groups of difficult objects not 
presenting too great diflficulties. 



6. The four preceding classes, comprising the course of a gymnasium, are also 
the first four classes in the trade schools, with the difference, however, that in the 
latter, fi-ee-hand drawing is taught to pupils of the superior classes, together with 
linear drawing (ruler and compass), beginning in the third class. Ihe method 
of projections, on a plane or in elevation, is theor^icallv and practically exposed, 
and extended much farther than at the gymnasiums, while a greater number of 
hours also are devoted to instruction in drawing in the superior classes. Beyond 
this, the trade schools add a special fifth class to the course pursued at the gym- 

Special or Fifth Class : 

7. Continuation of free-hand exercises ; problems from perspective and the 
theory of shadows, with scientific explanations ; exercises in linear drawing ac- 
cording to the special profession of each pupil ; elements of topography. 

8. As a close to the instruction in drawing, polytechnic schools can impose 
proofs of capacity upon pupils leaving the institute : 

1 . Linear Drawing. — A geometrical or prospective projection, including con- 
struction of shadows, simple objects in architecture, mechanics, or other branches. 
This proof implies the supposition that pupils of the superior course of a poly- 
technic school are able to trace back any graphic representation to its elementary 
geometrical construction ; that they are familiar with descriptive geojnetry, with 
the theory of shadows and of perspective, and that they are sufficiently practiced 
in designing architecture and machines, without having completely exhausted the 
theoretical part of the branches. 

2. Free-hand Drawing. — In this branch the individual disposition of each pupil 
should be considered ; their inequality in this respect does not admit of a formal 
programme as definite as that for linear drawing. The more advanced pupils 
should be able to draw with the free-hand, arabesques, landscapes, animals, heads 
and entire from engravings, and various objects, including shaded heads from 
models in plaster, and prove their comprehension of the principles involved. 

3. Drawing of plans and topographical drawing must also, to a moderate de- 
gree, become familiar to the pupils 

To this programme are appended the following su^estions : 

1. Instruction in drawing should proceed gradually from the most easy to the 
most difficult studies, avoiding that pedantic monotony which weakens the atten- 
tion of pupils, and passing lightly over isolated details, accustoming the student 
at an early period to consider the whole. There is no want of excellent models 
for the first courses in instruction ; but it is recommended that the teacher should 
sometimes make his own models that the pupils may see tne method of construct- 
ing them. In the beginning the entire class should be engaged in the same 
problems in order to better sustain their attention and to elevate and stimulate 
their zeal. 

2. The programme of instruction in drawing in the superior schools, particu- 
larly in gymnasiums, embraces also, besides the training of the eye and the hand, 
the development of the feeling for the beautiful. Pupils will learn by progressive 
exercises, to take in at a glance the characteristic forms of objects, and to properly 
appreciate the beauties of natural scenery and the mastear-pieces of plastic art. 

3. Free-hand drawing is the most important exercise at the gymnasium, and 
the course should correspond with the indications of the programme, without be- 
coming purely mechanical ; but should, on the contrary, be pursued with the 
object of elevating the student to spontaneous and intelligent reflection. Noth- 
ing should be done by the beginner without previous theoretical and practical ex- 
planations. The education of the mind must accompany that of the hand ; the 
latter can produce only what the eye sees, and the eye sees incorrectly without 
the aid' of the understanding. The copying hand is not only an instrument in 
the service of the eye, but the auxiliary of a reasoning mind. 


To attain this object, it is particularly important that the instructions should 
not be limited, as is often done, to the mere copying of engravings, a system from 
which science and method are almost always excluded. Drawing from engrav- 
ings alone is injurious to the eye, because the object to be reproduced is always 
too near ; and it will happen that pupils, after following a course in drawing 
through several years, will not be able to draw correctly even a chair or any other 
simple body. 

4. Experience shows that most pupils leave the gymnasium to choose a pro- 
fession after the third or fourth class, for which reason the coinplete drawing 
course for a gymnasium has been so organized that the pupil can acquire, before 
he leaves, besides some skill in free-hand and linear drawing, the theory of making 
plans and elevations as well as the elements of perspective ; in short, they are suffi- 
ciently familiarized with the principles of design to pursue the course by them- 
selves, if their vocation requires. 

In gymnasiums the use of the ruler and compass in architectural design is re- 
served for the higher classes. 

The education of the aesthetic sense, aimed at in all the other literary studies 
of the gymnasium, is also assisted by the study of models from the antique, and 
pupils in the higher classes should be made familiar not only with the classic 
antiquities, but also with some of the master-works in sculpture and architecture. 

5 The polytechnic schools, by the terms of their organic regulations and to 
respond to their object, should initiate their pupils into a thorough knowledge of 
nature, science and art, by giving due importance to the instruction in drawing. 
By it, pupils should become accustomed to observation, in order that, by pene- 
trating mathematical forms, they may be able to find and recognize them in all 
the natural combinations into which they enter, and to determine their peculiar 
and external characteristics. The better they understand the laws of nature, the 
more the sense of the beautiful will develop itself within them. 

6. If, for the object of polytechnic schools, linear design occupies an important 
f lace in the programme, it is not with the desire that free-hand drawing be neg 
lected ; on the contrary, it should be cultivated in an earnest and methodical 
manner, always connected with instruction in perspective. It is recommended to 
add it to the plan of the fifth class, and if thought proper, to the preceding 
courses, in connection with lessons in natural science, and to introduce as a model 
the skeleton of the human body. 

Before commencing linear drawing, properly so termed, the pupil should have 
acquired skill in free-hand drawing. This branch may begin in the third class, 
with the theory of projections, since perspective has been a subject in preceding 
classes, and may be continued with the theory of shadows. 

7. Instruction in drawing should not generally pass the. limits assigned in the 
programme of the school ; its object is not to form artists, but to exercise pupils 
in the elementary principles of art, in the understanding of form, in surcness of 
eye, in the habit of estimating proportions, and in steadiness and skill of hand. 
Copying landscape studies is often dispensed with in higher classes, as the time 
and labor spent are out of proportion to the usefulness of the practice, and be- 
cause both teacher and pupil are easily deceived by productions of this sort. 

8. In the selection of studies, regard should be had to the needs of instruction, 
rather than to method and aesthetics. 

9. Besides a collection of studies and models, it is indispensable that superior 
schools should be provided with a well-lighted hall specially adapted to this in- 



struction, where suitable objects for observation, the copies of characteristic and 
celebrated works of art, busts, ornaments, fragments of ai'chitecture, etc., will be 
the best decorations. The daily contemplation of these models will contribute 
essentially to the development of the faculties concerned in drawing. 

Schmidt's method, 

In 1836, Mr. Peter Schmidt received a pension from the government In 
acknowledgement of the services rendered the schools and the country by a new 
method of drawing introduced by him into the Royal Keal School, and taught 
by him to the teachers of the trade school and of the city normal school. 

In this method, pupils begin by drawing from geometrical forms, made in wood 
or plaster, of a square pillar (seven and a half inches high and one inch and a 
half in its square section), a niche, and a low cylinder. The square pillar sei> 
arates in joints, affording a cube and parallelopipeds of different heights. The 
hemisphere, which caps the niche, may be removed, leaving the concave surface 
of its cylindrical part. Each of these models afford a graduated series of lessons 
on the drawing of solids, and of curved lines, and the drawing of lines of different 
degrees of strength, and of shadows. This is accompanied with some of the 
more simple rules of shadow and shade. More difficult exercises follow from 
natural objects, and from works of art, or mechanism, according to the attain- 
ment of the pupil and the direction of his taste. An account of this method 
will be found in Prof. Bache's description of the Royal Real School of Berlin. 


The method proposed by M. Alexander Dubuis, of giving the human head, 
or bust, which presents only very general masses, or features ; after this, another 
bust, with some additional indications of the head ; then a third, in which the 
details are more numerous and more decided ; and lastly, a fourth, in which 
the details are according to nature. These four busts, each placed in different 
positions, presenting four successive stages of the same figure, is in use in some 
public, as well as private drawing schools. 


Although drawing receives some attention in the common schools, and the 
teachers are systematically trained for this purpose, its scope in Prussia is far 
more restricted than in schools of the same class in Bavaria and Wurtemberg. 
By the " Regulativ " of 1854, drawing in the Teachers' Seminary "must not go 
beyond introductory lessons in the linear representation of simple objects," and 
in the ordinary one class elementary school, it must not be taught beyond the 
simplest free-hand drawing from fiat examples. Practically, it is not carried, as 
in the best Bavarian schools, into elaborate penmanship, tasteful as well as accu- 
rate map-drawing, ornamental designing, and the culture of the sense of the 
beautiful generally. Nor is it applied in the common schools, as in Wurtem- 
berg, to the industrial details of the future occupations of the pupils. Instruc- 
tion of this kind is reserved for the adult, or supplementary schools, and to the 
trade and art schools. 

In the absence of any official directions as to the system of teaching drawing In 
in this class of schools, we introduce a very valuable paper on the subject, prepared 
by Dr. Hcntschel for Diesterweg's " Wegweiser," a manual which has special ref- 
erence to the organization, instruction, and discipline of common schools : 



" The cultivation of the faculties of representation and form, gives us a feeling 
for beauty, grace, form, and symmetry." — Hamisch. 

Drawing is a mode of representing solid forms by lines upon 

A drawing, as a result of artistic labor, has either a purpose out- 
side of the art — such are mechanical drawings, plans, anatomical 
drawings, &c. — or it is executed for its owm sake ; as are landscapes, 
fruit pieces, &c. In the former case, their purpose is principally one 
of material usefulness ; in the second, they are executed with an en- 
deavor after a beautiful external form ; and are thus a representation 
of the ideal. But those of the fijst sort do not exclude the beautiful, 
for every object, without any exception, can be beautifully represented. 

Material forms are either natural or artificial; and either geomet- 
rical, or irregular. 

Various species of drawing are practiced ; as, 

1. Linear drawing, which gives only an outline of the object ;f and 
shaded drawing, in which surfaces are shaded. 

2. Geometrical and perspective drawing. The first represents 
objects in their correct relative proportions as to magnitude; the sec- 
ond, as they appear to the eye. The geojuetrical delineation of one 
side of a body is called an elevation ; that of its plan, a ground-plan. 

3. Free drawing and sketching ; either with or without the use 
of rule, compasses, <fec. 

4. Copying, or drawing from another drawing ; drawing from na- 
ture, or of real objects ; imaginative drawing, or drawing of things 
conceived of by one's self; of which the two former are of things as 
they are directly seen, and the latter are indirectly based upon the 
vision of real things. 

In all drawing, the eye, the hand, and the sense of beauty, are em- 
ployed ; as are also, in drawing from memory, the faculty of concep- 
tion, and in drawing from imagination, that faculty. 

* Translated from Diesterweg's ''Wegweiser." 

t Many persons include in linear drawing, drawing by the aid of the compasses and ruler. 



Instruction in drawing should include — 

1. Exercises in understanding 
a. Form, in itself, 

h. The beautiful in form. 

These constitute culture of the eye and of the sense of beauty. 

2. Exercises in representing 

a. What lies immediately before the student ; as in copying and 
drawing from nature ; 

h. What has heretofore been before him ; as in drawing from mem- 
ory and from imagination. 

These constitute the education of the hand in the service of the 
eye ; and culture of the memory, the imagination, and the sense of 

From another point of view, we may distinguish as follows : — 

1. Exercises in drawing lines, angles, and geometrical figures, as a 
basis for all studies in drawing ; that is, elementary drawing. 

2. Exercises in representing objects of all kinds, or applied drawing. 
The chief advantage of drawing is the culture of the various powers 

which it calls into action. 

Training of the eye and hand. — The knowledge of what God has 
made, and of what man has made, depends in great part upon the 
apprehension of the forms of things. Form, therefore, is one of the 
most important phenomena of the material world. And who will 
deny that the knowledge of the creation is important? God, who 
has made such various works, and has given us the power of accom- 
plishing and being conscious of our own culture, must prefer not to 
have us go blind through the world. And to open a child's eyes, 
not only to the forms of nature, but to those of the world of art ; so 
that he can apprehend and remember not only the form of a plant or 
an animal, the course of a river or of a chain of mountains, but also 
the architecture of an edifice, the construction of a machine, or the 
plan of a city, must be admitted to be of very great importance. 

The training of eye and hand which drawing furnishes, is a means 
of acquiring this power. Not only do we become accurately ac- 
quainted with the form of what we draw, but the work of drawing 
sharpens our observation of the forms of what we do not draw. 
Thus, drawing aflfords a knowledge of the material world. 

In addition to this, we acquire the pov/er of representing forms to 
others in a visible manner. This is a power of universal importance. 
A few lines will often do more than a long description. 

Training of the eye and hand is also of great importance, not 


merely as a means of knowing what there is in the world, and of 
representing that knowledge, but also as a preparation for the duties 
of life. Thus it is of great use to many kinds of artizans to be able 
to draw a little, <fec. 

Tfaining of the concejJtive faculty/. — Without tliis culture, the 
knowledge and understanding of the forms of the visible world is not 
possible. Through its exercise, the pictures are represented to the 
mind, from which the imagination develops new forms. And without 
the exercise of the imagination, it is impossible to conceive of any 
progress into the limits of the supersensual, the abode of religion. 

Training of the sense of heautg. — This introduces us to that uni- 
versal pleasure, that enjoyment exclusively possessed by none, which 
is derived from the beautiful in nature and art. 

Every man, it is true, is to some degree fitted by nature to perceive 
and enjoy the beautiful, up to a certain point, but no further. He 
whose sense of beauty is not trained, loses infinitely. Take for in- 
stance the first example that occurs in actual life. A journeyman 
travels through a city full of beautiful architectural works. He goes 
stupidly in at one gate, and out at the other; there is no such thing 
as beauty for him. The buildings which he passes by neither have 
any present interest for him, nor will they hereafter be remembered 
except as masses of stone, rising high in the air, hollow within, ac- 
commodated with doors and windows, alike in one place and another, 
and erected merely from the necessity of security against wind and 
weather, thieves and robbers. But suppose another and better edu- 
cated journeyman passing through the same city. How much delight 
will he receive through his cultivated artistic faculties ? He will lin- 
ger for hours, with the hveliest pleasure, before each building; and 
will go forward, stored with wealth of new studies, and remembering 
all his life with delight those impressions of his journeying-years. 

The connection of culture in the beautiful with culture in morals is 
clear. In the recognition and the feeling, the loving and doing of 
the beautiful, coarseness and vulgarity, and tendencies toward debas- 
ing and sensual enjoyments, find a countervailing power. The vir- 
tues especially developed by the study of drawing are, persevering 
industry, love of unobtrusive right action, order, purity and decency.* 

A brief quotation from Goethe may conclude this introduction. 

* Frederic the Great used to recognize his soldiers long after they had left the army, by tlie 
good order cf their houses. An instructor in drawing might do the like. A boy who had 
attended school where, among other things, he had been obliged to learn the greatest neatnees 
in writing and drawing, brought about at his return home a most beneficial reform in the ex- 
ternal life of the whole family, by the vigor with which he opposed any deficiency in cleanli- 
ness and order. 


The importance of instruction in drawing as a part of education, will best ap- 
pear when we consider that by means of that acquirement we gain an increase of 
beautiful and noble pleasures derived from the external world. The whole realm 
of forms and colors opens to him ; he acquires a new mental organ; he receives 
the most delightful ideas, and learns to recognize, to respect, to love and to enjoy, 
the beauties of nature. 

Upon considering all that has been said of the intrinsic importance 
of instruction in drawing, and of its various practical advantages, we 
shall find that it includes no small number of qualities directly valua- 
ble as educational influences, both formal and material ; and that it 
is accordingly an important aid in solving the problem of the common 
schools ; Vhich is, the bringing of the child to what is beautiful, true, 
and good.* 

* The hundreds who frequent a public museum can not sit comfortably in a liquor shop ; 
and will soon come to feel that there is a direct conirast between men raised by art to the 
level of demigods, and men degraded by brandy to the level of hea.sts.~^^ England in 1835,'' 
by Fr. von Raumer. 

Tlie more recent reforms in education make this department of culture a universal benefit, 
no longer to be enjoyed exclusively by the painter, the sculptor, and the architect. And to 
this end, the primary school must provide that the eyes of its pupils are trained, their hands 
practiced in certainty and accuracy of delineation, and their feeling for beauty awakened and 
cultivated. In this manner an important service will be done to the farmer, the laborer, the 
mechanic, and the manufacturing operative. The farmer who can draw, will be far less'the 
victim of his own ignorance, or of designing enemies, in setting out lands and woods, in divi- 
ding meadow, arable land, gardens, in adjusting his tools, and in all matters relating to build- 
ing, hedging, and irrigation. One who is undertaking to build, whether from pleasure or 
necessity, can, if his school instruction has enabled him, judge correctly by the preparatory 
drawings of the taste, strength, arrangement, and convenience of the proposed edifice, esti- 
mate materials and cost, and then save himself and his architect much vexation and now and 
then a lawsuit. A wealthy patron of the arts will thus be enabled to understand better the 
works of artists, to estimate thus more correctly, and to value more highly and remunerate 
more fairly the artists themselves. Indeed, there is scarcely any person who would not de- 
rive benefit from this most desirable study. It has also a moral value which is far from con- 
temptible. Young persons who have learned to draw, will in that way occupy many vacant 
hours which would otherwise be passed in idleness, with all its evil consequences. The re- 
sult of this can not but be beneficial in families ; and when tlie young have themselves grown 
up, and are themselves fathers and mothers, the benefit will be still greater. But mdividuala 
as well as families, will reap similar advantages from it, through its efficiency in averting 
many harmful and prejudicial influences. Any occupation of a regular nature, and fitted to 
employ hours of recreation, is a rich source of pure and quiet pleasures, elevating both to the 
mind and the feelings.— Wirth, in the ^'■Universal Swiss School Gazette," vol. ii. p. 8, 9. 

But setting aside all questions of mere practical usefulness, and therefore passing by the in- 
quiry in what and how many human avocations drawing is useful and necessary— aside from 
all this, we know of scarcely any practice of more comprehensive influence than drawing. 
Instruction in it, in connection with that, in the intuitional knowledge of geometrical forms, 
ha.? an influence in stimulating and conjoining those two great elements of life, receptivity 
and productivity, unequaled by any other, so far as regards material existence. It makes 
demands upon eye and hand, upon mind and heart ; and afFoi-ds a methodical culture in ac- 
curacy, neatness, and in the sense of symmetry and of beauty. It offers the most efficient ol 
all aids to instruction in natural history, natural science, geography, writing, and mathemat 
ics.— Dr. Zehlicke, in '■* Mecklenburg School Gazette," vol. i. p. 3. 

Drawing is not only a suitable occupation for the young, but sharpens the vision, trains 
the hand for writing and other delicate employments, gives practice in ob.servation and quick- 
ness of apprehension, affords a store of instructions and ideas, develops the faculty of order 
and the sense of beauty, gives activity and cheerfulness, and is absolutely indispensable in 
many occupations.— Zerrenner's '■'■Principles of Education and Instruction." Edition ol 


To aid in the actual solution of this problem is the purpose of 
drawing. If without it, it can not be completely and in all respects 
solved, the iinportance and ihdeed the necessity of it as a study are 
beyond doubt. It is always the duty of the common schools to give 
instruction in drawing; and only unavoidable deference to still 
higher necessities can exceptionally justify a temporary omission of it. 

The actual state of affairs, it is true, argues against this opinion. 
In far the majority of the common schools, no instruction at all is given 
in it. Calligraphy is practiced with zeal and a great expenditure 
of time ; a multitude of names of Asiatic rivers and Brazilian apes 
are committed to memory ; and the most abstract grammatical rela- 
tions are taught. But no care is taken to make the children familiar 
with the sphere of phenomena lying immediately around them, and 
to fit them better for real life, by means of drawing. The unpractical 
nature of the German mind is one reason for this ; another is, that the 
Pestalozzian principle of a harmonious development of the funda- 
mental human faculties, has, during the last ten years, not only not 
gained in currency, but actually lost. Whether this last fact is the 
result of our inability, light-mindedness and want of judgment, or of 
the truth that every idea has its periods of brightness and obscurity, 
is a question to be settled by others. To return to the practical view 
of the subject. The French are in this matter, as in others, more 
judicious than we. There the law enforces the teaching of drawing 
in all the elementary schools.* 


A. Outline of the Proper Exercises for the Common School. 

1. Both elementary drawing (of lines, angles, geometrical figures,) 
and applied drawing must be practiced ; the former as a very neces- 
sary substructure for the latter, on the principle of beginning with the 
elements ; and the latter, because the forms of the world around us, 

* The Royal Government of Magdeburg, in a circular order to tlie common and burgher 
schools on the subject of drawing, of April 6, 1847, reproves the neglect of it ; which is the 
more surprising, inasmuch as there is scarcely to be found one school inspector who is not 
convinced "that drawing, which is in itself an occupation appropriate for the young, and 
of an innocent character, sharpens the vision, quickens the hand, trains the attention and the 
apprehension, conducts to intuitions and to ideas, develops the faculty and the sense of 
beauty, prevents tedium and idleness, and is of great pedagogical-importance ; and who does 
not know how many occupations require a knowledge of drawing ; and that, especially at the 
present day, when such rapid progress is made in all industrial pursuits, drawing is a study 
absolutely indispensable" And the circular adds, '-It is very true that at present, many 
things are studied in our burgher and common schools, and in many ways. But it is also 
true that all such studies, whenever they exceed what is necessary, should not be permitted ; 
and that therefore the school department has long been endeavoring to fix the proper limits to 
the field of study ; and that for a study so important as drawing, the necessary time must be 


without comprehending and representing which neither the formal 
nor the material object of drawing will be reached, are almost always 
not plane figures, but solid forms. 

The educating power possessed by elementary drawing, is not 
doubted even by its opponents. Nor does it deserve the common ac- 
cusation of dryness and wearisomeness, if properly commenced and 
continued. Experience shows that boys find an especial pleasure in 
dividing an angle into three, four, or more equal or proportional parts, 
in constructing an equilateral triangle, an octagon, a circle, (fee. 
Many maintain that the fundamental forms should be practiced only 
in real drawing— in drawing actual objects. But this would destroy 
a portion of the expected advantages ; for besides the fundamental 
forms, all the collateral work which drawing from nature requires, 
must be repeated exactly as often as the fundamental form ; usually 
without any benefit. An equilateral triangle must be drawn cor- 
rectly, not merely once — for chance may bring that about — but twenty 
times ; which would show that chance has nothing to do with it, and 
that certainty of execution has been obtained. But who would need 
to design twenty times over the whole decoration of which the trian- 
gle may form a part ? 

2. In applied drawing, exercises in drawing by hand and out- 
line sketching, perspective and geometrical drawing, copying and 
inventive drawing, should, none of them, be wholly omitted. But as 
a general rule, the drawings in all these departments should be linear 
only, and not filled out by means of any shadowing. 

The practice of free oflF-hand drawing is evidently indicated as nec- 
essary, by both the formal and material purposes of instruction in 
drawing. This formal purpose requires as great a variety of stimuli 
as possible. These can u'^X he conceived of without free off-hand 
drawing. In respect to the material objects of drawing, the pupil 
who restricts himself to outline sketching, must give up the idea of 
representing a very large number of forms which could well be pro- 
duced in free off-hand drawing. But there should not be such an 
omission. Instruction should be in accordance with nature ; and this 
requires that the perceptions of the pupil should be directed to the 
whole world of nature and art. 

With reference to the other kinds of practice, may be mentioned — 

a. Reasons for practicing outline drawing. 

The great accuracy which this requires, affords a peculiarly good 
practice of hand and eye, and has, in particular, great value as a train- 
ing to observant, judicious, and provident activity. Any one who 
has accustomed himself to go about with circular and ruler, square 


and pencil, is much readier at apprehending than those who are igno- 
rant of the use of them. Many objects in practical life, also, can not 
be drawn except in outline. 

b. Reasons for practicing copying. 

1. The requirements of actual life demand it. 

2. A harmonious culture of the artistic faculties is impossible with- 
out practice in copying; and this both with reference to the technics 
of art, and to the cultivation of the sense of beauty. Such a culture 
doubtlefis requires in particular that the pupil should accurately com- 
prehend a large number of given forms. But the mathematical part 
of drawing implies much less apprehension than representation, and 
even this only according to fixed and very simple relations. Drawing 
from nature again affords, more especially, training in apprehension ; 
and the subjects selected may be as difficult as is desired; but still, 
only a relatively very small field of forms can thus be introduced into 
the common school for actual apprehension and representation. In 
drawing most animals, for instance, there would be very much disci- 
pline for both eye and hand; yet animals could hardly be made 
models for drawing in the common schools. The taste, again, would 
be very much cultivated by the study of classic architectural orna- 
ments ; but it is out of the question to go to Cologne or Strasburg to 
draw those there, not to mention crossing the Alps. Thus the neces- 
sity of copying becomes clearly obvious. 

c. Reasons for drawing from nature; geometrical [elevations) and 

1. The pupil improves in power of apprehending the various forms 
around him,* and in remembering them. 

2. It enables the pupil to understand perspective drawings imme- 
diately upon seeing them. 

3. There are frequent occasions in actual life when it is important 
and even necessary. 

4. As an immediate, free and independent mode of reproducing 
what the eyes perceive, it has an entirely peculiar attraction for the 

5. Acquaintance with the laws ftf perspective introduces the pupil 
to an entirely new world of ideas and thoughts ; and it is certain that 
such an occurrence can not be without influence upon his general in- 
tellectual development. 

These reasons in favor of perspective drawing, founded both upon 
the formal and the material purpose of instruction in drawing, are not 

*"It is astonishing how many deceptions remain undiscovered without the practice of 
this art, and how invariably we see otherwise than as we suppose." — Otto. 


witlioiit weight. There can be no complete instruction in drawing 
without that in perspective. If perspective has hitherto found little 
or no favor in our common schools, the reason is, partly the undenia- 
ble difficulty of the subject itself, and partly the lack of time, room 
and apparatus. It can therefore perhaps never be a universal study. 
But in all schools where space and time are not too limited, at least 
the more advanced pupils should make a beginning in perspective. 
Some details on this point will be given below. 

d. Reasons for practicing inventive drawing. 

1. The power of producing, the beautiful already exists in the 
child, and shows itself in innumerable ways. We must develop it if 
we desire to avoid a one-sided culture. 

2. It is certain that, as Otto says, this independent creation of beau- 
tiful pictures elevates the pupil to a consciousness of the rays of that 
divine creative power which appears in the human imagination. 

3. Practical life often calls for ability to arrange or construct in a 
tasteful manner. Many mechanics could not get on without the fac- 
ulty of inventing beautiful forms.* 

e. Reasons for and against drawing with shaded surfaces, 
aa. For. 

1. It affords a knowledge of light and shade as found in the world 
without ; that is to say, of one distinct aspect of the phenomena ©f 

2. It relieves the pupil from his dissatisfaction, upon comparing hia 
unshaded sketches with the common shaded pictures, and discover , 
ing his own to be comparatively incomplete. 

hb. Against. 

1. It is of but little value, in comparison with a knowledge of out 
line drawing, in regard to the apprehension of objects in nature and 
art. Light and shade change continually, while outlines are more 

* Aithouj!;h I use the word " inventive " in an entirely general manner, the term of course 
naturally applies to the invention of symmetrical figures from modifications of the funda- 
mental mathematical forms. 1 am not of the opinion of those v?ho think that such exercises 
should be rejected on account ot the lack of reality in such figures. 

Tho>e who doubt whether such figures can be called beautiful at all, seem to doubt also 
whether the habit is to be approved which has prevailed for so many centuries, of using such 
forms on walls, doors, windows, fireplaces, hangings, cupboards, tables, furniture, carpets, 
table-cloths, book covers, embroidery patterns, and in a hundred other such ways. But the 
fact that these objects do certainly exist, and that other similar ones continue to be designed 
and used, so that the figures in que.stion do in fact have a relation to real objects, is a sufl5c 
ient reason for not omitting them from instruction in drawing. 

Otto states the necessity of the three principal departments of drawing, viz., copying, dra-w 
ing from' nature, and inventive drawing, as follows: " Drawing from visible bodies traim 
especially the eye ; drawing forms kept before the mind by the imagination and produced by 
it, and still more the work of imagining them, trains the imagination; and the copying t>| 
pictures already executed, the sense of beauty." 


2. For such drawing as is required in practical life it has some- 
times no value, and at other times a very subordinate one. 

3. If not very well prepared for and very well managed, it fre- 
quently produces a bad effect, and thus obstructs the cultivation of 
the taste instead of promoting it ; and even renders the minds of 
immature scholars obscure and stupefied. 

4. It wastes time needed for other most indispensable exercises.* 
These reasons on both sides indicate that this department should 

be studied, but that its practice should be confined within somewhat 
close limits. Only remarkably talented and industrious pupils should 
be permitted to pursue it, and then not unless they have prepared 
the way by a thorough practice of outline drawing. Those collec- 
tions of copies for drawing are quite unpedagogical, in which every 
thing is shaded, even from the very beginning. Unfortunately there 
are so many such, that more proper points are too often entirely 

Having thus discussed the necessity of studying in the common 
schools the various departments of elementary and applied drawing, 
free oflf-hand drawing, outline sketching, copying, drawing from na- 
ture and inventive drawing, the next inqury is, 

B. The relations of these different departments of practice to each other. 

1. Elementary drawing is the basis for all the others, and is there- 
fore the first step. 

2. Perspective drawing from nature is the most diflBcult, and there- 
fore should constitute the last or fourth stage. 

Want of elementary practice has an astonishing power of interfer- 
ing with the results in perspective drawing. This latter, moreover, 
requires a certain maturity of the whole man ; and it is also less im- 
portant for ordinary use than the other kinds. And in the small 
extent to which it can be learned at the common schools, it can have 
but a small influence, relatively, in developing the sense of beauty. 
All these considerations indicate that perspective should be the last 
department taught. 

3. Outline drawing is not to be taken up with the elementary 

* The shading is certainly a main reason why, in so large a share of the common schools, 
notwithstanding all the time spent in drawing lessons, the people do not learn to draw. A3 
soon as Johnny has practiced lines and outlines for a few months, he is given a large fruit- 
piece, a group of animals, a landscape, or a head, to shade. The outline is very quickly exe- 
cuted, for the circle is used ; and " the circle is on purpose for drawing outlines ;" and on he 
goes, with his shading. For twenty or forty lessons, he sits scratching vacantly, humming 
and thoughtless, until the wonderful work is completed. Then it is glazed and framed, is 
handed all round at tlie examination, stared at and bepraised by people who do not under- 
stand it, and our young hero, who can not draw a right angle, nor sketch a window, and who 
has no idea of beauty of form, receives a prize. At home, they hang up the picture with 
great ceremony, " ia everlasting remembrance," in the best parlor.. Poor Johnny ! 


course, but should come later, immediately before drawing in per- 
spective from nature, except so far as it belongs to geometry, and is 
employed in the construction of purely geometrical figures. It thus 
should constitute the third step, or last but one. 

On the subject of practicing outline drawing in the elementary 
course, opinions differ. Ramsauer says that it would be an unjusti- 
fiable waste of time to work with ruler and circle before the eye and 
hand gain firmness. Hippius directs a whole series of elementary 
exercises with the ruler, before beginning free off-hand drawing. 
Most teachers of drawing are of the opposite opinion to this. We 
incline toward the side which experience seems to have indicated, 
namely, that of the majority. 

4. Between elementary drawing and outline sketching is the place 
for free off-hand drawing, applied to actual objects ; which thus occu- 
pies the second place. 

5. Having thus determined upon four principal departments, the 
question will come up. Where does copying come in ; and elevations; 
and inventive drawing ? We answer : 

a. Inventive drawing has already been practiced in the elementary 
stage. But the pupil must always be made master of the materials 
with which he works ; he must have seen specimens of inventions of 
the sort which he is expected to make. 

The child can not develop the idea of the beautiful from himself. 
Some of the Pestalozzians have erred to an unspeakable extent on 
this point. Never was a more unpedagogical problem proposed than 
that of J. Schmid, for beginners — " Make a beautiful combination of 
isolated points!" 

But where the imagination has been set in action by examining 
models, the pupils may be permitted to make some experiments in 
invention, for which reason we have admitted it as above. For it is 
certainly according to nature, to begin to develop the different phases 
of the artistic faculty in children, from even the very point where 
they begin to spring out. We must, it is true, have regard to the 
old motto, ^^ Non multa sed multum ;''"' in order that we may not, in 
avoiding one-sidedness, fall into the opposite error of studying too 
many things at once. 

h. Drawing from nature, so far as it consists in making simple 
elevations, may be practiced during the second stage. For those just 
beginning it is too difficult, principally on account of the usually nec- 
essary reduction to a diminished scale. 

c. Cop3Mng may be commenced in a very easy way, as soon as a 
good beginning is laid in elementary drawing. 

DRAWING. 237, 

All the preceding details may be grouped as follows, in a 

General Scheme for Instruction in Drawing. 

First Grade, or Elementary Drawing ; and in connection with it, 
Inventive Drawing and Copying. 

Second Grade, Application of free off-hand drawing; including 
Copying, Geometrical Drawing from nature, and Inventive Drawing. 

Third Grade, or Outline Sketching ; with a continuation of Copy- 
ing and Inventive Drawing. 

Fourth Grade, Perspective Drawing, exclusively. 

This plan is in accordance with nature, as relates both to the pupil 
and to the subject. 

C. Directions for further practice in the different departments. 


The same principles which have been laid down relative to the 
succession and connection of the various departments of practice, are 
applicable also to the choice and selection of the materials for each 
separate one. 

It is therefore necessary, 

First, To draw various forms. For if the instruction given is to 
communicate any formal culture, the child must, as has been said, 
comprehend its entire scope. It is an error to choose artificial forms 
only, or natural forms only. The teacher utterly misapprehends the 
character of the eoininon school, who causes architecture, or tools, or 
flowers, or landscapes, either of them exclusively, to be drawn. The 
pupil does not see either of them exclusively ; nor is it the business 
of the common school to educate especially for any one occupation 
such as that of the carpenter, the cabinet-maker, potter, <fec. 

Secondly/, It is the universal rule to begin with what is easy, and 
to proceed from that only with great caution. Now the easiest part 
of drawing is that with right lines ; not perhaps where the fewest 
lines are used, but where the relations of lines and angles are easy of 
comprehension. Of the regular forms, for instance, an easy one is 
the regular octagon; and a difiBcult one, the regular pentagon. Ir- 
regular forms are easy, if they are derived from regular ones ; as, for 
instance, the semi-circle ; but difficult otherwise, as in the case of the 
eye, nose, ear, hand, &c. ; all animals ; most flowers and fruits ; all 
trees ; most tools, &c. Thus many of the designs most frequently 
given to children as elementary exercises, are entirely improper for the 
purpose ; and great care must be taken not to be led astray by such 
titles as " The Little Flower Draftsman,''^ " Elementary Exercises in 
Jjandscape Drawing,''^ '^Studies of Animals for Industrious Boys,^'' <fec. 


The principal disadvantages of selecting too difficult subjects to be 
copied are, waste of time, discouragement of the pupils, or else vanity 
and overestimate of their powers. And in schools where there are 
several classes, a teacher who proceeds in a thorough manner, will 
find himself cast into the shade by this faulty mode of proceeding by 
his colleagues. 

" But the children will not work well at easy exercises." Unfortu- 
nately this is too true. They want to make a great picture, of the 
market-place at Leipzig, and that, if possible, during the great Easter 
fair ; the shipwreck of the Medusa ; St. Genevieve ; the battle of 
Katzbach, <fec. But it will not do to permit this. The more difficult 
it is to bring the children, by a course of instruction unbroken, and 
yet interesting, appropriate, attractive and not wearisome, to the point 
where they will find their pleasure in solving with certainty the pro- 
blems laid before them, instead of in their extent, so much the more 
zealously should we labor to accomplish it. 

But even the most careful arrangement of the order of problems 
will not avail, unless. 

Thirdly^ The pupils receive the necessary explanations and assist- 
ance. Here failure is frequent. Perhaps the pupil is set to copy a 
flower. He begins at once, at one of the extreme points ; and goes 
on to draw leaves, anthers, petals, pistils, &c., one after another, as 
zealously as possible, down to the minutest parts and details. After 
long and careful labor, his flower is finished ; an excellent flower, but 
unfortunately quite different from the original. There are schools 
where drawing is practiced in this manner, year after year. But how 
easily would the pupil have accomplished his work in the case pro- 
posed, if he had at first been taught how to see the blossom, correctly. 
The fundamental form would have been laid out perhaps by three or 
four points; and all the details would then have fallen into their, 
places of themselves. 

It must be plainly said, that in most drawing schools, instruction 
in intuition and apprehension is unjustifiably neglected. Many teach- 
ers have scarcely any idea of the basis of all drawing, of which the 
judicious Brauer, in his " Theory of Free Apprehension^^'' has ob- 
served, " Before any figure is drawn, it is necessary that it should be 
seen or understood in all its parts and relations." Here is a principal 
reason why so little progress is commonly made in this study. 

But supposing that all the conditions hitherto laid down have been 
complied with ; then, lastly and 

Fourthly^ It must be strictly required of the pupil, that he draw 
well ; that is, correctly and with entire neatness. No botching or 


working over, indistinctness or fancifulness, smearing or rubbing, 
trifling or talking, will accomplish this. The whole of the pupil's 
power must be earnestly and perseveringly exerted upon his work. 
It is only by this means that drawing will become the important 
educational instrumentality that it may be made. 

Working in company is much to be recommended. The task may 
be given out, the mode of performing it stated, and then followed at 
the same time, from point to point, by all. This trains to intelligent, 
orderly and regular labor. It is unnecessary to argue that all possi- 
ble means should also be tried to enlist the -interest of the children in 
the wojk which they are to do, and to conciliate their love of it. 

1. .Elementary Drawing. 

a. Should elementary drawing follow geometry, or geometry draw- 
ing? Neither, and for this reason ; that the order of study of the 
two subjects must often be very different. Geometry considers the 
triangle before the square ; while in drawing, many squares may be 
considered before, many triangles are. And much that pertains to 
geometry is of no importance to drawing. For it results from the 
nature of the case, that the portion of geometry which is of use in 
drawing, is studied during intuitional instruction, and therefore long 
before drawing is commenced. Such points are, ability to recognize 
a right angle, a square, a circle, <kc. I find no use in connecting 
geometry with drawing. But it is a different thing to repeat while 
drawing the fundamental forms, that part of geometry which relates 
to them. This will aid in thorough comprehension of the case, and 
is to be recommended. 

h. There are elementary exercises which consist in drawing right 
and curved lines by the children together by beat, large free lines, if 
possible with a movement of the whole arm. These exercises are 
of great importance ; they should be practiced at the same time with 
such others as require the closest care, and where therefore the pupil 
is working more by himself and in detail.* 

c. Exercises in estimating the lengths of such straight lines as may 
be found at hand, by natural or artificial means, may, from time to 

* The opposition of many of Peter Schmid's pupils to this class of exercises, hns for a long 
time been much less violent. Ramsauer says. " Brief and definite orders, and prompt and 
uninterrupted work according to them, regulated by keeping time, will accomplish an infin- 
ite amount of^ood in acquiring any kind of manual skill where practice is the thing required. 
While on this point, a word should be said of the applied art of writing. Markwordt. of Ber- 
lin, practices much in large free strokes. A great part of the so-called ' American method in 
writing.' al.«o consists of large free movements in unison ; and the results are so evidently 
good, that the system is daily coming more into use." 


time, be introduced between the drawing exercises proper, but should 
not be carried too far. 

d. In arranging the subjects for practice, the objective and subjec- 
tive order should be, as far as possible, united. According to the 
purely scientific or objective arrangement of the fundamental forms, 
the equilateral triangle should come before the rectangle ; but in 
drawing the order should be different, because the latter is much the 
easiest to draw. The same is true of the pentagon and octagon. A 
coui-se of instruction arranged with reference to subjective principles 
may, it is true, at first seem disorderly rather than orderly ; but a 
more acute vision will discern the " red thread " which leads through 
the whole. 

2. Copying. 

a. Subjects beautiful in themselves should be selected for copying. 
For example, a finely formed vase should be selected rather than a 
common kettle. The faculties used in drawing will be as well trained 
by one as by the other, while the former is of greater value in devel- 
oping the sense of beauty. 

h. For beauty of execution, only the very best designs are suflSc- 
iently good; those only moderately well done can not go. 

c. For the purpose of working in classes together, the use of de- 
signs large enough to be seen by the whole class — those made to be 
hung up — is much to be recommended. An industrious teacher will 
even, if necessary, prepare such himself. 

It is still more important that the teacher be able to design on the 
blackboard. Hippius says, " The children can see the drawing con- 
structed ; can watch the beginning and the end of it ; and can obtain 
more thorough ideas as to apprehension of objects. They should 
themselves proceed to imitate these drawings, which should be suited 
to their capacities, on a smaller scale. The manipulation of the work 
should be such as to serve as a model to the children ; the teacher 
locating in the proper places the necessary initial points, in a careful, 
I had almost said a learner-like manner. When the figure on the 
blackboard is complete, it should be analyzed, and understood both 
as a whole, and in the relations of itself to its parts and of the parts 
among themselves. After this mode of intuitional study has been 
sufficiently practiced, the teacher should again go through with the 
process of drawing the figure, as it were in his thoughts, by dictating 
the work point by point. At the same time he should pass round 
among the benches, directing and assisting wherever necessary, re- 
proving or praising, and endeavoring to keep all the pupils in cheer 
ful activity. 


d. Even when the children draw each by himself, after small sep- 
arate originals, they should often be made to draw their copies on 
a larger or smaller scale, for the sake of gaining in freedom of 

e. With an eye to the ultimate and principal purpose of instruction 
in drawing, it will be better for the pupils to sketch many objects 
with few strokes, than to occupy the same time over a few drawings, 
more elaborated. But these latter should not be entirely excluded. 
The best mode is to produce, from time to time, some larger work, 
and to draw between or along with these many sketches not so much 
finished in detail as full of meaning. 

/. For copying, more reference should be had to the sex of the chil- 
dren than was the case in elementary drawing. Thus, architectural 
subjects should be chosen for the boys, and beautiful vases for the 
girls ; weapons for the former, flowers for the latter, &c. One-sided- 
ness in selection should, however, be avoided. The girls should be 
made to comprehend the beautiful forms of the higher departments 
of architecture, and the boys the characteristics of leaves and fruit. 
In short, to repeat the principle once more, it is the whole world of 
4brms which the school should prepare its pupils to comprehend. 

3. Inventive Drawing. 

a. This may be practiced both upon spontaneous conceptions and 
upon real things. In either case, the pupil may be required either to 
complete a design, to decorate it, to vary it, or wholly to invent it. 
For instance, 

1. Ideal representations. Completion — to draw the whole of some 
figure from half or a third of it. Decoration — to ornament a rectan- 
gle with lines all converging to its center. Variation — to change a 
regular octagon into an irregular one. Entire invention — to draw a 
group of equilateral triangles and decorate them at pleasure. 

2. Real objects. Completion — to draw a window, having one 
quarter of it given. Decoration — to ornament a design for a table 
top. Variation — to change a quadrangular window into one with 
curved lines at the top. Invention — to design a beautiful trellised 

The usual order of these exercises should be, first, free representa- 
tions of real objects, together with drawing mathematical figures. 
Completing a design is usually easier than decorating it, and that 
again than varying it; while absolute invention is the most diflBcult 
of all. The lessons should be arranged in accordance with these 

h. Occasionally an entire class, or at least a section of it, should 



"work together at invention. If, for instance, the problem is to decorate 
a square, the children may step up to the board, one at a time, and work 
upon a square drawn upon it. This will furnish many opportunities 
for remarks, and the inventive faculties of each pupil will benefit all. 

c. Sometimes the pupils should merely sketch their conceptions 
without completing them ; and the teacher may then criticise the 
sketches. In this way, several designs may be sketched at one lesson. 
The slates may be sometimes exchanged about in such a manner, 
that each pupil can see the designs of all the others. 

d. Invented designs which are to be finished in detail, should be 
approved in outline, to prevent expending hours of the pupil's labor 
on a design which may, perhaps, at last be rejected. 

4. Drawing from Nature. 

First^ as to geometrical drawing from nature. 

a. Either actual objects, such as are about the children, should be 
drawn, such as doors, gates, trellises, floors, windows, cupboards, 
stoves, monuments, &c., or there should be used, as Otto very judic- 
iously recommends, an apparatus on purpose, by means of which all 
sorts of figures can be set up together, on a ledge on the blackboard. 
The drawing may either be of the natural size or on a reduced scale. 
In the latter case, great care must be taken that the children shall 
justly estimate the relative sizes of the reduced objects. 

h. Just at this point it is of especial importance that, in the begin- 
ning especially, much work should be done in common. Before the 
children put pencil to paper, they must fix upon all the relative di- 
mensions, not by means of a mere cursory view of the object, but of 
a careful survey of it. It should be a point of honor to come as near 
as possible to correctness. When all the estimates have been made, 
the teacher may name the dimensions before the class ; and then they 
may proceed to draw. 

c. This is a very appropriate place for tasks to be performed at 
home. " Draw the front of your father's house ; the windows of the 
sitting room, &c. I will take occasion to compare the drawings with 
the originals." And so on. 

About this time a beginning may be made with perspective draw- 
ing, perhaps somewhat as follows : — 

a. Practice the children in seeing real objects in a perspective 
manner. This is not very difficult, and has the advantage of showing 
the pupil what perspective is, even if he does not become able to draw 
on its principles. 

h. Perspective may be taught by copying. Perspective designs 
may be given to be copied, arranged in a progressive manner, and 


instruction on the laws of perspective may be given at the same time. 
This is the method of Solclan, Wannholz, and others; and is not 
liable to any weighty objections. 

c. Exercises both on copying and seeing sliould be practiced. 

G?. Drawing from real objects should be practiced, either by section 
of the class at once, or singly. 

Drawing is of course a more useful exercise than mere seeing; and 
drawing fi-om real bodies is better than from another drawing. And 
it is better to display the article to be drawn conveniently upon a 
table for one, two, three, or at most four scholars, than to elevate it 
somewhere for the whole class to draw from. 

The circumstances must govern in each particular case. I would 
however have some exercises in seeing, in every school where draw- 
ing is practiced at all. I add a few hints for such as have proceeded 
far enough to draw real bodies. 

a. To complete the shading of what is drawn should be uncondi- 
tionally forbidden. The common school has no time for this, if the 
children are to be made at all acquainted with perspective. 

h. The subjects should not be too difficult; such, for instance, as 
plaster heads, landscapes, groups of animals. The principal thing is 
to teach the children to comprehend and represent with ease the sim 
plest perspective appearances. 

c. The children should not be troubled with difficult theories of 
perspective, nor, on the other hand, should they be restricted to the 
brief rule, "Draw what you see." Some knowledge of the laws 
of perspective is indispensable for the moderately and less capable 
pupils, as well as an acquaintance with some simple means of aiding 
in seeing in a perspective manner. 

d. These laws of perspective, however, should not be given, but 
discovered. It is wrong, for instance, to tell a pupil that a circular 
surface or thin body can be seen as a straight line, and then to hold 
it up to him that he may be convinced of it. 

e. The most practical possible application should be made of the 
principles which lie within the scope of the common school. These 
should be joined to the exercises on cubes and prisms, for instance, a 
drawing of a chimney, a chest of drawers, an open door, (fee. ; and the 
best scholars may afterwards draw a house, a bridge, a gateway, &c. 

5. Outline Sketching. 

a. The common school is not the place for designing pillars, capi- 
tols, and similar architectural construttions. They belong to the 
industrial school. The business of the common school is limited to 
this : 1. Geometrical construction of lines, angles, and figures ; 2. 


The application of these to the drawing of simple sketches and ground- 

h. Great skill may be attained in this kind of drawing, so far as it 
can be carried with the aid of the simple instruments which the chil- 
dren can be trusted to use. Without using these, the practice would 
do more harm than good. 

c. The. use of the circle and ruler must be industriously practiced, 
in order to the acquisition of skill in it. Many simple problems 
should be given out for using them ; as, for instance, to draw four 
angles one after another, each half as large as the preceding ; to mag- 
nify to many times its own size, <fec. 

d. As to selecting subjects for ground-plans and elevations, the fol- 
lowing suggestions may, perhaps, be of service : — 

1. Select for drawing, a plan of the school garden ; the church- 
yard ; of some building, as the church ; an elevation of the school 
house, &c. 

2. Let the children copy some plans, ground-plans, elevations, <fec., 
in order to become acquainted with the usual mode of doing such 

3. Let each pupil himself make out some such plans, ground-plans 
or elevations of his father's house or garden, &c. 

D. Course of Study. 

This is rather to indicate one mode of arranging the work, than to 
be followed to the letter. 

1. Common schools of three classes. — Drawing should be practiced 
only in the middle and higher classes ; not in the lower. It is safe 
to calculate that children of at least three different grades are always 
to be found in each class ; so that divisions must be made. More 
than two such divisions are usually too many, as experience indi-. 
Gates. Thus each class will have a two year's course, and each pupil 
will, at least in that part of the study where the whole section works 
together, go twice through one of the halves of the course. 

a. Middle class. — Here it will be well to permit the capacity and 
industry and progress oP each pupil to determine which half of the 
course he shall go twice through with. The course should be as 
follows : — 

First half— 

1. Elementary drawing. Lines, angles, the easiest divisions of 
lines and angles, the rectan^e, isosceles triangle, square, rhombus, 
rhomboid, equilateral triangle. Straight and curved lines together, 
by beat. 


2. Copying. The simplest forms with straight lines, partly repre- 
sentations of real things, partly variations of fundamental forms. 

3. Invention. The easiest exercises in completing and varyin. 
forms ; usually to be executed in common. 

4. Beginning of estimating dimensions ; usually of those where one 
of the dimensions to be estimated may serve as a measure of the 

5. Examination of the model drawings. 
Second half — 

1. Elementary drawing. Continuation of the division of lines and 
angles. The regular hexagon. The regular octagon. Different 
curves on straight lines, and half and quarter circles. Irregular poly- 
gons; waving, serpentine and spiral lines; the circle, ellipse and 
oval. Curved strokes together, by beat. 

2. Copying. In the first half year of designs with straight lines 
only ; in the second, of those with curved and crooked lines. The 
straight lines should always be in simple combinations ; the curved 
ones in connection with straight ones ; and easy flowers and fruit 
given only to the most capable of the children. 

3. Invention. Tasks somewhat more diflScult, but no designs of 
real objects yet to be permitted. 

4. Drawing from nature. Very easy elevations ; and only to be 
practiced as a secondary exercise. 

5. Study of model drawings. 

6. Estimating dimensions; partly with and partly without the use 
of the legal measures of size and distance. 

^. Upper class. — Here the scheme must be a little more carefully 
arranged. I suppose the children to draw in perspective only during 
the last year of school, and then during both lessons ; so that their 
copying and inventive drawing must be done at home. The children 
of thirteen years of age, again, should form one section, (Section 1,) 
and those of eleven and twelve another, (Section 2.) Then the in- 
struction for the year may be arranged as follows : — 

1. From Easter to St. John's day. For Section 2, oflf-hand draw- 
ing; exercises in copying and invention. Section 1, perspective; first 

2. From St. John's day to Michaelmas. Section 2, off-hand draw- 
ing ; copying, invention, elevations. Section 1, perspective, continued. 

3. From Michaelmas to Christmas. Section 2, outline sketching; 
geometrical constructions ; but for the girls instead, off-hand drawing. 
Section 1, perspective, further continued. 

4. From Christmas to Easter. Section 2, outline sketching; ground- 


plans, and in ofF-hand drawing ; copying, invention, elevations. Sec- 
tion 1, perspective, concluded. 

Observations on the foregoing plan. 

1. In the first quarter, Section 2 is so employed that the teacher 
may busy himself mostly with Section 1, where his aid will be quite 
indispensable. And in Section 2, also, the exercises, in copying es- 
pecially, can be adjusted to the capacities of each individual scholar. 

2. In the second quarter. Section 2 will have advanced far enough 
to work by themselves for say half an hour together. That time may 
thus be spent in introducing Section 2 to the department of drawing 
elevations. The pleasant summer da3^s will be found quite suitable 
for drawing in the open air ; and the pupils, while unoccupied during 
vacation, may execute many drawings. Toward the end of this quar- 
ter. Section 1 may be set at drawing easy buildings in perspective, in 
the open air. 

3. The third quarter will find Section "2 busily employed with circle 
and ruler. The pupils of twelve years old, who are going over the 
ground a second time, will be able to assist those of eleven, so that 
the teacher will get time to do some open air work in pleasant 
autumn days with Section 1. But if he does not think it safe to 
leave Section 2 alone, he may take them out also and let ^hem sketch 

4. When winter comes round again, Section 1 will be employed 
again in the house, in learning something of drawing bodies bounded 
by lines not straight. Section 2 will take up off-hand drawing again, 
in the departments of copying and invention ; and some ground-plans 
may also be drawn. 

5. The exercises in copying and invention should continue what 
was begun in the middle class, but not too rapidly. 

For copying, pictures of flowers, fruit, ornaments and characteristic 
animal forms may be gradually introduced. The inventive drawing 
may be in part of imagined forms, in part from real objects. .No 
teacher who pursues his subject with a really vivid interest, can fail 
to find abundance of materials for lessons and models. 

2. Common schools of two classes. 

a. Lower class. If the pupil remains five years in this class, he 
should draw during the last two. Thus we shall have pupils of eight 
and nine years of age, in one section ; so that each will go twice over 
the' year's course. The course should include all the first half of 
what was prescribed for the middle class of a school of three classes. 

b. Upper class. Here there are many difficulties. I shall sup- 


pose two sections to be formed ; one of the pupils of ten and eleven, 
and the other of those of twelve and thirteen, so that each section 
shall go twice through the course. The lower section should draw 
what was directed for the upper division of the middle class in a 
school of three classes. The first division may alternately draw in 
perspective one hour, and in the next partly make outline sketches 
and partly work at copying and inventing. There are many disad- 
vantages in this arrangement, but I have not been able to make a 
better one which was not too intricate ; and our pedagogical literature 
affords very little aid on this subject. 

3. Common schools of one class. 

Nothing can here be done in perspective. The pupils should draw, 
from their tenth year upwards, in two sections. The course of study 
should be that for the middle class of the school of three classes ; 
except that the children should learn something of outline sketching 
during the last half year of their schoohng. Some of the better 
scholars may perhaps be permitted to copy some of the exercises laid 
out for the middle class. 

E. Miscellaneous Observations. 

1. Beware lest the instruction in drawing educate the children in 
falsehood. Where every drawing which is shown at an examination 
is more than half done by the teacher, or by his assistants, such a 
result is certain to follow.* 

2. The purely technical exercises of off-hand drawing should chiefly 
be done on the slate; but copying, elevations, finished inventive 
drawings, <fec., on paper. It is necessary to be economical, but then 
pains should also be taken to enable the children to enjoy repeated 
examinations of what they have drawn by care and industry. It is 
always unpleasant to children to see a piece of work which is care- 
fully finished, thrown away at last. 

3. Avoid all luxury, especially in poor neighborhoods, in pencils, 
paper, <fec. The children should understand the necessary truth that 
man must always learn to accomplish the greatest possible results 
with the simplest means. 

4. It is not judicious unsparingly to cross out every ill done work 
from the pupils drawing book, for this may frequently destroy in a mo- 
ment the work of many laborious hours, besides disgracing the book, 
as the children say. Only evident idleness should undergo so severe 
a punishment. 

•' Act honestly '. Let your examination be a proof, not of what your powers as an artist 
are, but of what you can do, as a teacher, through the efforts of your pupils. Honor truth ; 
and she will honor thee in turn." — Uippius 


5. The strictest care should be taken to make the children sit cpr- 
rectly while drawing; for carelessness in this particular will very 
easily lead to crookedness in weakly children. It is a great evil for 
the pupil even to turn constantly towards the right hand to look at 
the design to be copied. A conscientious teacher will use every 
means of avoiding such habits. 

6. The pupils must be protected from too bright sunshine, by cur- 
tains or some equivalent means. 

7. All conversation should be strictly forbidden during the drawing 
lesson. It is astonishing to what an extent the looking off from the 
work which is inseparable from whispering, interferes with and de- 
feats the comprehension of the design and success in reproducing it. 

8. The frequent use of India rubber is decidedly to be prevented. 
This is, in many schools, practiced to a miserable extent; no drawing 
being finished without having been rubbed out in every part, nobody 
knows how many times. Instruct the pupil in a truly elementary 
manner, teach him to apprehend, make him work with attention and 
care, and away with the India rubber ! 

9. Whatever work is given to the children to be done at home, 
must invariably be shown and examined when completed. 

10. If possible, let the most skillful pupils be employed as assist- 
ants in instruction. 




By singing we understand the production of the beautiful, as ac- 
complished by the human voice, by means of the union of musical 
tones with poetical words ; the union of music and poetry. 

The elements of speech are sounds ; of music, tones. From sounds 
are formed syllables, words, sentences, periods ; from tones, 1, in suc- 
cession, melodies, which consist of phrases and periods ; and 2, in 
combination, harmonies or chords. Every succession of tones, and of 
combinations of tones, whether of single tones or those consisting 
of several tones together, (chords,) may be considered in three 

1. Height or lowness, or melodically. This department is called 

2. Length or shortness, or rhythmically. This department is called 

3. Loudness or softness, or dynamically. This department is called 

The relation of tones to each other with respect to their simulta- 
neous sound, is the harmonic relation ; and the study of them is 
called Harmony. 

The distinctions between the various kinds of singing, such as the 
church, solo, choral, &c., are understood by every one. Either solo 
or choir singing may be in unison or in harmony. A mixed choir is 
one in which there are women's or boys' voices as well as men's. 

Singing, as a development of the beautiful, is an expression or rep- 
resentation of the feelings. The beautiful is within the singer or sub- 
ject, as the occasion of his feelings ; and it appears also as the object 
of feelings, through the medium of poetry and music. 

Several of the faculties are exerted in singing. The singer is con- 
cerned, first, with words. These he must learn (unless in the case 
where he composes them himself, which is not considered here), re- 
member and reproduce. In learning and understanding the words, 
their logical and poetical natures are to be considered ; and use is 
made of the understanding, the memory, the imagination, the fancy, 


and the sense of beauty. And in reproducing these words, besides 
the above faculties, the voice is employed. 

Secondly, the singer is concerned with musical tones. And these 
also he must learn, (except in the case, not here considered, where he 
himself composes them), remember and reproduce. In learning these 
tones, he must, firstly, consider them with exclusive reference to their 
melodic, rhythmical, dynamic, and harmonic character, and secondly 
with reference to their inner or aesthetic character, through which they 
exemplify the beautiful. The former of these two is accomplished by 
the musical faculties; the latter, by the fancy and the sense of 

The musical faculties include the musical memory, and the powers 
of apprehending and of reproducing sounds — usually termed the ear ; 
and also the rhythmical faculty, or faculty of time ; as well as that 
which appreciates the degree of loudness of sounds. The power of 
apprehending sounds, if developed to the point of intuition of sounds, 
presupposes a systematic knowledge of sounds, which requires the ex- 
ercise of the numbering and reckoning faculties, as well as of the 
memory. In order to the comprehension of tones from the written 
marks, or notes, which indicate them, is required, besides the musical 
faculties, a system of notation ; which is an affair of the understand- 
ing and the memory. And to produce the tones thus indicated, the 
voice is necessary. 

Singing represents feeling; sometimes a feeling which indicates a 
condition which is not in any proper sense that of the singer, and can 
perhaps never be so. This is the case for instance, almost always in 
oratorio, in opera, in ballads and romances, and in singing war-songs, 
hunting-songs, sea-songs, and many others. But the singing is in- 
tended to give pleasure ; artistic pleasure ; and of this there are differ- 
ent kinds and degrees ; the highest being that where the reflective 
faculties are quiescent, and we are transferred so wholly into a foreign 
condition of feeling, that we are wholly carried out of ourselves ; and 
every feeling that speaks in the music, whether of grief or joy, becomes 
entirely our own. This is most easily the case with children, who 
are always more poetical than adults. Jean Paul says, " Singing im- 
parts to children something of the enjoyment of heaven; for they 
have not yet lost any of their rights to it." 

Men also find in singing an inexhaustible fountain of the noblest 
pleasure,* which no one is forbidden to enjoy. The delights of this 
art are in nowise confined to the saloons of the rich and great ; its 
pleasures and beauties will abide in the most lowly room, under the 

* " The most J070US of joys, mnsic."—Klop8tock. 


humblest roof, if the occirpauts only know how to introduce them 

Singing also produces an artistic transfer of the consciousness, not 
as it were into a foreign condition of life, but into an excitement of a 
sort at first strange, but which becomes natural through the influence 
of the singing. Thus a cheerful song enlivens the sad ; a spirited one 
refreshes the weary; and a devotional one gathers together the 
thoughts, all distracted by the incessant impulses of outward 
occupations, and elevates them to God. In such cases as these, 
there obviously takes place not only a mere transitory pleasure, 
but often a profound and permanent influence upon the whole inner 

In other circumstances, again, no stimulus, no excitement of the 
sensibilities is necessary ; the heart itself is " full of a thousand feel- 
ings," and they overflow in song. A victorious army sings a Te 
Deum ; the mournful choir laments the fallen ; a rich harvest blessing 
opens the lips in joyful hymns; friends departing to distant lands 
mournfully sing a departing song; a Christian congregation joyously 
shouts its inspiriting hosanna to the Lord ; an anguished and stricken 

* A remarkable instance of this nature is related in Schubert's " History of the Soul," of 
the preacher Kiihze of Berlin, who was freed, by listening to a devotional song, from an ag- 
onizing fear of an apparently necessary operation upon his eye ; a result which also had such 
a favorable influence upon the eye, that the operation was found unnecessary. 

" And I can testify," says Luther, " which also experience demonstrates, that after the holy 
word of God, nothing is so good, and so highly to be praised and famed, as music ; and that 
for the reason that it is a controller of all the movements of the human heart, and has such a 
power over it, that men are often governed and overcome by it, as by a master." 

Acoustics, so far as I know, does not yet account for the fact that we feel pleasure in hear- 
ing chords, and displeasure at discords. We know that musical tones are produced by regu- 
lar atmospheric vibrations, and that all vibrations of aliquot parts chord. If two or more 
tones sound together, either the atmospheric waves coincide and strengthen each other, or 
they obstruct and destroy each other. These promotions or obstructions evidently commu- 
nicate themselves through the ear to the nervous system and the mind, in one case in a man- 
ner promoting their natural action, and therefore pleasant; in the other, in a manner ob- 
structing it, and therefore unpleasant. The first of these two kinds of impressions we call a 
consonance or chord, the latter a dissonance or discord. By the use of both, the artist com- 
municates to us the joy or sorrow of his soul, in an immediate manner ; and by the solving 
of dissonances, which concludes a contest of tones, he communicates that excitement which, 
always follows the conversion of grief into joy. 

But more than this, acoustics can not at present tell us. Music has not only scientific but 
psycnological abysses : and no psychologist, even though likewise learned in art, has yet been 
able to penetrate them. Bui they exist, because the composer's elevation into pure feeling, 
into the feeling of the harmony of his own inner nature with the world of sound, exists. "It 
is," says Prof Grassmann of Stettin, in his excellent treatise on ^'Acoustics," (Stettin, 1837, p. 
25.) " the joyful or sorrowful emotion, which we feel within ourselves in a truly physical and 
real manner ; and agaui. it is the pulse of our own heart, the deepest longing of our breast, which 
takes full possession of nature, and is given back again to us through musical tones ; so that 
we may feel ourselves to be no longer individualized, but sunk again within the depths of the 
universal life. This most secret and profound emotion within us, by a wonderful sympathy, 
arouses even the least stimulable portions of our nature, and leads us into joy or grief, inso- 
much that we can hear, sounding back to us, the most secret tremors of the soul ; as if nature 
were calling to us, ' I understand thy profoundest desires ; 1 partake of thy pleasure and thy 
sorrow.' " 


heart cries out of the depths, in lowly penitence. Song is the lan- 
guage of the feelings ; and human nature is under a profound neces- 
sity to speak in this language. This is proved, not only by the story 
of "John the Soap-boiler,"* but by the history of all times and peo- 
ple, and especially by that of Christianity.f 

Singing has a great influence upon the Hfe of the feelings. There 
is truly such a power as the Power of Song J From the battle-songs 
of the ancient Germans, therefore, down to the patriotic songs of the 
present day ; from the hymns of the early Christian Church to the chorals 
of Luther, we find it employed for the highest and holiest purposes 
of our race ; not to refer to the analogous place which it filled among 
the nations of antiquity. It should especially be remembered that it 
operates, by awakening and stimulating the religious feelings, upon 
the will, and thus becomes a means of elevating the moral nature. 
Song is not only a promoter of the Beautiful, but through it of the 


The character of instruction in singing, is derived from the charac- 
acter of the art itself. As this has for its object to produce the beau- 
tiful by means of a union of words and tones, the former has for its 
object, words, tones, and the union of them. It therefore includes 
exercises in 

1 . Understanding and pronouncing words, which comprehends hear- 
ing, reading, understanding ; or expression. 

2. Understanding and producing tones, comprehending melody, 
rhythm, dynamics, harmony ; or, vocal exercises. 

3. Conjoining tones and words, which is the union of the two 
former, in singing, proper; or, execution. 

The exercises in words are the same for singing and language. 

• I will quote one similar case from my own experience. In each of the rooms of a school, 
the class was in the habit of beginning their daily work with a short morning song. The 
mingling of different tunes and modes sounded ill without; and as circumstances did not 
permit all the classes to be assembled together for a common morning devotional exercise, it 
was decided that only one class should sing at a time, each in its turn, a prayer being offered 
in each of the other rooms. But after a short time all the pupils petitioned for the restora- 
tion of the old custom, alleging that it was impossible for them to begin their work without 

t " When Christianity had awakened the life of the feelings, and had supplied it with the 
loftiest ideals of existence, humanity could find only in music a sufficing mode of expression, 
and thus was gained a new Christian zxX."— ''Esthetics nf Music,'' by Dr. Hand, 1837. 

X " By the influence which music exerts upon the hearts of all, it operates most powerfully 
upon the character."— .K'ocAftr's '■'Music in the Church." 

§ Klonstock said to Rouget de Lisle, author of the '■'■Marseilles Hymn" that he was a dan- 
gerous man ; for that he had killed more than fifty thousand Germans. What then might be 
laid of Korner, Arndt, Scheukendorf, and others? Henry the Lion's motto was 

"Fight without song 
Can not be strong." 


They secure for the pupil a store of imaginations and thoughts ; and, 
as has been observed, they traiu the understanding, the memory, the 
fancy, and the aesthetic faculties. 

Exercises in tones belong properly to instruction in singing. They 
give a knowledge of the system of tones, as a separate department of 
creation, distinguished by an abundance of phenomena ; they develop 
the acoustic faculties, without whose cultivation no education in har- 
mony is possible; and as has been already observed, they train the 
understanding, the memory, the aesthetic faculties, and the voice. 

The exercises in singing, to repeat the observation, have a pecu- 
Jiar influence in enriching and elevating the emotional life, and indi- 
rectly upon the determination of the will toward what is good. For 
it may here be observed, that the sense of beauty, as it becomes 
developed in any one direction, becomes also, according to the laws 
of psychology, easier and freer of development in other directions ; 
in this case, namely, in the direction of what is morally beautiful. 

Such are the formal and the substantial educational influences of 
singing. It is likewise in a high degree adapted to assist in lead- 
ing the child toward what is beautiful, good and true ; and to really 
accomplish this, is its purpose. 

It is for this purpose, also, that it is so important for the common 
schools, which are themselves intended to serve the cause of the 
beautiful, the good and the true. It may even be said to be abso- 
lutely indispensable as a department of common school duty, be- 
cause it promotes the objects of all the rest, in a manner not other- 
wise to be supplied.* 

The consideration of some of the special influences of singing as 
a duty, will only confirm their views of its value. It is an excellent 
means of sharpening the powers of observation, and of accustoming 
the pupil to acting promptly as directed by a word, a nod, a look. 
It thus counteracts both the indolent carelessness and indifference of 
some, and the precipitate hasty ways of others. In short, it is of great 
value in a gymnastic and disciplinary point of view. 

In most other studies, each single pupil stands by himself and acts 
for himself; or at least a community of action is not indispensable. 
But the study of singing puts a close and strict constraint upon all 
the class together, both in an external and internal sense.f 

*" Music, by its rhythm and time, imbues the feelings with a regulated harmony. So 
highly did the Greeks value music, and in so many ways did they practice it, that the ex- 
pression a •' musical man" was equivalent to ours of a " cultivated man." They therefore be- 
stowed the extremest care upon this study, which was designed to unite in a beautiful habi- 
tude, readiness, openness, circumspection, and a most powerful mental discipline. '■'■ Peda- 
gogy as a system," (Die P'ddagogik cUs System,) by Dr. Karl Rosenkranz. 184S. 

t " A choir is like an association of brothers. It opens the heart ; and in the streams of 
BOQg they feel themselves to have but one soul and one heart."— ZTerrfer. 


And lastly ; it may be observed, that good instruction in singing, 
by developing the pupil's faculties for rhythm, accent, and melody in 
speaking, renders very valuable assistance to the increasing efforts at 
present being made to elevate the style of reading above the repul- 
sive sing-song practiced in so many of the ancient schools. 

In concluding this statement of the importance and necessity of 
teaching singing in the common schools, I may not inappropriately 
quote the following authoritative opinions : 

Music is a means of culture so healthful for sense and soul, so powerfully pro- 
motive of virtue and godliness, that we are bound to train our youth in it with con- 
scientiousness aiid dignity, zeal and perseverance. Nageli. 

Music may be considered a department of man's intellectual life, which he can 
not omit without restricting and weakening himself. It is one of those intellectual 
endowments by means of which he is to become consefous of, and joyful in the 
world, himself, and his mental life. Marr. 

. Even if the young are unable to attain to any important grade of artistic power, 
music deserves, on account of its educational value, as possessed of a peculiar 
power of influencing the mind and the heart, one of the highest places as a 
department of study. Natorp. 

III. application of the general principles of instruction in SINGINO. 

A. Two Courses; their relation. 
The instruction in singing should be both formal (disciplinary) and 
material (eflBcient in the study itself.) These two purposes require : 

1. A series of elementary exercises; an elementary course. 

2. Practice in singing songs, &c. ; a singing course. 

The former is to give the pupil a knowledge of the necessary prin- 
ciples, and a mastery of them ; and the latter, to train him in expres- 
sion and feeling. We may lay down, therefore, with a view to secure 
these objects, the following principles : . 

The elementary course should 

1. Continue during the whole period of school attendance. 

2. Include all the elementary tones. 

3. Proceed by an unbroken progression. 
And the singing course should 

1. Also last during the whole school period. 

2. Be related to the whole life of the child, both within and with- 
out the school. 

3. Include nothing which is not significant and attractive. 

We shall hereafter recur to these principles and add to them. The 
present purpose is, to inquire what should be the relation of these 
two courses to each other within the school ? 

Should the elementary course precede the other ? In this case, the 
children would during a certain time have only preparatory exercises, 
without singing ; and for a long period together ; for the elementary 
course, to comply with the second and third principles just laid down 



respectinir it, could not be concluded for weeks and months ; which 
would violate the fii'Bt principle relating to the singing course, and 
also the first relative to the elementary course. 

We are thus naturally led to the idea of connecting both courses. 
The most suitable way of accomplishing this,- seems to be, to apply 
in the singing course, the principles learned in the elementary course. 
This however, sometimes leads to a violation of the principles relating 
to both courses. It is evidently impossible, for instance, to find songs 
which shall correspond with all the steps of the long unbroken series 
of exercises, which shall be satisfactory in point of beauty, and shall 
bear upon all the various aspects of the child's life.* 

There is therefore no mode left, except to divide what can not be 
connected; to conduct the singing course independently, parallel 
with the elementary course. We must be able to sing, at Christmas, 
" Glory to God in the Highest !" and on the king's birthday, " God 
save the King," without having to inquire whether in either of them 
there has not been used some progression or measure which had not 
been practiced. If some such freedom is not taken, we shall never 
see the fruits ripen which have been for thirty years looked for from 
the instruction in singing. 

But, it may be asked. How then shall the children be taught to 
sing ? I answer, in that manner which is adapted to the grade of 
development of their musical powers. Those who can only sing by 
ear, should sing so ; and he who can do more, should do more ; 
whether he can only follow in a general manner the outline of what 
the notes set before him, or whether he can sing strictly and 
surely the notes as they stand. The singing course requires the ap- 
plication of all that was learned in the elementary course, but in se- 
lecting songs we should not depend entirely upon the former. The 
pupils should in good season receive the notes, with a brief general 
explanation. Then each of them should make the best he can of 
them. Such is both the ancient and modern practice of almost all 
instructors in singing in chorus, both for small and large classes. 

But, it may be further inquired, is not this too mechanical a prac- 
tice ? Does not such a course almost altogether prevent singing with 
a due feeling of the expression ? 

* At the Martin's Foundation in Erfurt, as appears by the Rhenish "Gaze/Ze," (Rheinische 
Blatter,) Vol. VI., No. 3, p. 273, all the songs are learned by rote, without notes; that is to 
say, without any artistic and methodical gradation in their order. It is stated a little further 
on (p. 286.) that the director of that institution often spends as much as a fortnight in search- 
ing and referring, and years in corresponding, to find a suitable song or melody, " because he 
subordinates the religious instruction entirely to that in singing;" and "rejects all songs 
which are not good in text and melody, in every particular." I would inquire how long his 
researches and his correspondence would be, if he should have reference, in addition, to any- 
thing like systematic progress 7 


To this I may reply : 

The problem which the child must solve in order to sing with 
proper expression, is usually stated thus : To be able to sing a choral 
or simple air from the notes without the aid of the teacher. But do 
you know what is required for this ? This problem, in the first place, 
is one in which many persons never learn to solve ; because it has 
not pleased God to endow them with the requisite power of appre- 
hending the tones as written.* Neither, again, do even remarkably 
endowed pupils often solve it before their eleventh or twelfth year, 
howQver early their instruction is begun, however carefully and skill- 
fully con<lucted. And only those children solve it at once, who 
possess very distinguished musical powers ; such who open the whole 
world of musical sounds to themselves as it were with one magical 

And do not be misled if you hear of, or even think you have found, 
one or another school where the pupils have learned in a very short 
time to sing from notes or figures. Upon a close examination you 
will always find one or the other of the following cases true. 

Either the airs sung consist of short phrases scarcely including any 
notes except the first, third, fifth and eighth, and unsatisfactory and 
crippled, such as the following: 

-A-^l \ 1 

1 \ 1 , 

1 1 

J^ 4*7 1 

1 .9 

; 1 

MM -4 ifll 

^ w 

J 1 

^■— ' 


* ^ 


How bright - \j glows the mom - ing re^ 

or, the pupils do nothing except to keep time ; that is, the) follow 
after a certain feeling of the succession of the tones, whiie the teach- 
er, in the pride of his heart, thinks they are reading the notes ; or, 
some more capable children are acting as choristers to the rest, who 
sing after them unintelligently, by ear. 

But again, what does " mechanical" mean ? Where does it begin, 

*The result of my observations upon more than a thousand pupils of the most various 

ages and grades of development, is as follows : 

Memory of tones, is universal. 

A certain sense of tones, without any clear intuition of tones, is quite frequent. 

Comprehension of tone, and certainty in it, quite rare. 

And these conclusions are coptirmed by the following extract from the •' Rhenish Gazette,^* 
(Vol. X , No. 3,) of an article on instruction in singing, by Karow : "For singing, as well as 
for music generally, certain natural endowments are necessary, and one destitute of these, 
whatever his efforts, will not learn to sing. We may compute that, of the singing classes in the 
schools, the following proportions will be found; of eighty children, ten will become very 
skillful and competent singers; twenty others, not distinguished, but still competent; five 
and twenty others, will sing well enough with the rest, but not in solo, as they will depend 
upon the rest ; twenty others will not trouble themselves with the notes, but will sing only by 
ear ; and the remaining five will be unable to sing, being defective in ear or voice, or both." 


and where does it end ? A, sings an air wholly by ear, while B sings 
it by the notes, by his comprehension of the intervals of the octave. 
A, it may be said, learns mechanically. B, however, although in a 
higher, grade, also learns mechanically. C, again, who feels the 
meaning of all the intervals, sings by note accurately without de- 
pending merely upon a knowledge of the scale, but does not under- 
stand w^hat are the harmonies at the base of the melody : — he also sings 
mechanically. D, who sings also without depending upon mere 
knowledge of the scale, knows these harmonies, but not the laws of 
their connection : — he sings mechanically too. Lastly comes E ; 
whose attainments are equal to theirs and who knows the last item 
also, but has no idea of the mathematical basis of the system of 
musical tones ; — he is a mechanical singer too ! The truth is simply 
this ; — children will, and ought to, and must learn songs all the time ; 
joyous, powerful, living songs. And what can be the harm, if they 
only sing them by rote, if they can not sing by a knowledge of the 
scale ; or by that knowledge if they have it, if they have not attained 
to the intuition of the melodic interval ? Each one of our faculties is 
from God, the inferior as well as the higher. Therefore watch over 
each and make it useful in its own time, and accomplish some good 
thing with it ! 

B. Contents and Management of the two Courses considered^ further. 

I. Generally : and 

a. Notation. To about the end of the eighth year the children 
should study without making use of written notes. After that time, 
however, they should always be used. This delay in using them 
follows from the principles of proceeding from the simple to the 
complex, and from the known to the unknown. 

It is however necessary both for formal and substantial reasons, 
that written music be. invariably taught. For however little the 
pupil may know of singing by note, his execution will always be 
freer in character then if he has learned exclusively by rote. But 
the ver^ great majority of teachers of singing unite in testifying 
that under all circumstances, the use of the notes is an important 
aid in all practice and repetition. And if others maintain from 
their experience the opposite, and perhaps even say that the notes 
are a hindrance, they only prove that however interested they may 
be in singing, they do not know how to use the written notes. 

In teaching singing, we should distinguish two principal stages ; 
singing by ear, and singing by note. 

The instruction should be by means of actual vision. The repre- 
sentation of sounds by notes is the method most obvious to the eye, 

17 • 



and therefore nncondltionally to be preferred. Compare the following 
two modes of writing an air : 



7 1 


1 7 



Those exceptionally able pupils who are now and then found in 
every school, can, according to all experience, sing with equal ease 
from notes and figures. But it is quite otherwise with all the rest. 
Whatever may be &aid to the contrary, they find the notes much 
the easiest; that is, unless they are drilled in a quantity of unmeaning 
rhythmic and melodic phrases, instead of real airs, that present a variety 
of rhythms and intervals. With most children, eitlier the musical 
faculty gradually develops to the point where they can sing an air 
with an entire understanding of it, or that degree of attainment is 
altogether wanting. They are thus, until their fourteenth year, if 
not permanently, left to practice singing by note, in such a way that 
they guide themselves, in general, by the form and location of the 
notes, but where they bring out each single note rather by a sort of 
feeling of what ought to follow the preceding one, and by means of a 
knowledge of the scale, than by any real and clear knowledge of 
melody or the air itself. As long, therefore, as a pupil is not able of 
himself to execute each note of a written melody, exactly as it ought 
to sound, so long he has nothing to do with figures, and would get 
none except utterly indeterminate information from them. But the 
method by notes always gives him some assistance; it represents to 
him the relations of the tones, and he has only to look at the notes, 
to find at least a leading sketch of the melody. And this material 
representation is of great use in retaining the melody. As the eye 
seizes upon the groups of notes, the memory connects "the tones with 
them ; and it often needs but one glance at the notes to recall whole 
melodies which have been foro^otten. But the fio-ures afford no such 
assistance. One row of figures looks just like another ; and the pupil 
must go one by one through the whole series, and pick out each note, 
before he can tell, what the melody is. Therefore, no figures. 

•The notes should be learned in the key of G, not in that of C, 
which is in scarcely any collection that most used. 

6. With respect to singing. 

Whatever is learned by children should be learned as thoroughly 


as possible; or if that has not been the case, should at once be made 
80. What is defective neither educates in form nor in substance; 
and indeed in the former sense it is positively injurious. One third 
sung too flat brings after it twenty other flat thirds ; and passing 
over one pause endangers the time at every other pause ; <fec. 

In every stage must be unconditionally required purity of intona- 
tion, correctness of rhythmic representation, observance of the dy- 
namic marks, clearness of enunciation. Other things must receive a 
proper relative shave of attention. 

This perfection in what the children learn must especially be re- 
quired in three respects; Firstly, the problems, to be solved must 
always be suitable to the pupil's grade of attainment ; the course of 
instruction must be one of unbroken progression. This principle is 
universally known and yet often quite disregarded. In many schools, 
music too difficult is selected for practice; and the unavoidable result 
is a lamentable disfigurement of musical works perhaps the noblest 
of their kind. What is the occasion of such errors ? Often vanity ; 
often ignorance of music, not always of an excusable kind. 

Secondly; the teacher must be competent to give in every case 
^ such directions and guidance as are required, in order to avoid what 
is false, or to remedy it. No pupil can arrange the succession of 
problems for himself, without the invigorating aid of the teacher. 
A whole class may perhaps sing an interval too low, and all exhor- 
tation to sing it higher may be fruitless, however earnestly they 
endeavor to do so, because they do not see what the interval is. In 
such a case the teacher must aid them, by singing or playing the 
required note correctly. 

If the possibility of correctness by the pupil is conceded, then 
thirdly, the teacher must insist with persevering and unbending strict- 
ness, that the problems proposed be solved without error. This pro- 
ceeding will accustom the pupil to correctness, which will become to 
him both a musical and a moral necessity. Once more, therefore, 
endure nothing erroneous ! Every thing depends upon this. He is 
a forlorn teacher enough who permits inaccurate singing for four 
whole years, with the idea that things will improve in the fifth year, 
because " people learn to walk by stumbling." That proverb, like 
many others, is a heap of meal with a cat in it ; and he who can not 
apply it better than that ought to be ashamed. To such I would 
say : It is not by stumbling that people learn to walk ; it is by 


Rules for practice. 

As important aids toward singing correctly I may name the 
following : 


1. Unless tlie contrary is strictly prescribed, smg with the full 
strength of the voice. It is a great fault for the children not to pro- 
duce a good full tone. A whispering, lisping, powerless melody is never 
true. But loud singing is not screaming. If the pupils keep strict- 
ly to the musical tones they can not scream. 

2. In much of the practice, an instrument should be used. For- 
tunate is the teacher whose school children come every Sunday to 
church, and standing around the organ, sing the chorals with care 
and perseverance. That will be worth three singing-lessons a week. 

And generally, of elementary singing practice, we may say: 

No instrument. Very bad. 

Piano-forte. Somewhat better. 

Small school-organ. Better again. 

Violin. In general, better still. 

Church-organ. Very good in some cases. 

Sometimes one and sometimes another, according to circumstances. 
Best of all. 

The non-use of an instrument occasions such crying evils, that every 
one must understand them himself. Of the instruments above-named, 
the piano-forte and organ are better than the violin, for accompany- 
ing part-singing ; but for exercises in accent, and practicing single 
voices, the latter is much to be preferred. For while playing the 
violin, the eye can be kept upon all the children, which is not often 
the case with keyed instruments in ordinary school-rooms; it can b.e 
carried about; and its sharp and piercing tones are much more im- 
pressive than those of a piano-forte, or of a small school -organ. The 
tones, again, can be modified upon the violin, in any desired way, (tc. 

But let me not be misunderstood. Singing with an accompani- 
ment is not an end, but is the means to an end. A choir accom- 
plishes its proper, real, and most beautiful work, only when singing 
truly and surely without accompaniment — a capella. The same ob- 
ject should be sought in every village school. 

3. In singing by beat, the beat should be kept without any break, 
either by the teacher or by the children, or by both. The teacher 
should keep time by counting aloud, or by movements of his bow, a 
rod, (fee, each pupil being to go strictly by it. If the children keep 
time, it should be either by causing some to count aloud while the 
others sing, or by having all mark time. This they should do, not 
by using movements like those of the instructor, up, down ; up, right, 
down, &c., but by audible strokes of the hand either on a table or 
into the other hand ; a much easier, more natural, and more useful 

4. If orthography is the schoolmaster's heaviest cross, enunciation 


while singing is certainly one of the second rank. Nothing will avail 
toward this end, except for the teacher to use zealous and uuintermit- 
ting strictness with the children — no, first with himself, and after- 
wards — with himself again, and after that with the children — in the 
enunciation of everything that is read or sung in the schooh* 

11. In particular ; and 

a. Elementary course. This should include 

aa. Exercises in the understanding of the melodic, rhythmic, dy- 
namic, and harmonic relations of tones ; exercises in hearing, which, 
by causing the pupil to note by written marks what he hears, will 
lead to a knowledge of writing music. 

hh. Exercises in singing ; in the production of melodic, rythmic, 
dynamic, and harmonic tone formations. A distinction should be 
made between dynamic exercises and vocal exercises proper, in the 
strict sense ; such as are intended to operate upon the material of the 
voice, and to give it strength, endurance, sweetness, flexibility, and 
quickness. Nor can the harmonic exercises be properly referred to 
those in melody. In order to avoid confusion, the following compen- 
dious classification will be found convenient: 1. Melodic exercises, 
including those in harmony. 2. Rhythm. 3. Exercises for the voice, 
including dynamics. 

To proceed to the necessary directions as to the arrangement and 
conduct of these departments of practice. . 

1. It has already been stated that the elementary course should 
extend through the whole school period, its easiest exercises may be 
commenced with children of five or six years old. For the rest, "Art 
is long, and school time short." There are many things which must 
be studied only by advanced scholars, such for instance as the minor 
key, (fee. 

2. The elementary coui*se, as has also been observed, should include 
all the elements, and therefore the harmonic. Harmony, even in its 
elements, is of especial value for formal training ; and is also very at- 
tractive to pupils. It opens to them an entirely new view of music. 

3. The principle already laid down, that the elementary exercises 
should proceed without any intermission, is a universal one ; but in 
singing it is of especial importance, which is the reason why it is re- 
peated here. 

4. The matter should be arranged at once subjectively and objec- 

* There was a little girl who, in a song to Spring which she had learned in school, sang 
"^ Moor out of his shell, springs out the tender shoot," {Eiji Mohr, 4"c.,) instead of •' Up- 
tpards out of, «kc.." {Empor, Sfc.,) and when told that the latter was the correct word, she 
answered that her teacher knew best about that. 

Again ; a boy was asked what they sung in school, and said, " The Chandelier^" (Der 
Kronleuchter ;) having caught that sound instead of the word "Scale," {Tonleiter.) 



tively. To arrange it wholly objectively is unpedagogical ; wholly 
subjectively, impossible. It is not correct to pursue one department 
through, as rhythm for instance, and then melody, but they should 
be taken in corresponding portions ; first the easiest parts of all the 
departments, so far as they belong to the matter in hand, then 
the more difficult ones, and so on. But this subdivision must not be 
carried too far, for fear of losing the connection of what is taught. 

5. The different departments should be so taught that some one of 
them shall always be the main subject, and yet so that from one step 
to another they shall always form a whole. The former of these 
requisites follows from the principle of taking simple things before 
complex; the latter will enhven the children, and render the teaching 
substantial and significant. If, for instance, the time be -f-, .and the 
melody that of the major common chord of the first, there may result 
forms like this, 






And words may be set to such phrases ; as, for instance, 

B" i I # ^ ^ I hi III i — I — \ 

Rise up from your pil-low, for cock-crow 


The smaller the attainments of the pupils, the more care is neces- 
sary to preserve them from what is unmusical and unpoetical. As 
they proceed further, it is of course easier and easier to select not only 
brief musical phrases, but entire songs, which can be used first for 
illustration, and then in the singing course. But care must be taken 
that the songs do not become the principal thing, and the practice of 
the elements secondary. 

The rule that only one department is to be the object of study at a 
time, must not be construed to mean that no time should be kept 
while studying melody, and that the rhythmic exercises should be in 
monotone. So complete. a disjunction as this of the elements of 
music, neither accords with the nature of music nor with that of the 
child. We often find rhythm without melody it is true, as in the 
drum; but melody will not accept the converse, and go without its 
companion and supporter, rhythm. Even the simplest e-xercises very 
Boon become wearisome and distasteful if they include no rhythm. 


The children's minds develop all parts together; and therefore the 
melodic exercises should have some rhythmic forms, and the rhyth- 
mic ones some melodic form. 

6. The course of proceeding should be from things to their names 
and signs. When, for instance, the children are to go from quarter 
notes to eighth notes, some quarter notes should first be played, while, 
the children beat in four-four time ; then a sudden transition should 
be made to eighth notes, which will strike the attention of the chil- 
dren, after which the name of the shorter note may be told tlxem, 
and its representation shown. 

7. Even during the stage of singing by ear, melodic and rhythmic 
voice-exercises should be given. 

8. The harmonic element should be as much as possible omitted 
from the melodic exercises at this stage. It should only be intro- 
duced so far as is necessaiy to understand and correctly sing the 
major common chord in its simplest forms. 

9. The vocal exercises of this period should be arranged with very 
great care to limit them to the capacities of the age of the children. 
They should, in general, consist of very easy successions of quarter 
notes of moderate pitch, sung sometimes loudly and sometimes softly ; 
such, for instance, as these : 



10. The harmonic element is most appropriately brought out in 
connection with the scale. It is true that very little work can be 
done with it, but that is no reason why none should be done. The 
following points may be taught : 

aa. Construction of common chords or triads upon the first, fifth 
and fourth of the key. 

hb. Construction of the chord of the seventh on the fifth of the 

cc. Establishment of the following as the fundamental musical 
chords : 

















It will be of course understood that these principles must be brought 
out by means of actual intu'ition. Mere words and figures would be 


entirely useless. The children must hear the chords and their suc- 
cessions. For this purpose the school organ* will be found very use- 
ful, but not indispensable, for the teacher will have a living organ ; 
namely, the children themselves. ^ 

11. Vocal exercises in the scale — with rather more advanced chil- 
dren therefore — should be made a chief study here. 

The best material for this practice is the scale itself, which should 
be sung in long, sustained, crescendo and diminuendo tones. The 
common schools have nothing to do with artistic runs, trills, &c. In- 
strumental accompaniment is especially necessary here. 

The middle notes of the voice should be chiefly practiced, and in 
the scales of D, E-Jj, E, and F. The children should never be required 
to foTce out very high notes by a violent effort, which proceeding can 
only do harm. And it is as unfair as it is ill-calculated, to endeavor 
to train the children to a more correct style of singing by making 
them sing every air a third or a fourth higher than it was set by the 

12. The pupils should be trained to write upon the staff the notes 
which they hear. Diligent practice in writmg music should there- 
fore be required. Otherwise the pupils' attainments will be entirely 
one-sided. To sing from note is one thing ; but it is another, and 
equally important for musical culture, to be able to write down notes 
that are heard. Writing music also constrains that class of scholars 
who are disposed to accommodate their singing to that of the rest, to 
the exertion of all their musical faculties. And it is the only mode of 
continuing the instruction after the children have arrived at the point 
of intuitional comprehension of the music, and of preserving thera 
from innumerable errors. If Nageli had done nothing except to in- 
troduce writing music as an exercise into the schools, he would even 
then have done them an exceedingly great service. 

h. Singing Course. 

I shall repeat here the three laws already laid dovra, and shall add 

1. The singing course should continue through the whole school 
period. Even the youngest pupils will readily sing simple airs by 
ear ; and according to all experience will partake of their enlivening 
and improving effects. 

2. The singing should have a real reference to the life of the 

* The melodeon, perhaps, in an American school. — Trans. 

t " The simplest enjoyment and the simplest instruction, are enlivened and reinforced by 
singing ; and what we even fail to accomplish by instruction in faith and morals, may be 
taught by song." — Goethe, Wilhelm Meister's Wandci- Years. 

At the Rauhe Haus near Hamburg, great stress is laid upon singing. Credible reporters. 


Singing is intended to enliven, ennoble, and cheer the whole of 
man's life. Regard should be had to the present and the future 
of the child ; to his permanent and varying relations to nature, other 
men, and God. With reference to the present condition of the chil- 
dren,, instruction in singing should, above all things, stand in the 
closest connection with religious instruction ; including the faith, love, 
and hope of Christians. And on every occasion of school hfe when 
the religious feelings of the pupils are appealed to, at the beginning 
and end of lessons, weeks, months, or years, at preparation for a 
church festival, at confirmation, the king's birthday, <fec., singing 
should be employed. In our day, the liturgical element, in which 
singing holds an important place, has been introduced for religious 
purposes into schools. This is much to be rejoiced at; and may be 
of very great service. 

There should be a little sinofinof festival in the church at least once 
a mouth ; and not merely on such occasions as visitations, consecra- 
ting an organ, &c. This might be done without difficulty almost 
every where. But it will be necessary to confine the selections to 
the simplest class of music, and to persevere in accustoming the con- 
gregation by little and little to take more pleasure in such music, than 
in the ungodly uproar of the usual style of church music. Materials 
truly useful should be selected, every thing should be thoroughly prac- 
ticed, and care should be taken that the audience may understand 
the words. 

Besides religious songs, secular ones should also be learned, so that 
the children may use them as a means of enjoying themselves at 
home, at play, at festivals, during walks, journeys, &c. And for this 
purpose, such music is appropriate as has ihe artistic eflfect of trans- 
porting the child into conditions of existence quite strange to hira. 

How shall reference be had, in the school singing, to the future of 
the scholars ? 

First, by having a good stock of chorals.* Chorals are an indis- 
pensable necessity of religion and sacred worship. Every child should 
be able at leaving school, to sing at least fifty or sixty chorals from 

There should also be a suitable number of secular songs. With 
proper management, the pupil may graduate in possession of as many 
as thirty such. What should their subjects be ? Experience shows 
that the religious feelings of the people expresses itself through the 
medium of chorals. For this reason I should use songs for other 

describe the judicious mode in whieh Mr. Wichern makes use of it at prayer and labor, ex- 
hortation and admonition, at serious and cheerful occasions, and sorrow and joy, and of th« 
important good which he thus accomplishes. 
• These correspond to our usual church psalmody.— TroTW. 


purposes. Of tliem, also, I should exclude some kinds, viz: 1. All 
songs of particular vocations, except war-songs, and for their proper 
localities, mountain songs and sea-songs. 2. Songs for occasions 
that rarely happen in actual life ; such as, "Up! with mountain-staff 
in hand, forth with joy to Switzerland ;" which is nevertheless in 
itself a good song. 3. All songs which, though perhaps good io 
themselves, do not correspond with the popular mode of thought and 
feeling ; such as, " Know'st thou the land where the leraon-trees 
bloom ?" 4. Love songs. 5. Drinking songs. I add a mere sug- 
gestion of the proportion in which I would perhaps arrange thirty 
songs to be learned, namely : five, to incite to good company ; three 
soldier's songs ; three travehng songs ; six for general expressions of 
pleasure, and for observation of nature ; four patriotic ; five romantic 
historical ; four miscellaneous. Total, thirty. For girls, I would 
substitute cradle songs for the soldiers' songs, and for the traveling 
songs, others referring to the observation of nature. 

3. All songs should be beautiful, both poetically and musically. 

What is worthless in itself can never develop the artistic sense, nor 
properly cultivate the feelings. There are good words to bad tunes, 
and wretched rhymes to beautiful tunes. And it requires much study 
on the part of the teacher to acquire a sure judgment on this subject.* 
Especial care is needed with respect to children's songs, properly so 
called ; for among the great number of them are many bad ones. A 
children's song is never good unless it can be sung with some enjoy- 
ment by grown persons also. Moralizing songs for children, in par- 
ticular, are bad, and always will be ; and so are those where the 
children are made to sing to each other, and encourage each other to 
joy, to innocent cheerfulness, &c. ; such as, 

" Open brothers, ear and heart, 
Unto teachings wise." 

" Our daily work is done at length : 
Now for a joyous game ! 
Pleasure for working gives us strength, 
And strengthens all the frame." 

* " Notwithsfanding the preat number of songs for the young, yet but very few of them are 
really adapted for use ; partly on account of their faulty and spiritless melodies, and partly, 
and especially, on account of unsuitable words. * * * * The text of a song must be 
adapted to the young, clear and plain, joyous and vivid ; equally removed from watery and 
feeble sentimentality, and from a stupid jumble of morals and phrases." —Memorial of the 
Nuremberg Education Society. 

As music is variously taught and practiced in the teachers' seminaries, many young teach 
. erscome to believe that it is an easy thing to compose for singing So they proceed with 
great confidence to make motets, and hymns and cantatas, and make all possible haste to 
introduce their compositions into a church or a school. Great evils are to be apprehended 
from this source. 


Some valuable observations upon tins pseudo-poetry are to be found 
in Franz Horn's ^'- Forte-piano^^' and Hiecke's ^'Instruction in German 
in the German gymnasia!'' {Der deutsche Unterricht auf deutschen 

With regard to the relation between the words and music, we can 
not be too mistrustful, in particular, of operatic airs with words set to 

Songs, to be appropriate, must be both objectively beautiful, in 
themselves considered, and suited to the children's capacity. Children 
should not be forced up to any thing which is without the sphere of 
their apprehensions. On this point, I shall hereafter remark further. 

4. Each style of songs should be used for its proper purpose ; for 
eacb has its peculiar influence in training the pupil. 

a. Sufficient reasons have already been given for cultivating both 
cKurch and secular singing in schools, it may be added, that the 
former can not properly be very extensively used in the lower classes, 
and must commonly be sung somewhat faster than at subsequent 

h. Care should be taken to have the singing in unison, or in parts, 
as the case may demand either. Children less than nine years old, 
usually sing in unison. Part singing is not natural to them, whatever 
credit it would obtain at examinations. With older children the case 
is difierent ; they may sing in parts; but should still not transgress 
the limits of popular requisites in the artistic direction. Part-singing 
is however so efficient a means of artistic training, and its power over 
the feelings is so great, that it should not be omitted, even in the 
smallest school. 

On this important subject many mistakes are made. The follow- 
ing principles may serve the reader as initial points for his belief, 

aa. A mixed choir is always most efficient ; and should therefore 
be formed wherever possible. The school will furnish sopranos and 
altos ; and there can always be found some accommodating youths or 
men, who will sing tenor and bass. The thing can easily enough be 
done without sounding drums and trumpets, with prudence and per- 

The societies for men's choirs seem in some places and lately to 
have hindered the prosperity of small mixed choirs. This is much to 
be regretted, however useful those societies are. Forget not the 
children ! 

*In an extensively used collection of songs, the " Hunter's Chorus in the Freysciiutz," is 
to be found, set to an Advent hymn ! In the same, '' Christ a gardener," is set to the duett 
from Titus, " In friendship's arms ;" which, as a reviewer in the ^'■South German Messenger^" 
{Suddeutscher Boten,) says, " fits like a theatrical costume on a clergyman." 


hh. In schools where only the children can be employed, the fol- 
lowing plan may be adopted, which will prevent very various errors, 
namely : The children should sing chorals, generally, in unison ; secu- 
lar songs in two parts ; and all music for rehgious, and especially 
church festivities, in three parts. 

Chorals can not and should not be sung in parts, for the reason that 
time will not be found for practicing them in that manner; and be- 
cause it would prevent those appointed for the middle and lower parts, 
from thoroughly learning the air — a great disadvantage. 

Only on some few special occasions should a choral be sung by the 
children in three parts ; and if such an experiment should succeed, it 
would probably be beneficial. 

Chorals in two parts are always somewhat dry. But if the teacher 
"will have some such, let him be careful to see that the second part is 
of an independent and marked character. 

The reasons for singing secular songs in two parts are these : — ■ 

1. This method is indicated by the nature of that sort of music. 

2. The practice will be found suflScient for the needs of the chil- 
dren in that particular. 

3. It does not, like singing in three parts, impose on some of the 
children the necessity of sacrificing themselves for the sake of the rest, 
by the unnatural practice of singing in the lower register, which is 
also in itself uninteresting to them, and if long continued, very wear- 
ing.* But the church requires a more dignified style. Here, singing 
in two parts seems empty and dry ; at least three parts are necessary. 
Nor should the choruses in the liturgy be sung in two parts only ; 
but rather in unison, with organ accompaniment. Children can 
profitably sing in four parts only under very favorable circumstances.f 

c. Solo singing, as well as singing in choir, must also be attended 
to. This is necessary both on account of the individual develop- 
ment of the pupil as well as the formation of his style, and the con- 
sequent influence of it on the feelings. With regard to this last 
point, I need only refer to such songs, motets, and little choruses, 
as are used in school in which choruses and solos alternate. 
The effect of such pieces when well executed, is very good. It also 
has a very good effect, when some single verse of a song is sung by 
some one person, the whole singing the next. The solo singers 
should be trained separately, by which however I do not mean that 
they should be trained in the higher artistic departments of music. 

♦Gersbach, Herder, Rinck, Miihliney, B. Klein, and the profund Nageli, have, I believe, 
scarcely set any children's songs in more than two parts. Their statemenls of the reasons, 
however, are not sufficiently lucid. 

tTh^re are very various opinions on this point, and I know that many persons diflfor from 
me. But I have many authorities on my side. 


6. Care should be taken, not only to select music suitable to the 
children's capacity, but to practice them long enough to be able to 
execute them with certainty and freedom. 

This principle has already been indicated in substance, but ought 
to be here again stated in full and expressly.* It is not until all 
technicalities are done away with, and all sense of constraint or im- 
pediment by difBculties is removed, that the heart of the singer opens 
itself. The desperate efforts of some singers, or entire choirs, to ac- 
complish a task beyond their abilities, does not even afford the audi- 
ence the pleasure derived from the breakneck leaps of a rope-dancer. 
Therefore, no great contrapuntistic choruses, nor elaborate solos. All 
that is required is simple songs, and little motets and choruses, at 
the utmost not more difficult than the most difficult of Hientzsch and 
Erk. If circumstances imperatively require that the children should 
execute some more elaborate piece of church music, the most skillful 
of them should be selected, and practiced in private on the cantatas, 
hymns, (fee. 

6. The practicing of songs, during the period of singing by ear, 
should be by playing or singing them over to the children, who 
should then endeavor to execute them. 

When the period of singing from note begins, some ten or twelve 
lessons will probably be needed to acquaint the children with the 
main points as to the meaning of the notes, especially their rhythmi- 
cal value ; which should be thoroughly illustrated by examples. Then 
will follow the use of the notes in practicing songs. The children 
should be prevented from becoming discouraged if they do not at first 
understand more than a very little of the details of the system of 
notes. They should be allo^ved to be astonished, not at what the 
notes do not do for them, but on the other hand as the real help which 
they afford. And they will be much delighted, as the meaning of the 
written notes, at first so puzzling, becomes gradually more and more 
distinct, and when at last the song which is given them to sing shall 
contain its own explanation. 


(Two hours of singing in each class, weekly.) 

1. Lower Class. — (Four half hours.) In each half hour ; Elementary Exercises, 
ten minutes ; Songs, twenty minutes. 

2. Middle Class. — (Two full hours.) First : Indispensable information as to 
the notes, and for practicing songs; together with repetition of songs previously 
learned. This during from four to six weeks. 

* "In order that the execution of compositions may be as little as possible interrupted or 
hindered by ignorance or hesitation, and that no perplexity may interfere with the artistic 
conceptions of the singer, and thus prevent the successful training of his feelings." — Ndgeli, 

t Viz., of a three years' course. 



Next, in each hour ; Vocal Exercises, ten minutes ; other Elementary Exercises, 
twenty minutes; Songs, thirty minutes. 

3. Upper Class. — (Two full hours.) First : Continuation of the fundamentals 
of written music, and repetition of songs already learned. This during three or 
four weeks. 

Then, during each hour ; Vocal Exercises, ten minutes ; other Elementary Ex- 
ercises, twenty minutes ; Songs thirty minutes. 

Details on the above points, 
a. Lower class. 

The elementary course consists of simple exercises, in the singing 
by rote of single tones and simple connected tones ; in distinguishing 
high and low, long and short, loud and soft tones, in counting to 
time, &c. ; such as are prescribed in almost all the better class of 
books on the subject. A course of vocal exercises should also be 
combined with this. 

Take for example the following cadence. 


The teacher plays these notes, the children counting them. Then 
let them describe them, somewhat thus ; " The second tone was lower 
than the first, and the third higher than the second ; and the third 
was like the first." Then let them sing them, to the sound ah, first 
getting the measure of their duration from the playing of the teach- 
er ; who must by the way watch carefully to see that the last note is 
not flat. Then let them count to each tone, one, two, and one, two, 
three, and one, two, three, four, while the teacher is playing them; 
and let them also beat time. And then let them do the same to 
their own singing of the notes. In these cases, they will sing the 










Then let them sing the same notes to words, such as " summer 
comes," or the like ; which will give an opportunity to train them in 
enunciation. That is, they must say, not " sum-mer," dwelling on 
the ra with their mouths shut, but su-mmer, holding the vowel 
sound, (fee. Lastly, the cadence may have a name given to it; it is 
a " cadence from below." Such exercises will be found very interest- 
ing, if conducted with spirit. 

The songs, in the lower class, must be sung by ear, after being 



played or sung by the teacher. The following may serve as an 
example : 

Oh how cold the weather's growing, And the sky all cloud -ed o'er, 



El ; 

n 1 — \ — c 


J> N_ 




From the North fierce winds are blowing, And the sun-shine's seen no more. 

First the words should be repeated to the class, and said over by 
them. Any mispronunciations should be corrected ; and the words 
"o'er," "north," "fierce," &c., briefly explaine<3. The teacher then 
announces that he will play the melody. All are attentive. He 
plays the first half of it, once, twice, thrice, four times ; the children 
beating time, which they can easily do. Some of them will at once 
begin to hum over the air, but should be stopped. The fifth time, 
they may all sing it, softly. Then the teacher sings it alone, then 
plays it alone; and then the children sing it by themselves, the 
teacher marking time for them. Perhaps they will sing the second 
or thii-d G too low, or fall behind the time, or take breath after " cold," 
or make the first note of the third full measure too short,«&c. ; all of 
which errors should be corrected on the spot. For a change, some- 
times part of the class may sing, and sometimes all ; and perhaps 
some one of them may be found bold enough and able enough to sing 
in solo. The teacher should always accompany, to prevent falling 
from the pit<jh. After the first half of the melody has been learned, 
the second should be practiced in the same way. When the whole 
is "well committed, the teacher may play second to the children's so- 
prano, or sing a second, and play the first. It will not sound well 
for him to sing the air. Then the remaining stanzas of the song may 
be learned. Every thing should be executed correctly and well. The 
result of such a course of training will be very satisfactory. When 
the children go home, they will be singing the song, wherever they 
are. What more could be desired ? 


b. Middle class. 

As has been stated, this class should begin by devoting from four 
to six weeks to a very simple preparation for singing by note. The 
object of this preparation should be to make the children acquainted 
with the leading points of the notation, without burdening them with 
details. It can not be expected that the children shall learn to sing 
independently by note ; but they will receive whatever assistance the 
notes can give them ; their eyes, ears, and feeling for time, will be 
trained. An excessively long step will be avoided, by thus placing 
the children midway of the great space between singing without 
notes, and the free reproduction of what the notes represent. They 
will attain to the position occupied by those many thousand singers 
who do not indeed really sing by note, but who still would not on 
any account be without the notes. In short, the pupils will be placed 
in a situation where they will learn songs, not with a full intuitional 
appreciation, but with the aid of the use of their faculties of tune 
and time. 

What should be the exact importance of these acquirements ? I 
think it should be sufficient, if the children learn that 

1. The tones, rise, or fall, as the notes do. 

2. The notes show whether the tones proceed onward by grada- 
tions or jumps. 

3. The steps of the latter kind are various; thirds, fourths, fifths, 
sixths, sevenths, octaves. The pupils must learn to recognize these 
promptly by the notes. A short series of exercises should be given 
to acquire this facility, preparations having been already made for it 
in the lower class ; by playing one and another of these intervals in 
different parts of the major scale, and making the children what they 
are ; and then by the reverse method of calling for an interval, which 
the children are to sing. But nothing difficult should be introduced. ' 

4. The notes indicate the length of the tones. 

5. There are whole, half, fourth, eighth and sixteenth notes. A 
whole one is as long as two half ones, a half as two fourths, &c. 

6. There are also rests or pauses, fourth rests, eighth rests, &c. 

1. A note or a rest very often has a point or dot with it; which 
increases its length one half 

8. The notes are arranged into groups or sections, each of which 
is called a measure. One measure may contain four quarter notes, or 
three, or two ; or three eighth notes, or six, &c. The pupils must be 
able to name all these. 

9. They must also be able to beat time. For ^ time, four motions 
of the hand must be made, for -f three, for f two, for -| three, for f 
six, or sometimes two. It will be a sufficient exercise to them, if ap- 


propriate portions of airs are written on the blackboard, named, and 
then played, while the children keep time, counting aloud. 

10. Various marks are used to indicate whether to sing loudly, 
moderately, or softly. 

11. The words are printed underneath, one syllable to each note; 
if several notes are connected together by a stroke or a curved line, 
they are all to be sung to one syllable. 

12. There are many other marks, whicb will be learned afterward. 
The pres'int is only a small beginning. 

To knew the nri,mes of the notes will be of no use to the children 
in this stf ge, because the present object is not an introduction to the 
system of the tones, but merely to afford the means of gathering by 
the eye fen acquaintance with the outlines of a melody. 

Abou\ midsummer, if the course commenced about Easter, the 
children can continue their singing practice in the green and flowery 
meadow* ; where they may wander without being constrained by 
methodical hedges and ditches, walls and timbers ; freely, joyously, 
and, if God will, piously. 

Rules for singing practice. 

1. Whatever is to be understood must, so far as the children's 
capacity will go, be made entirely clear to them, and then stated by 

3. In general, the children should be encouraged to make exertions 
of themselves ; and they should be encouraged — especially those who 
arc in their second year — to endeavor frequently to sing the air which 
is in hand, without assistance. But this must be done cheerfully and 
"with interest ; without any misery or any inflictions. 

3. Where the children's knowledge fails them, play them the 

4. Part of them — to repeat the suggestion once more — only count 
time aloud, while the others sing. But all of them must always keep 
time by light blows on the other hand or on the table, until the music 
is learned with entire certainty. 

5. Every eye should be strictly required to be directed to the music. 
The less capable may often be assisted by pointing out one note after 
another with a stick. 

Close adherence to these fourth and fifth rules will often give the 
children a facility in singing by note beyond what could have been 

An example will illustrate this course of proceeding. I select the 
beginning of a well-known song by Nageli : — 












How art thou so bright? 

Let the notes be very plainly written on the blackboard, at first 
without the words. Then let the notes be first read, thus : " Dot- 
ted eighth ; sixteenth, rising second; fourth, rising second; fourth, 
faUing second, &c., <fec. ;" ending with "fourth, rising fourth; half, 
falling third."* Then a rising fourth and a falling third may be sung. 
The children can sing these intervals themselves, with occasional 
assistance, if their ear has been sufficiently well trained. That is, if 
they remember clearly the triad g, b, d, they will not sing g, b, 
instead of g, d. Then those who are in their second or third years 
practice may sing the scale with Za, except a few who are to be sta- 
tioned with the smaller children, to count aloud, keeping time, also, 
with blows on the hand or the table. If the air is correctly sung, 
well ; if not, let it be played over by the teacher. Then the smaller 
children may sing along with the rest, another section counting; or 
all may beat time. This exercise should continue until the. melody 
is sung with entire correctness and in strict time. Then the text 
may be written under the music. 

This practice is for the last half of the singing lesson. The first 
half should be used for the elementary course. My mode in this 
particular would be the following : Take one of the better works on 
teaching singing, and begin where the subject of written notes is 
introduced, and proceed strictly as is written, going very slowly, 
since there is time enough; and be satisfied with whatever acquire- 
ments can be made. Only, some portions of the songs given as 
exercises in time or melody may perhaps be omitted, if the purpose 
of comprehending the written tones is attained ; since the singing- 
course has particular reference to the development of the feelings of 
the children. 

This should usually be opened by vocal exercises ; which are also 
often properly introduced just before or during the singing exercises. 
Our practice (at Weissenfels) is to practice the scale, at first in two 

* This mensuration of the intervals is of the greatest importance ; at least, my own experi- 
ence shows that for the majorily of pupils it is the simplest and surest way of learning to sing 
truly If is an excellent thing when a pupil feels the key so well as to be able to strike the in- 
tervals correctly by taking the notes in their relation to the key note. But this power will fail 
him as soon as the melody passes a little beyond the limits of the simplest juvenile songs, 
and even within those iimits will be much confused by a modulation. In these cases, if 
the pupil is not practiced in the sort of knowledge of the intervals referred to in the text, he 
will about in a*^ uncerta'i; manner, as is the cai;e with too many who sing by figures. 


tetrachords (c, d, e, f; and g, a, b, c:) tlicn altogether, usually with 
the sound a, b, sometimes loudly and sometimes softly, (the latter is 
much the most difficult, but is very important;) and always beating 
time (with two, three, four or six beats to a note.) 

Til us the pupil makes his way through the middle class. At his 
leaving it, his voice will be found somewhat developed, a fund of 
songs laid up in his memory, and his power of reading at sight 
gratifyingly cultivated. The latter however is very seldom the case 
to an extent that makes it allowable to dispense with carrying on the 
elementary course together with the singing course, in the higher 
class. Careful beating time must also still be kept up for a long 
period yet; it is only in the latter years of their school life that the 
more capable of the children will be found capable of singing inde- 
pendently by note. 

c. Upper class. 

Before proceeding here with the singing course, the pupils must 
be somewhat further practiced in written music, for the sake of easier 
understanding. From three to four weeks at the beginning of the 
course may be specially devoted to this purpose. However much 
pi^ogress may have been made in the middle class, or the elementary 
course, they must yet be taught in the upper class : — 
■ 1. That there is a universal (chromatic) scale which is several times 

2. That it consists of twelve tones. 

3. That the tones are so near together that it would not be easy to 
sing another between them. 

4. That the steps from one of these tones to the other is called a 
half tone or semitone. 

5. That these tones have their fixed names and signs; and what 
these are. The scale most natural to commence with will be that of 
C, the intermediate tones being added. The nature of these semi- 
tones may be illustrated by marks, j^y a scale, a staircase, the keys 
of the piano-forte, the situation of the tones on the neck of the 
violin, and by playing and singing them over. 

Reading wTitten music, to which the middle class has at least 
afforded an introduction, must here become an indispenable prelimin- 
ary to singing practice. The subject of the different keys can not 
be begun in these three weeks of instruction ; it must be left 
for the elementary course, to be there treated deliberately and 

About Whitsunday, of the third year, again, singing practice may 
recommence, the vocal exercises being resumed, and the elementary 
course taken up again where it was left oft' in the middle class. 



I may properly give an instance of the instruction in singing of 
the upper class ; for which I will select a Whitsunday hymn. 

Deck the walls with wreaths of- flowers, And conse - crate to God the 







And let the 

al - 


The course of instruction may be as follows: — 1. The key, 
signature and time may be determined. 2. Count the measures. 
3. Read the notes, as follows, a; a; rising fourth, d; rising third, 
f sharp; falling second, e; falling second, d; rising second, e ; rising 
second, f sharp ; falling third, d, <fec. 4. Take up the longer in- 
tervals. Which are the thirds? The fourths? Who can sing a 
fourth ? How does a sixth sound ? &c. 5. The upper section makes 
an attempt to sing the scale with la, the lower section beating time 
and counting aloud. Every eye fixed on the notes ! Trifling varia- 
tions from the melody can easily be corrected with the violin ; if 
there are any serious ones, the class must be stopped, and the error 
expressly corrected. If they do not succeed after two or three at- 
tempts, play the passage to them. 

6. All the class sings the scale, naming the notes by name, and 
beating time accurately. 

Y. The words are put under the music. 

W^hen afterward the keys are discussed, they can be properly 
spoken of at each lesson. The principal thing, however continues to 
be that the children shall recognize the intervals, even if only by 
their numeral designation, and not by the interval of sound. Expe- 
rience teaches that those who learn on that plan gain a very good 
degree of certainty and facility. It will of course be observed that 
as the elementary course progresses, the increasing vocalizing powers 
of the class can be more and more exercised. 

I could now proceed, if my space would permit, to describe in very 
bright colors our scholar, now stepping forth from the upper class 
into active life, free, joyous, bold, and if God please, pious. But I 
eave every young teacher to imagine such a picture for himself. 


The establishment of two great chemical laboratories in connection with the 
two otherwise best equipped universities of Prussia, on a scale and with an ex- 
penditure unprecedented, not only in that, but in any country, is a recognition 
of the position which chemistry now occupies in reference both to scientific 
inquiry, and to the industrial arts. The following account is abridged from a 
Report* to the English Department of Science and Art, by Dr. Hoffman, under 
whose direction the laboratory of the School of Chemistry in London, now at- 
tached to the School of Mines, was constructed. The example of Prussia has 
already attracted the attention of the Russian, English, and French governments; 
and the Minister of Public Instruction in France has already obtained the neces- 
sary pecuniary means to enlarge and reorganize the laboratories of the Museum 
of Natural History, the School of Medicine, and the Superior Normal School, 
and to est iblish in Paris, others, larger and more complete, designating them 
" the arsenals in which are to be forged the weapons for new conquests in the 
field of experimental science and industrial development." 

The first negotiations respecting the building of a new laboratory in Bonn 
commenced in 1861. Situated on the high road of Europe, on the banks of the 
mighty Rhine, surrounded by some of the most charming scenery of the world, 
distant but a few hours from the Belgium frontier, and scarcely farther removed 
from France, within reach of England by a short day's journey, in the midst of a 
large agricultural, vine-growing, and mining populations, in close proximity 
with the great manufacturing districts of Rhineland and Westphalia, united with 
the focus of this large industrial territory by a network of railways whose meshes 
are augmenting daily, itself the seat of one of the most flourishing universities 
and schools of agriculture in Germany, — the city of Bonn embodied a number 
of condi tions which cannot fail to secure the rapid success of a large chemical 
institution established within its walls. 

The scientific arrangements of the building were entrusted to Professor A. TV. 
Hoffman, after a careful study of the latest structures of the kind in Europe. 
The foundation was laid in the spring of 1865, and the construction has gone on 
under the direct superintendence of an able young architect, Mr. Jacob Neumann, 
and the building, properly equipped, was handed over to the university in the 
summer of 1868. 

Of the several institutions in the Rhenish university, part only are situated in 
the electoral castle in Bonn, granted to the university at its foundation in the 
year 1818; others, for instance, the natural history collections, the magnificent 
and world-renowned astronomical observatory, the botanic gardens, the agricul- 
tural academy, are located in the village of Poppelsdorf, about fifteen minutes* 
walk from the castle, but connected with it by one of the finest chestnut avenues 
in Germany. In close proximity to the castle of Poppelsdorf, a tract of land, 
the freehold property of the university, was chosen for the site of the new labo- 
ratory, and a more favorable situation could scarcely have been found. 

The land allotted by the university is of very considerable extent. The spa- 
cious building, covering, with its four enclosed courts, an area of 45,000 square 

* Report of Dr. Hof&nau to the Department of Science and Art, of the Committee of Council 
on Education, London. 


feet, is surrounded by a handsome garden, which at the back extends to some 
depth, leaving ample room for the erection of any accessory buildings that may 
be required at some later time. Thus unfettered by narrowness of space, or the 
fear of having air or light shut out by the close proximity of other buildings, and 
on a well drained soil, the architect was enabled to lay out the plan of the edifice 
with a degree of freedom that has materially promoted the beauty and harmony 
of his work. 

' Even the slight distance from the city of Bonn might appear at first sight a 
disadvantage. Since, however, the natural science institutions of the university, 
almost without exception, are concentrated at Poppelsdorf, it is a real conven- 
ience to the students that the chemical laboratory is in their neighborhood, be- 
sides being removed from the annoyances of a rapidly growing town, and com- 
manding views of unsurpassed beauty ; on one side, the chestnut avenues and 
the city of Bonn with the lofty spire of its cathedral ; on the other side, the 
castle, with the adjacent botanic gardens ; in the distance, the Kreuzberg, with 
its chapel ; and farther still, on the opposite bank of the Rhine, the graceful out- 
lines of the Siebengbirge, the castled crag of Drachenfels, and the sheen, and 
near and distant flow of that abounding river. 

The new chemical institution is provisionally intended for sixty students ; the 
space, however, has been meted out so liberally, that accommodation can be sup- 
plied without inconvenience to a much greater number ; besides this, the building 
has been so constructed as to allow of enlargement at any future time, by the 
addition of a second story, without detracting from the hai-mony of its structure, 
either as regards outward appearance or internal arrangement. 

In addition to the various apartments required for educational purposes, for 
practical analysis, for scientific and technical investigations, for class exercises, 
and for the lectures, there are in the new building sets of rooms for the families 
and servants, apartments for three assistants, and also a magnificent residence 
for the director, consisting of a suite of rooms, which, as regards number and 
extent, would be very seldom met with in a private house. Lastly, there is a 
considerable number of Avell-lighted basement rooms, which have as yet no spe- 
cial use assigned to them, but the construction of Avhich, on account of the greater 
depth of the foundations on the street side, could not be avoided. On any later 
enlargement of the institution, however, these rooms cannot fail to be adapted 
to some useful purpose. - 

The various departments of the building are spread over three floors, the base- 
ment, the ground floor, and the first floor. The first floor, however, extends 
over but a small portion of the structure, and is exclusiA^ely occupied by the 
private apartments of the director. But few of the rooms devoted to the pur- 
poses of the institution are found in the basement, as, for instance, the store- 
rooms, the rooms for metallurgical and other operations, requiring large quanti- 
ties of fuel, those for medico-legal, and chemico-physiological research, &c. All 
the remaining space intended for educational purposes, viz : the laboratories, 
with their adjoining rooms for special operations, and side-rooms, balance-rooms, 
rooms for volumetric analysis, combustion-rooms, lecture-theatres, the halls for 
collections, the study and private laboratory of the director, the apartments of the 
assistants and other officers of the institution, are on the ground floor, an ad- 
vantage which would not have been obtained had the site of the building been 
of more limited dimensions. 

The ground floor contains no less than forty-four rooms, exclusive of vestibules. 


corridors, and closets. After ascending the massive flight of stairs wc enter the 
large vestibule, the rich architectural decoration of wliicli at once bespeaks the 
dignity of a great public building dedicated to science. Before the spectator 
stiTtches a long corridor of considerable -width, the main artery of the entire 
building. It is brilliantly lighted by a number of windows, (eiich nine feet high 
and four feet wide,) on the left side. The large folding doors at the further 
end of the corridor lead to the director's spacious study, which is provided with 
a large bow-windoAV for microscopic observations. From this central situation 
the various parts of the great building are quickly and easll}' accessible. 

There are three laboratories, each with permanent working-places for twenty 
students, with more than sufficient space, and every convenience for work. 

The Jirst of these laboratories is for beginners, that is to say, those who, having 
become acquainted with the rudiments of chemistry hy attending lectures, enter 
the laboratory to become exercised in chemical manipulation, to make jDrepara- 
tions, and to go through an elementary course of qualitative analysis. 

The second laboratory is for advanced students, or those who, having acquired 
practice in qualitative experiments, are occupied with quantitative analysis, both 
ponderal and volumetric. 

The third laboratory is ior young chemists sufficiently conversant with the prin- 
cipal departments of chemistry to engage in original experimental investigations, 
either suggested by the director qr chosen by themselves. In these laboratories 
the students have their permanent working-places. To each one is allotted for 
this purpose a table amply supplied with gas and Avater, as well as lock-up 
'drawers and cupboards in -which to keep apparatus, re-agents, &c. ; in a word, his 
own chemical estate. At these working benches all ordinary chemical work, and 
all operations not requiring the special arrangements provided, in other parts 
of the institution, are carried on. • 

In the side apartments attached to the three laboratories are three closets in 
direct communication with the main rooms. They are in cliargc of the respect- 
ive assistants, and are intended for preserving delicate and costly apparatus, pla- 
tinum and silver vessels, expensive re-agents, &c. 

Besides the three laboratories in which the students, as already stated, have 
spacious and permanent benches, liberall}' provided Avith gas and water, and every 
facility for carrying oif vapors and liquid products, there are a series of rooms for 
certain operations Avhich cannot be well conducted in them, such as di^illations, 
making of gases, heating of bodies in particular gas-atmospheres, and all exper- 
iments requiring large and complicated apparatus. This class of Avork is carried 
on in these special rooms or in the " evaporation-niches " let into their walls. 
Should, hoAvcA^er, for any particular purpose, even more space or greater pro- 
tection from noxious or offensive emanations be required, such as preparing 
sulphur compounds or similar substances, provision has likeAA'ise been made for 
such contingencies. Each Avorking-room communicates Avith a coA^ered colonnade, 
opening tOAvards a back-court, and fitted up with gas and Avater and all the requi- 
sites for this special Avork. Flights of steps lead from the open sides of the col- 
onnades doAvn to the tAvo back-courts lying bctAvecn the three laboratories, and 
here the student finds an additional supply of Avater in the large central res- 
ei'voirs, the tabular parapets of which serve as Avorking-benches for a variety of 

Besides the chief apartments already mentioned, there are the folloAving rooms : 
a laboratory for gas analysis, a volumetrical analysis room, tAVO balance-rooms, 


not only intended for the reception of chemical balances, but also of the more 
delicate physical instruments made use of in analysis, such as air-pumps, barom- 
eters, &c., two rooms for fusions and ignitions capable of being carried out by 
means of gas, a library, a large and excellently arranged lecture room capable 
of seating conveniently two hundred and fifty students, a chemical and miner- 
alogical museum, storo-rooms, &c. 

The basement has nearly thirty rooms, which are at present mainly used for 
store-rooms, coal-cellars, lumber-rooms, &c., but capable of being utilized if nec- 
essary. Only the front block of the building has a second story ; this contains 
a spacious and attractive suite of apartments, provided for the director of the 
institution, commanding the finest sceneiy in the world. There are abxindance 
of rooms for sei-vants, domestic offices, and storage. 

The external aspect of the new laboratories is in perfect keeping with the 
scale of grandeur of the ground plan. The street front, 180 feet in length, con- 
sists of a long centre structure, two stories in height, with richly decorated win- 
dows and pillars, terminated by two end blocks of greater height, each containing 
a main entrance, with an ornamented balcony above. The side-front facing the 
city of Bonn, with the main entrance for students, has a depth of 250 feet, and 
consists of two parts, separated from each other by the carriage-way leading to 
the courts. One of these parts is the north-east corner of the front block ; the 
other, perfectly symmetrical in itself, has for its centre the main vestibule, with 
its richly decorated entrance, and classically ornamented roof rising consider- 
ably above and projecting prominently 'from the remainder of this fa9ade. On 
either side of this vestibule branch forth two long wings, which, though only of 
one story, are nevertheless of imposing attitude, being relieved, moreover, on the 
two corners by slightly projecting portions of somewhat greater height, and 
marked by the more elaborate architecture of the windows. The impression 
made on the spectator by the animated appearance of this front is exceedingly 
pleasing. The inner and outer fa9ades and the principal architectural mould- 
ings, are in stone. The architectural ornamentation of the interior is in keeping 
with that of the exterior. The principal vestibule, a hall of considerable dimen- 
sions, is lighted by a band of highly elevated windows running round the four 
sides of the building immediately under the roof. The ceiling is divided into or- 
namental squares, and the walls are enlivened by projecting pillars bearing eaiy- 
atides, aAd a rich door architecture framing the entrance to the corridor. 

The lecture-room is lighted from both sides through a range of windoAvs, which 
are separated from one another by columnar pillars. Its walls and ceiling are 
correspondingly decorated in stucco and color. 

The three laboratories, despite their necessary simple ornamentation, will not 
fail to make a favorable impression by their liberal proportions, by the enlivening 
effect of the wainscoting and the evaporating niches projecting from the walls 
above it, as well as by iheir elegant and in all respects suitable fittings. The 
rooms adjoining the laboratories, the small lecture-theatre and the museums, and 
the director's spacious residence, are all richly and tastefully ornamented, and are 
in all respects worthy of the institution to which it belongs. 

The cost of the building, aside from the land, which belonged to the university, 
and of the equipment, was 183,000 thalers. 



Chemical Laboratory of the Frederick William University of Berlin. 

The University of Berlin, like that of Bonn, had its origin within the present 
century, having been founded in 1810, at a period when the pressure of foreign 
domination weighed almost insupportably on Prussia; and it will ever remain 
significant of the direction of the German mind, that the great men of that 
time should have expected to gather in the focus of science and letters the forces 
necessary for the political regeneration of their country. 

To the present time, there have been three leaders of chemical science in this 
University since its foundation, Klaproth, Mitscherlich, and H. Rose, who have 
taught in succession, or at the same time. The existence of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences, instituted by Liebnitz in 1700, and reorganized by Frederick the 
Great in 1740, operated, among other causes, against the establislmaent of a great 
chemical in.-;titution at the university, as that academy was a scientific corpora- 
tion, including chemistry within its scope. Ever since the foundation of the 
university the chemical chair has invariably been occupied by the chemist of the 
academy, and the university was thus exempt from the necessity of providing 
the chemical professor with working accommodations, which he already enjoyed 
in his capacity of academician. This double position, however, proved a disad- 
vantage, when the demands for chemical instruction and investigation had in- 
creased in consequence of the rapid advance of science, and the industrial arts to 
which chemistry could minister. 

" In the autumn of 1863 the university and the academy suffered a heavy loss 
in the death of Mitscherlich ; and not long after, by that of H. Rose. Professor 
A. W. Hoffman, F. R. S., then at Bonn, was selected to fill the chair thus va- 
cated, principally on the grounds of the experience he had just acquired in organ- 
izing a chemical institution at Bonn, as it was universally conceded that the time 
had come when the building of a great chemical laboratory for the university of 
Berlin must be vigorously undertaken. 

Site. The site of the new Berlin laboratory is in the midst of the great rep- 
resentative institutions of the kingdom, and in close proximity to the uniAcrsity 
and the military medical school, at the east end of the beautiful street and prom- 
enade, " Unter den Linden," so called from its two parallel avenues of lime trees, 
which extend through the city from the monumental Brandenburg gate, in a di- 
rection from west to east. At the east end of this street, next to the splendid 
palace built by Frederick the Great for his brother, Prince Henry of Prussia, now 
devoted to the university, and the spacious edifice of the Academy of Sciences, 
near to other great public structures, the library, the academy of arts, the arsenal, 
and the royal residence, is the site of the new laboratory. 

The relations of the university and academy with respect to their participation 
in the new institution, and the various preliminary conditions having been satis- 
factorily settled, the scientific details of the institution were arranged substan- 
tially after suggestions and plans of Prof. Hoffman at Bonn. The architectural 
details embodied by Mr. A, Creamer, an architect of great experience, were com- 
mitted to two young achitects, Messrs. Cornelius & Drawe. 

The area occupied by the building is 21,680 square feet ; aud the building has 
two stories and a basement. The foundations rest principally upon arches 
thrown over concrete piles sunk through the yielding peat to the solid stratum 
below. The whole expense of the building and the additional grounds pur- 
chased (over 318,100 thalers), was borne by the Prussian government. 


The broad frontage of the Georgen-strass was selected for the principal facade, 
with the main entrance for students. On the back of the large rectangle foi-m- 
ing the site, parallel to the main edifice, runs a corresponding wing, and two 
structures, connected on either side by long galleries, and in the middle by a more 
massive block of buildings containing the great lecture-theatre of the institu- 
tion. Thus two quadrangles were fonned. 

The principal front of the institution rises in two lofty stories over a massive 
basement, facing the Georgen-strass. The main entrance, consisting of three 
arched portals, is in the middle of the edifice. On the right hand corner there is 
a carriage-way leading to the quadrangles. 

On entering by one of the middle portals and ascending three granite steps, 
the imposing vaulted Vestibule is reached, which is separated from the street by 
iron gates of ornamental trellis-work, closing the portals. Half-way across the 
vestibule a flight of aine steps, extending across the entire breadth of the hall, 
leads to the Coiridor on the main floor. The construction of this splendid open 
vestibule Avas an architectural necessity, the Municipal Board of Works in Berlin 
not permitting the projection of steps into the street more than two feet. 

The more important rooms of the institution are in the first or main story. 
The corridor above referred to extends through the entire length of the front 
building, being lighted in part from the staircase, and in part from three large 
windows appropriately situated. 

The Ground Floor. The branch of the corridor on the right of the vesti- 
bule leads to a large glass door opening on a flight of steps which descends to 
the carriage-way, thus forming a communication between the ground floor and 
the quadrangles with the several wings that surround them. From this branch 
of the corridor, access is had to two rooms very near the carriage-way, viz : a 
small lecture-theatre for special lectures, and their recapitulations or reviews to 
be held by the assistants of the institution ; and between this and the vestibule 
a special room for the lectures, as well as for the preparation of the experiments 
for the lectures. Being between the two entrances, these rooms are selected for 
these uses on account of their accessibility, being reached by students not work- 
ing in the laboratory, without in any way interfering with the general business 
of the institution, while a great majority of the practical students are working 
in the first floor above, and have therefore only to descend the principal staircase. 

The branch of the corridor extending from the left of the vestibule, leads to 
three important laboratories, opening into one another, which are fitted up for 
smelting operations on a large scale, involving the use of wood, coal, or coke. 
For this purpose the walls adjacent are traversed by a succession of flues for the 
several furnaces set up in the rooms. All these rise vertically to the height of 
about sixty feet, affording as great a draught as can be required. These rooms 
are so ample in their dimensions, however, as to be available for many other op- 
erations besides smelting ; one of them, for instance, contains the large press of 
the laboratory, and another the steam-boiler, supplying the institution with dis- 
tilled water, and heating, by means of pipes rising through the ceiling, the dry- 
ing-ovens in the gallery on the first floor. In these rooms all the experiments 
made under great pressure are performed ; for which special arches are let into 
the walls, provided with strong iron doors for the protection of the manipulator 
in case of explosion. The third room, in addition to the doors communicating 
with the corridor and the middle room, has a third door, leading into the Collon- 
nade for open air work nearly one hundred feet in length. 


This colonniidc receives air and light through seven gi'eat arches, the middle 
one of ■which leads to a double flight of steps, descending to the quadrangle. This 
hall has all the requisites for chemical work, such as .gas, water, etc., whilst three 
recesses in the partition wall serve to carry away such vapors as arc to he avoided 
even in open air. The colonnade, in addition to the main staircase, has a spiral 
one uniting it with the first floor. 

On the landing, directly opposite the main entrance, and visible from the 
street, is the entrance to the Great Lecture Theatre. This hall differs fi-om that 
at Bonn by being much higher, rising through the two stories of the building, to 
an elevation of not less than 37 feet. 

In direct communication with this theatre arc the rooms for preparing the 
lectures and that containing the scientific collections of the institution. The 
Preparation Laboratory proper is accessible from the theatre by two doors, one on 
either side of a large niche behind the mid.lle of the lecture table. This room is 
amply provided with all the requisites for chemical manipulation, and is well 
lighted, and has a flight of steps communicating with both the quadrangle and 
basement. It has also several other doors by means of which access is easy to 
the corridor, the waiting-room, the instrument-room, and the Great Museum for the 
Scientific Collections of the I)istitution, the latter being a magnificent hall 60 feet 
long and 25 broad, the arched roof of which is supported by iron columns. 

The architecture of this museum suggests a division, of the collections into 
three ; minerals, rocks, and metallurgical products, occupying one section ; the 
chemical collection proper, another; and models, drawings, diagrams, etc., the 
third. The specimens in the museum can be transmitted direcQy to the lecture 
theatre by means of a small truck, of the same height as the lecture table, run- 
ning on wheels with India-rubber tires. There are several other rooms on this 
floor, which it is not necessary to enumerate and describe specifically, being ap- 
plied to uses connected with the main object, and made convenient in their outfit, 
and accessible. 

The First Floor. As has been stated, the first floor contains the most im- 
portant rooms for manipulation, for only by this arrangement could the requisite 
amount of light be secured. The first room reached is the sj^acious Operation 
Room, lighted by the three middle windows of the front fa9ade, and communi- 
cating on the right and left with two magnificent Laboratories, having a row of 
colossal windows on each side. The first of these laboratories is intended for be- 
ginners, the other for more advanced students. Each of them has ample space 
for 24 students, and is capable of accommodating a greater number if required. 
These rooms are most completely provided with all the requisites for Avork ; in 
all the window pillars are evaporation niches, the flues of which communicate 
with the open air by chimney-pots, concealed behind the pillars of the attic run- 
ning along the roof of the building. The walls of the laboratories are also traversed 
by flues, ventilating the large recesses here provided for fitting up lengthy pieces 
of apparatus. 

From the great working laboratories for the beginners and advanced students 
branch out two galleries, nearly 100 feet long by 12 wide, one of which lies over 
the thoroughfare, and the other over the colonnade for open air work, each 
lighted by seven large windows. These galleries are not only useful as means of 
communication with the first floor and the apartments of the cross wing, but also 
for a variety of purposes requiring an amount of light which could not be other- 
wise secured. 

Among the rooms which it is not easy to locate and specify, by a simple de- 


Bcription, but connected with the operations prosecuted on this floor, are a Library, 
Laboratories for Ftisions and Ignitions, a Balance Room, a Laboratory for Scientific 
Research, a Gas Analysis Laboratory, a Photometric Room, a Private Laboratory, Coni' 
bustion Room, etc. 

Thk Basement. The basement contains also a large number of rooms de- 
voted to the objects of the institution ; such as the laboratories for medico-legal 
investigations and physiological research, a room for the rougher operations for 
the lectures, a repository for chemicals, store rooms, coal cellars, wash-rooms, 
and household cellarage for the director's residence. 


The principal fa9ade, in the Greorgen-S trass e, is of brick ; all the ornaments 
are terra-cotta from the celebrated works of March, of Charlottenburg. The 
ground floor is six feet above the level of the street and eighteen feet from floor 
to ceiling. The first or upper story has the same altitude ; and the attic story, 
together with the ballustrade crowning the roof, is 10| feet high. The whole 
building has, therefore, an elevation of 52^ feet above the level of the street; and 
the length upon this street is 1342- feet. 

The angles between the arches of the windows furnish spaces for fourteen 
medallions of large size to exhibit in relief a number of portraits of celebrated 
chemists. -As these are set at a height of eighteen feet from the street, it was 
necessary to make the likenesses over life size, the modeling of which was en- 
trusted to the sculptor, Mr. W. "Wolff, from whose models the medallions will be 
executed in terra-cotta by Messrs. March of Charlottenburg. 

The selection of the persons thus to be distinguished, was entrusted by the 
architect to Prof. Hoffman ; but as he desired the advice of others. Professors 
Dove, du Bois-Reymond, Gustav Magnus, Poggendoi-iF, Rammelsberg, Riess, 
and Gustav Rose, all members of the physico-mathematical class of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences, gave this question their joint consideration. At a meet- 
ing, held March 1, 1866, it was, in the first place, decided that it would be 
best to honor the present leaders of chemical science by placing their busts in 
the entrance hall of the institution, and to dedicate the monumental medallions 
of the fa9ade exclusively to the great teachers of the past. After considerable 
discussion, the following list was, with unanimity, ultimately adopted : 

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, - - - 

Karl Wilhelm Scheele, . - - - 

Henry Cavendish, _ . - . 

Joseph Priestly, - - - . - 

John Dalton, - - - - - 

Claude Louis Berthollet, - - . - 

Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac, _ - - 

Humphrey Davy, - - ' - 

Jacob Berzelius, - - - - - 

Eilhard Mitscherlich, , . . . 

Martin Heinrich Klaproth, . . _ 

Hcinrich Rose, - ' _ 

Leopold Gmelin, - ' - 

Charles Gerhardt, - - 

Auguste Laurent, - - 

The- two last named chemists, united during their life time by ties of friend- 
ship, and having laid the foundation of the chemical views of the present day by 
their joint labors, are framed in the same medallion. 



































The first step towards realizing the long-cherished idea of founding an Aqua- 
rium on an extensive scale in Berlin, was taken July 8, 1867, when a joint-stock 
company, formed for this purpose, held its first meeting, when, chiefly through 
the exertions of a wealthy merchant of Berlin, F. Stehlschmidt, the sum of 
200,000 Prussian dollars was raised. Of the many plans submitted, the one by 
the architect, Wilhelm Luer, was accepted. The eminent zoologist, Dr. Alfred 
Brehm, was entrusted with the technical and scientific superintendence of the 
building, and the work was commenced at once. Great and manifold were the 
difficulties encountered in this undertaking. From the Ilartz and the Thcerin- 
gien mountains, from the banks of the Rhine and the valley of the Aar, from the 
mines of Silesia and Saxony the materials had to be brought, for all the pillars, 
vaults and walls of the building were to be of genuine specimens of various rocks 
and minerals to the exclusion of all artificial imitations. Great technical difficul- 
ties also presented themselves in ventilating, heating and lighting the edifice ; 
but by the indefatigable efforts of the men superintending the building, and by 
the thoroughness and eminent skill of the best technicians of Berlin employed in 
the work, all these difficulties were successfully overcome, and in the month of 
May, 1 869, the establishment was opened to the public. 

The aquarium proper occupies only a portion of the building, which covers an 
area of 13,650 square feet. It contains no less than 118 cages, reservoirs, and 
ponds, for the reception of the different animals ; the length of the galleries is 
r780 feet, and their height varies from 15 to 17 feet, the open aquaria holds 6,000 
cubic feet of water, and the reservoirs 13,220; 2,000 persons can, at' one time, 
without being inconveniently crowded, visit the institution. The number of 
specimens of living animals already now very large, is constantly being increased, 
and will soon reach 40,000, the highest number contemplated. 

The building is located on the corner of Schadow street, and that magnificent 
thoroughfare, " Unter den Linden." After having mounted a massive staircase 
the visitor enters through a glass-door, the desert or serpent's gallery, a broad and 
lofty hall, the walls of which are occupied by the cages with serpents and other 
amphibious animals. These cages are all very large, and convey as far as possi- 
ble a faithful idea of the localities in which the various animals are found. ■ Here 
are to be seen harmless European snakes as well as the rattle-snake, the moccasin- 
snake, the boa-constrictor, and many other varieties. This gallery opens into a 
ravine 31 feet broad and 55 feet high, called the geological grotto, whose walls, in a 
hitherto unsurpassed manner, form an exact representation of the different geo- 
logical layers of the earth's surface, all composed of genuine specimens ; a cas- 
cade, whose foaming waters tumble over the moss and fern-grown rocks forms 
the back ground of this fairy-grotto ; the visitor mounts a balcony, from which an 
excellent view of the romantic scene below may be obtained ; parrots and other 
birds of brilliant plumage are resting on the projecting rocks, or on the branches 
of the many tropical trees, and down among the rocks at the bottom of the cliff 
turtles have their home. A broad stone-staircase of ten steps leads from the 
geological grotto to the primeval forest of the tropics ; in the centre of this hall 
is a magnificent cage of airy wire-work 28 feet high and 44 feet in diameter; 
more than 1,200 birds, amongst the rest 25 varieties of parrots inhabit this cage; 
round about there is a broad and high walk of natural rock, in the clefts of which 
there are cages, reservoirs, and small ponds. There is an alligator-pond with ten 
alligators, a turtle-pond, a reservoir for nest-building, fishes and cages with 


sweet-singing birds, cages with flying squirrels, deser^^lice, eagles, and monkeys. 
On leaving this hall a wide perspective opens, and we enter the polar or arctic 
grotto, after having passed through the fresh-ioater grotto, inhabited by fresh- 
water fish and singing birds. There murmuring streams of water arc flowing 
between the rocks. From this grotto we descend a spiral staircase to the bottom 
of the great ocean. On our Avay thither we pass reservoirs .in the rocky walls, 
representing the different kinds of pisciculture, with illustrations of the French 
system, KufFs system, and Brehm's system. Before entering the large ocean 
aquarium we pass the beaver-pond, where some beavers are building their artifi- 
cial structures. In the basins of a long gallery of natural rock we see all those 
fishes which belong to fresh-water, but which, at certain times of the year, go out 
into the ocean ; then follows a large number of reservoirs illustrating the plants 
and animals of the different seas, first the North sea, then the Baltic-reservoir, 
and in the centre an immense aquarium representing the Atlantic ocean with its 
bays and gulfs ; through a narrow entrance called the Strait of Gibralter, we 
reach the last of the series, the Mediterranean reservoir. — Uher Land und Meer. 

Elementary and Technical Education for England. 

The result of an examination of the great industrial districts of France, 
Switzerland, and Germany, and of the technical institutions which supply them 
with engineers and foremen, and of the public schools which give to all the 
workmen, in most prosperous sections, a good elementary education, Mr. Sam- 
uelson, in his Letter on Technical Education, embodies as follows : 

First, as to Elemental Education. Let no child under 12 be allowed to work 
until it can read and write. Make it the duty of every parent to see that its 
children have the means of elementary instruction. 

Encourage elementary schools by special grants to establish advanced classes. 

Assist the pupils of elementary schools who have shown remarkable ability to 
continue their education in a superior school. 

Secondly, as to Technical Education. Give a thoroughly scientific training to a 
small number of young men to qualify them as professors of science. Supple- 
ment local efforts to establish or to extend secondary or superior scientific schools, 
by building grants, and by the endowment or partial endowment of professor- 
ships. Let one condition of assistance to a scientific school be, that a perfecting 
school {(foiibildwigsschule) shall be affiliated to it; and of the endowment of a 
professorship, that the professor shall teach in the perfecting school. 

Mr. Samuelson evidently favors the. introduction of the superior mental train- 
ing of the gymnasium into the preparation of pupils for the polytechnic schools, 
as well as a larger infusion of literature into the Gewerbe Schulen. Li speaking ' 
of the Gewerbe Schule of Barmen, in "Westphalia : 

It has about 200 pupils, five-sixths of whom leave the school at the end of 
three years (in the second class), to enter into some industrial or mercantile oc- 
cupation, the other sixth remain and generally go from the school to a Polytech- 
nic institution, not unfrequently serving a short apprenticeship of one or two 
years, in a workshop, between the termination of their school career, and their 
entrance upon the course of higher instruction. The third and fourth classes, 
forming the lower school at Barmen, include French, history, and geography, 
arithmetic, algebra, natural philosophy, geometry, and drawing. These studies 
are continued in the second class, with the addition of chendstry, and tl:e exten^ 
sion of drawing to machine details. In the first class, mineralogy, building, con- 
struction, and mechanics, theoretical and applied, and practical work in the shop, 
are added. 

Mr. Samuelson does not favor the system of apprenticeship schools on the 
part of the government. " They fall properly within the province of benevolent 
individuals and societies, and their success will depend on the judgment with 
which they are organized and superintended." ^...^ 



The Kingdom of Saxony, on an area of 6,777 English square 
miles, in 1864 had a population of 2,343,994, of which number 
1,248,677 were engaged in mechanical and manufacturing industries, 
559,013 in agriculture, and 172,946 in commerce. 

The total annual expenditure of the government of the Kingdom 
of Saxony during the financial period 1863-66, amounted to 12,356,- 
352 thalers, of which sum about 300,000 thalers were expended 
in public instruction, independent of all local expenditure, which 
amounted to abou^ 1,000,000 thalers. A system of public instruc- 
tion in Saxony has been in operation since 1580, and under its benef- 
icent influence there has grown up a precious national inheritance of 
school habits, which now secures the regular attendance of all chil- 
dren of the legal school age, at some school, public or private, and 
furnishes the higher institutions of learning, and the numerous 
special schools of agriculture, architecture, commerce, mming, and 
other industries, with well-prepared quota of students. Mr. Mun- 
della, member of parliament, and large employer of laborers in 
England and Saxony, in a recent speech in Nottingham (his place of 
residence), said that he had never found a native born Saxon who 
could not read and write. 

The institutions of public instruction, administered by the minister 
of education and ecclesiastical affaks, are as follows ; 

1. Primary Scfiook. Of these there were in 1867, 1,976 schools, with 3,996 
teachers, and 400,229 scholars (199,446 boys, and 2,783 girls); 93 Sunday 
schools, designed to complete the elementaiy education, ^vith 7,024 scholars ; 
and 80 schools for poor children in cities. • 

2. Secondary Schools. There were in 1868, 9 gymnasia, ^vith 2,066 scholars, 
and 159 teachers; 7 gymnasia with real-classes, with 1,440 scholars, and 166 
teachers; 3 real-schools and progymnasia combined, with 874 scholars, and 54 
teachers; 3 real-schools, with 1,183 scholars, and 55 teachers; making a total of 
22 secondary schools, with 5,563 scholars, and 434 teachers. 

3. Supe)-ior Schools. The University at Leipsic, in 1867-68 had 111 professors, 
and 1,190 students (297 theology, 362 law, 181 medicine, 350 philosophy and 



4. Special and Professional Schools. 

3 Public commercial schools, with 177 scholars. 
15 Commercial schools for apprentices. 

1 Commercial school for young ladies, with 112 pupils, and 9 teachers. 
I Polytechnic school, at Dresden, with 360 students, and 28 teachers; 

and connected with this school there is a modeling and ornamental 

drawing school, with 16 scholars. 
1 Higher industrial school, at Chemnitz, with 225 pupils, and 19 teachers. 

Connected with this school there is 1 royal work-masters' school, with 

82 ischolars, and 10 teachers. 
5 Baugewerkenschulen (architectural schools for masons and carpenters^, 

with 548 pupils, and about 20 teachers. 
1 Higher weaving school, at Chemnitz, with 33 pupils, and 4 teachers. 
1 Academy of forestry and agriculture, with 13 teachers, and 91 students. 
1 Agricultural academy, with 38 students. 
1 Mining academy, with 13 professors, and 51 students. 

1 School for practical miners, with about 60 pupils. 

2 Mining schools, with 64 pupils. 

2 Stenographic institution, with 130 pupils. 

1 Normal school for training teachers in gymnastics, with 10 teachers, 

and a varying number of pupils. 
1 Royal military school, with 124 scholars. 

1 Royal veterinary school, with 39 students, and 9 teachers. 

4 Nautical schools (for pilots on the Elbe), with 60 to 70 pupils. 

2 Music schools, with about 80 pupils. 

7 Weaving schools, with about 550 pupils. 

2 Fringe-making schools, with about 300 pupils. 

1 Tailors', or Mode academy, with 38 pupils, and 5 teachers. 

3 Straw-working schools. 

30 Lace-making and embroidering schools. 

2 Schools for deaf mutes, with 208 pupils, and 28 teacners. 

2 Schools for the blind, one with 128 pupils, at Dresden, and a prepara- 
tory school, at Hubertsburg, with 17 pupils. 

2 Academies of fine arts, one at Dresden, founded in 1705, with 136 stu- 
dents, and a second, at Leipsic, founded in 1764, with 100 pupils. 

2 Academies of arts. / 

1 Conservatorio of music, with 146 students, and 14 teachers. 
12 Teachers' seminaries, ^ith 1,177 students, and 164 teachers. 


As preparing for a higher technical career, we will notice, first, a 
class of schools which belong also to the general system of public in- 

I.— Object. 

These schools may be said to correspond to the American or English 
High Schools, so far as the latter are designed for a good general edu- 
cation, with the exception of the classical department. Here flock 
together all those who want an education superior to that which is ac- 
quired in the elementary schools and are not destined for the university ; 
e. g., such as wish to be officers in the postal or custom service, or archi- 
tects, farmers, engineers, or artists, in order to pursue a higher course 
in one of the professional academies, and all such as desire to enter 
business life with a cultivated mind. It should be understood that the 
graduate of a gymnasium (college) is by no means prevented from 
entering the polytechnic school, the academy for miners, the academy for 
foresters and farmers, and the academy of arts ; but, for this purpose, the 
"Real School is to be preferred, because mathematics and modern languages 
are more particularly attended to, whilst in the gymnasium the English 
is not obligatory, and in some colleges mathematics and French are con- 
sidered of less importance, and treated accordingly. In Freiberg and 
Tharand the graduate of a gymnasium is at once admitted ; the gradu- 
ate of a Real School conditionally, if he has a good record in mathe- 

2. — Number and Location. 

There are seven Real Schools in Saxony, each with a large number 
of pupils; in all, 1,892 pupils, and 105 teachers in the last year. The 
schools in Dresden, (2,) in Leipsic, and Chemnitz are city schools, and 
supported by the municipalities ; the last mentioned with a state grant. 
In Annaberg, Plauen, and Zittau are royal schools; the two latter joined 
to the gymnasium ; the first mentioned, as well as that in Chemnitz, com- 
bined with a pro-gymnasium of three classes. The Royal School in 
Annaberg, with 13 teachers, (salaries: 1,200, 800, 900,800, 700 
thalers, etc) and 220 pupils, expended, in 1866, 8,482 thalers, and re- 

* Prepared for the Commissioner of Education by Dr. Hermann Wimmer, Dresden, 
19 289 


ceived from tne state 5,200 thalers. The Real School in Neustadt, 
Dresden, with 16 teachers, expends yearly 12,500; the other in Dres- 
den, 10,000; that in Leipsic, (the first in Saxony, founded 1834,) with 
20 teachers, 16,600 the lers. The tuition fee in Leipsic and Chemnitz 
is 20-30, in Dresden 30-36 thalers. 

The regulation of 1860, which caused a greater uniformity in those 
schools of a comparatively new date, and formerly of a different char- 
acter, requires six classes, (the pupil to have completed his 10th year,) 
establishes a maturitdts examination prescribing the needed require- 
ments, and gives the approved graduates the right to enter without 
further examination the above-named academies, or to enter the post 
ofiice, custom house or telegraph office. At this examination the prin- 
cipal of the polytecbnic school presides. 

3. — Classes and Plan of Instruction. 

Of the six classes the lower are generally crowded, and therefore 
divided into parallel classes, since the regulation does not allow more 
than 40 pupils in one class. Thus, the 5th class in Chemnitz has four 
parallel classes with about 30 pupils in each, the 4th of three, the 6th and 
3d of two parallel classes, whilst the first class has 13 and the second 
15 pupils in all. This fact is explained by the circumstance that for 
most pupils the Ileal School is the highest school they attend before 
entering, at their fourteenth year of age, on their commercial or techni- 
cal apprenticeship, whilst the small number of pupils in the highest 
classes consists only of such as wish to enjoy the benefits of the exami- 
nation as graduates, most of them with the intention of continuing their 
education in the professional academies, except the university. For 
our purpose, therefore, it will be sufficient to point out the studies of 
the highest class, which may best show the attainments of a graduate of 
these schools. 

First or highest class, (in Chemnitz :) 

Religion^ 2 hours a week. 

German, 5 hours.— a. History of literature; read two dramatic pieces of 
Schiller and Lessinor. h. Rhythm and the various kinds of poetry ; practical 
exercises, c. Review of the compositions written by the pupils once a month. 
d. Exercises in free elocution and in declamation, with a verbal criticism made 
by the pupils. 

French. 4 hours.— Grammar finished ; read the Arare of Moliere ; free compo- 
sitions ; extemporalia ; exercises in speaking. 

English, 3 hours. — a. Read Shakspeare's Julius Caesar, Dickens' Christmas 
Carol, b. Grammar, c. Exercises in writing; a composition every third week, 
and an extemporale weekly ; exercises in speaking. 

History, 2 hours. — Modern history ; review of the history of ancient times and 
middle ages. 

Geography, 3 hours. — a. political ; Western Asia, Africa and Germany, (polit- 
ically and physically.) h. Mathematical ; the apparent and real movements of the 
celestial bodies ; the solar system and the fixed stars. 


Natural Uistory, 1 hour. — Mineraloory. 

Chemistry, 3 hours. — Review and further study of inorganic chemistry, with 
particular reference to metals and their associations. 

Natural Philosophy^ 2 hours.— Mechanics ; some parts of the theory of light. 

Arithmetic, 4 hours. — Logarithms reviewed and continued ; application of the 
same to numerical accounts ; use of hiil/stvinkd and Gauss^ Table ; equations of the 
2d and 3d degree; algebraic functions; general qualities and approximate solu- 
tion of higher equations; the arithmetical and geometrical progressions, {reihen;) 
interest, rents, sinking funds, and insurance. 

Geometry, 3 hours. — Trigonometry concluded; stereometry; review of planim- 
etry and trigonometry. 

Surveying, 1 afternoon in summer. — Description and use of the single surveying 
implements; measuring of straight and curved lines; surveying of single and 
continuous grounds ; profiles ; drawing of plans. 

About Lati7i, the Regulative says that though very desirable for all pupils, it 
is obligatory only on such as will pass the maturitdts examination ; for all others 
facultative^ i. c, left to choice. 

The general plan of instruction, as given in the Regulative, is as follows : 

VL V. IV. III. IL r. 

, -Hours per Week to Each Study ^ 

Reliffion 4 4 3 3 2 2 

German 4 4 4 3 3-4 3-4 

Latin 6 4 3 3 3 3 

Fmiich - 6 7 4 4 4 

Fnglish - - - 4 3 3 

Giojirapliy 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Historv 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Natural Hisforv 2 2 2 2 11 

Natural Pliilosophy - - - 2 3 2 

Chcmistrv - - - - 2 3 

Arithmetic 4 4 4 2 2 1 

Algebra - - - 3 3 3 

Mathematics - - 2 3 3 3 

Drawing 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Callisiraphy.... 2 .2 1 - - - 

Singing 1 1 1 1 1 1 

35-3G 36-37 36 33 33 29 

Gymnastics 2 2 2 2 2 2 

Gymnastics are considered as recreation. 



1 . — Number and Location. 

There are three public commercial schools in Saxony — in Leipsic 
since 1831, in Chemnitz since 1848, and in Dresden since 1854 — all 
founded by the Merchants' Associations of the respective towns. They 
belong, like all the following technical schools, except the two acade- 
mies in Frieberg and Tharand, to the Home Department, and the two 
former receive an annual supply to their expenses (rt) of 1,560 thalers, 
(b) of 800 thalers, with an additional supply of 200 thalers from 
the city funds. The annual expenditure was, in 1802, Leipsic, 12,- 
000; Chemnitz, 56,000; Dresden, 12,000 th. : in Dresden, entirely 

I. Re^itlatio f&r die Ruatschulen im K. Sarkscn. Dresden, IS6'J ; '2. ^rngrammevort Neustadt, 
Dresden, of 1867; 3. Pros^am-niR von Chemnitz, 1S67, 1866, and n\ 1864; 4. Plan of Lessons in 
the Real School ai Neust.iclt. Dresden. 


covered by the income of school-money, which amounted in 1866 to 

17,617 th., with a surplus of 1,075 th. over the expenses. 

The terms in Dresden are 120 th., or £18, for the first year; 100 th., 

or £15, for each of the succeeding years; in Leipsic, 150, 120, 100 

th., and in Chemnitz 80 thalers. Each pupil must remain at least one 


2. — Plan of Instruction. 

The commercial schools prepare their pupils for entrance into practi- 
cal business life, and have in view their complete preparatory training 
for mercantile pursuits in a course of three years. 

The plan of instruction is as follows : 

in. ir. I. 

First Year. Second Year. Third Year. 

Commercial science and law 12 3 

Political economy - - 2 

Book-keeping — merchants' accounts 1 2 2 . 

Correspondence - 2 2 

Commercial arithmetic 5 3 2 

Mathematics 3 3 2 

Natural history 3 _ _ 

Natural philosophy — 3 _ 

Mechanical technics - - 2 

Chemistry.... ,.., - - " 2 

Raw material of trade ..* - - 1 

Geography and statistics 2 2 2- 

History 2 2 2 

German language and literature 4 3 3 

English language and correspondence 4 4 4 

French " " " 444 

Italian, (not obligatory) - 2 2 

Calligraphy 2 1 - 

Drawing 2 2 2 

In the upper classes English and French are taught by natives. The 
collections of the school consist of a library, maps, apparatus, and sam- 
ples of goods. 

3. — Pupils. 

The number of pupils in Dresden was_, at Easter, 1867, 68, of which 
there were 25 foreigners^ (6 from Norway, 1 Sweden, 6 Russia, 2 France, 
2 England, 4 Holland, 2 Italy, etc. ;) in Leipsic 56, at Easter, 1865, 
(16 foreigners;) in Chemnitz, 1867, 53. 

The pupils visited in the course of the year many different factories 
in the neighborhood. 

In connection with these three higher commercial schools there are 


Besides the three schools, there are twelve more in other towns of 
Saxony. Though belonging to a lower class of schools, to be men- 
tioned below, they cannot well be separated from the higher commer- 


cial scliools, because they have the same board of trustees, members of 
the Merchants' Association, the same teachers, and the same objects in 
view, though differing in degree and the time given to the several 

The pupils have to pay in Leipsic 18, in Chemnitz 24, in Dresden 36 
thalers, if they are sons of members of the corporation ; if not, in 
Leipsic 24, in Dresden 36 thalers. The number of pupils in all three 
schools was 349, who are taught in 10-14 hours a week, (in Ldpsic, 
7-8, or 8-9, and 2-3,) in three classes of as many years. 

The plan of studies in Leipsic is as follows : 

IN. n. I. 

First Year. Second Year. Third Year. 

German language 2 11 

English language - - 2 2 

French language 2 2 2 

Merchants' accounts 3 2 2 

Commercial science. - 1 1 

Book-keeping, &c - 1 1 

Cornspondence - - 1 

Geography 11- 

Calligraphy 2 - - 

10 • 10 10 

The character of these schools is everywhere the same, though, of 
course, the three which are joined to the higher commercial schools 
enjoy greater advantages. I may mention that in Freiberg, where 
there is a separate school for apprentices in mercantile business, the ex- 
penditure of the last year was 1,921 thalers, except the expenses for 
the library and premium funds. 


A commercial school was established in 1863 for young ladies who 
are more than 14 years old, and wish to acquire the knowledge needed 
for business life, (commerce, post office, telegraphing, etc.) It received 
from its beginning aid from the state of several hundred thalers a year, 
and a like sum from the town of Leipsic. so that 24 free and half-free 
scholarships could be established. Until Easter, 1867, it had in all 242 
female pupils; at present, 112 mfive classes, with nine teachers. The 
tuition fee is 36-48 thalers annually, and is now double what it was 


a. Public Commercial School, ^'C, in Leipsic : 1. Statutcn von 1830, p. 12; 2. Prospectus, 
186B; .3. M?7/Aer/wng:en, (cnminuiiicatioiis,) t)on Dr. 0'c9»iann, p. 23, 1805 ; 4. Haussregulatio 
for I. (liiglH'r.) abHieilung, 1867 ; 5. Sections plan for I, (liiglier,) abtheilung, 1866; 6. Sections 
planficr die II, abtheilung, 1868. 

b. Ful)licCominf:rciaI School in Dres(l<M) : 7. Projiratniiie. p. 55, 1867 ; 8. Dresden Comnicrciiil 
School, Eiifilisli nnd Dutch, 1^67; 9. 2 Sections plan iU'- I and U, 1837. 

c. Public Commercial School in Cliemnitz : 10. Programme, p. 28, 1837; 11. 2 Prospecte 
von I and U, 1867 ; 12. 2 Disciplinar (rules of di>-icipliiie) vorsckriftenfUr I and II, 18G7. 


in 1864. The course embraces two years, with 18-24 lessons a week, 
given from nine to twelve and three to six daily, and comprises all the 
branches taught in a commercial school, (German, French, Eng- 
lish, commercial arithmetic, book-keeping, correspondence, commercial 
science, political economy, commerce, history and geography, orna- 
mental drawing, etc.) Besides, there is a course in stenography, and 
a French club from 6 to 8 on two evenings for practice in French con- 
versation. It is not obligatory to join these two courses, and an extra 
charge is made. The French conversation in the club is conducted by 
a lady. Of the 242 ladies who passed through the course in the school 
during the first four years, 47 were 20-33 years old ; the rest, 14-19. 
Many of them found employment when leaving the school. 

Since the establishment of that school two more have sprung up, in 
Dresden, formed by a teacher of the Commercial School, and in Chem- 
nitz founded by the Trades' Union; but they rank more with the 
evening schools, (for continuing education,) to be mentioned hereafter. 
The school in Dresden has 10-12 pupils, who have to pay 24 thalers a 
year, and are instructed seven hours a week: in arithmetic, two; Ger- 
man, two; calligraphy, one; book-keeping, two; and commercial sci- 
ence^ one. 

1 . — Origin-^ Receipts — Stipends . 

The Royal Polytechnic School was established in 1828*, called then 
the Technical Institution, with 11 teachers, all of whom were also em- 
ployed in other institutions of Dresden. But its growth was so rapid, 
especially after its present building had been erected (see annual .report 
of 1864-65) in 1846— for which the legislature had granted 70 000 tha- 
lers — that, in 1851, under the present excellent principal, Professor 
Hiilsse, it received its present name, and in 1853 had twenty-one teach- 
ers, most of whom belonged exclusively to the school. 

Now it has 28 teachers, 17 of them bearing the title professor, (Schu- 
bert, Geinity, Schneider, etc.,) beside nine subalterns, with 376 stu- 

The Polytechnic School is under the immediate control of the Home 

1. Prospectus of the Commercial School for young ladies in Leipsic; 2. Report of the 
school; Easter, 1807; pp. 14-23. 

* There existed before that time in Saxony the Academy of Arts since 1764, (its " Indus- 
trial S.chool" was separated in 1828, and established as the Technical School ;) the Mining 
Academy, in Freiberg, since 1766, and the Forest Academy in TharamJ, 1816. Betojc that 
time Polytechnic Schools existed in Germany : in Prague, 1806; in Vienna, 1815; in Berlin, 
1825 ; in Carlsruhe, (Baden.) 1825 ; iu Nuremberg and Munich, 1825. 


Department, and has a yearly income of 30,200 thalers, of which 23,000 
are received from the State, and the rest paid by the students in tuition 
fees. The latter sum would amount to 2,068 thalers more, if it waa 
not released to the poorer students. The expenses for teachers amount 
to 20,054 thalers; for the library, etc., 5,952 thalers, and other ex- 
penses, 4,552 thalers. 

The value of the library, of more than 10,000 volumes, and of the 
fifteen collections, is estimated at 65,000 thalers, and these are contin- 
ually growing, since the state pays annually for the library 1,350 tha- 
lers, and for the increase of the collections 3,000 thalers and more. 
For obtaining a correct estimate of the library, there is made, at the 
end of each year, a deduction of 5 per cent. 

The students have to pay 40 thalers a year, or 20 for each course of 
six months. Those who wish to attend the lessons only in one or sev- 
eral branches of instruction may be admitted and pay accordingly, viz : 
2 thalers annually for any one lesson a week; 10 thalers for construct- 
ing machines; 20 thalers for the practical exercises in surveying; 8 
thalers for one, 32 thalers for four or more, in exercises in the labora- 
tory. All that are not Saxons have to pay one-half more, i. e. , 60 tha- 
lers annually for the full course. 

This pay was released in the last year to 73 students, amounting to 
2,068 thalers. Nine students received out of state funds 842 thalers. 
From the various funds established in recent times by benefactors, 36 
students received together 1,610 thalers in the last year. Besides, one 
student, who had completed his studies, received 200 thalers for further 
improvement, either by travelling or studying in any university. The 
same person may have this grant for several years of not less than 100 
nor more than 300 thalers. This fund for " travel stipends " was 
founded 1853 by the professors of the school, and is growing fast by 
public lectures given by them for this purpose, and by private gifts. 

2. — Organization of Studies. 

The Polytechnic School is divided into two departments, the lower of 
which, called the general course, prepares for the professional depart- 
ments, and extends over three terms, each of six months. To enter the 
lowest class the aspirant must be at least sixteen years old, and must 
have either completed the full course in a real school or gymnasium, 
or of the third class in the Industrial School in Chemnitz, or show in an 
examination the same acquirements. This examination embraces, in 
mathematics, planimetry, stereometry, trigonometry, and equations of 
the third degree ; experimental philosophy; geometrical drawing, and 


the elements of projection. The candidate may enter a higher class if 
showing the needed attainments. 

This general course has two classes, the lower of one " semester," the 
upper of two, five or one year, in all eighteen months. The plan of 
studies here will be easily understood from the studies in the following 
classes, and from the required attainments on admission. 

The professional course is divided into four sections: 

A. The Mechanic-Technical School, for constructing machines, etc. 

B. The Engineer School, for surveying, and for building railroads, 
bridges, etc. 

C. The Chemical School. 

D. The school for training teachers of mathematics, natural philoso- 
phy and technical branches. 

According to the plan of organization, the course of studies, and the 
hours for work to each study in each class, are as follows : 

Section A. — Mechanical Engineering. 


First Year. Second Year, Third Year. 

Higher mathematics 4-2 

" mechanics - 4 - 

Doctrine of " solidity " (/e5%A;ez^) - 4 wi. - 

Doctrine of machines 6 4 2 

Drawing and designing of machines 6-8 16 20 

Mechanical technology 4 3-4 3-4 

Hydraulics - 4 su. - 

Exercises in sketching 2-4 - . - 

Higher physics - - 2 

Mineralogy and petrography 4 - - 

Architecture (B) 2 - - 

Architectural drawing (B) 4 - - 

Political economy - - 4 

Elements of philosophy, short history of ph., 

logic, aesthetics, psychology - - 2 

History of literature 2 2- 

Section B. — Civil Engineering. 

Besides higher mathematics, higher mechanics, doctrine of ''solidity," hy- 
draulics, mechanical technology, mineralogy and petrography, political econ- 
omy, mental philosophy, history of literature, in which the classes of the re- 
spective years' course are combined with A, the following subjects are taught 
particularly in this section ; 

III. 11. I. 

First Year. Second Year. Third Year. 

Geodesy 5 wi. 4 wi. — 

Geodesy and astronomy — — 2 wi. 

Exercises in surveying ,... 1 day. The whole September. 

Drawing of plans 2-4 wi. 4 — 

Architecture, {A with B) .' 2-4 1-2 — 

Architectural drawing, CA with B). 4-8 — — 

Construction of roads, hydraulic architecture.... .... — 4 — 

Construction of bridges — — 4 

Designing platis — 12 16 

Geognosy — 3 — 

Geognostical excursions — 1 aftern'n su. — 

Measuring exercises, (in the room) — — 4 

Higiier physics — — 2 


Section C. — Chemistry, 

Mineralojry, general doctrine of raachiues, mechanical technology, political 
economy, history of literature — A. 

Geognosy, with excursions; architecture, with drawing — B. 

III. ir. I. 

First Year. Second Year. Third Year. 

Theoretical chomistry 2 2 2 , 

Chemical tecliiiolofry 2 2 2 

Chemical exercises 3 20 20 

Section D. — For Training Teachers. 

Higher mathematics and mechanics, hydraulics, doctrine of machines, mechan- 
ical technology, mineralogy, political economy, mental philosophy — A, 

Surveying, 5 hours ; geognosy, with excursions ; higher physics — A and B. 
Chemistry, 2 hours, less exercises, with C. 

iir. n. I. 

First Year. Second Year. Third Year. 

Higher physics.... - 2 2 besides 4 with A & B. 

Physical exercises - 4 4 

Besides, there are lessons for all, who choose, in stenography, 3 hours in winter ; 
French, 2-3 hours in several classes ; English, 2-3 hours in do. ; gymnastics, 2-3 
hours in do. 

For the students of the upper classes : Stone-cutting, 2 hours, (for B ;) book- 
keeping. 2 hours in winter; banking, (bills of exchange, ) 1 hour in winter; the- 
ory of fire-esiablishments, 3-4, (for A,) {feuerungs-anlagen ;) Saxon law, 2 hours 
for 1 in all sections; excursions to important manufactories in the neighborhood. 

The students are required in the last year to make the sketch of a 
factory establishment ; they are, therefore, for the vacations, recom- 
mended to a manufactory, in order to study it and prepare for their 

At the end of the last course, all sections pass a " closing examina- 
tion," as it is called, to which all who apply for it, and want a testimo- 
nial as graduates of the Polytechnic School, are admitted. The stu- 
dents have to solve the problems given in their respective branches,* 
from 4 to 6 hours being given to each composition. Besides, they have 
to show their practical skill, by laying before the examining committee 
designs and sketches, a chemical analysis, and a physical investigation. 
Of 246 applicants from 1852 to 1867, 234 received the desired testimo- 
nial. After .this examination, if passed, the graduate has to work 
practically with an engineer^ &c., and then, with satisfactory testimonials, 
both of the Polytechnic School and its master, with whom he must have 
worked at least three years, be it continually or by intervals, he is ad- 
mitted to the state examination for engineers. Until 1867, 141 per- 

* A. — Doctrine of mechanics, mechanical technology, liiglier mailiematics and mechanics, 
higher physics. 

B. — Civil engineering, (roads, hydraulics, bridirps, architecture in general, measuring and 
astronomy, higher matlicmatics and m''chanics. higiier physics, mineralocy and geognosy.) 

('. — Theoretical chemistry, chemical teclmology, mineralogy and geognosy. 

D.— Higher matiiematics and mechanics, higher physics, me'asuringand astronomy, theoreti 
cal chemistry, mineralogy and geognosy. 


sons applied for examination, and 38 were not admitted or did not suc- 
ceed. Of the 93 who succeeded, 56 became civil engineers, 6 me- 
chanical engineers, 12 architects, (haumeister,) and 19 inspectors of the 
fire insurance, as yet chiefly a matter of government in Saxony, and so 
far obligatory on all proprietors in the kingdom, besides the many pri- 
vate fire-insurance companies here. 

The committee of the state examination consists partly of professors 
of the Polytechnic School, to whom is added the professor of architec- 
ture from the Academy of Arts, partly of practical engineers and 
architects in the highest positions in their respective professions. 

The higher architectural school (bauschule) is not joined here, as else- 
where, to the Polytechnic Institution, but to the Academy of Fine 
Arts, which is described hereafter. But the students of architecture 
in the academy have to attend the mathematical lessons in the Poly- 
technic School, if they wish to pass the said state examination for en- 
gineers and architects. Hence the professor of architecture in the 
academy is a member of the examining committee. 

Joined to the Polytechnic School is a — 

3. — Modelling and Ornamental Drawing School. 

It is intended to train (a) good modellers for the industrial branches, 
viz, for decorative forming in wood and stone ; for iron foundries, &c.; (5,) 
ornamental drawers for weaving and printing, and to give opportunity 
to get a general instruction in decorative, porcelain and plate painting, 
lithography, engraving, &c. The time of the whole course is generally 
five years, but may be shorter, if the pupil enters well prepared. For 
admission the pupil must be at least fifteen years old ; nothing but a 
good elementary education is required, though the knowledge of the 
respective trade is desired. Generally they are admitted by way of 
trial in the first course of six months. The pay is six thalers annually 
for a Saxon, and nine thalers for a foreigner. The pupils may attend 
the lessons of the Polytechnic School, and if satisfactorily prepared, 
have to attend the teachers on anatomy in the Academy of Arts, and 
in the Veterinary school. 

Of the above-mentioned 376 students, there were in the professional 
schools 134; in A, 43 ; B, 69 ; C, 18; D, 4 ; in the general course, 
141 ; for single brainches, 85, and 16 in the Ornamental Drawing 

l.'Pian of organization of tlie Polytecbnifi School, 1865, p. 67; 2. Prospect of 1867; 3. Die 
Pohjtechnische Srhule wdhrevd der erstcn 25 Jahre, von Prof, Hubse, 1853, p. 54; 4. Pro- 
piamrnes and Reports until 1867, [thirteen ;] 5. Die Baugcwerkenschule in Dresden, 1837 to, 


On the Baugewerhenschule, i, c, school for masons and carpenters, 
being no proper part of the Polytechnic School, nor in the same build- 
ing now, though under the same principal, (Professor Hiilsse,) see 

From 1852 to 1866 the closing examination in the Polytechnic 
School was attended by 246, 12 of whom received no testimonial. Of 
the 234, there belonged 70 to the Mechanical School, (A;) 117 to the 
Engineering School, (B ;) 18 to the Chemical School, (C ;) 29 to the 
section for teachers, (D.) 

Though the three academies in Dresden, Freiling, and Tharand 
come next in rank, the 


deserves a place here as being nearest related to the Polytechnic Schocd, 
though not having so high an aim. Founded in 1836, and having 
four courses, (classes,) of one year each, its object is to prepare for a 
technical or agricultural career, and may be compared to the general 
course of the Polytechnic School ; but it has two classes below the 
required attainments of the lowest class there, and wants the two highest 
classes of its professional- department. Hence the pupils are admitted 
when 14 years old, instead of 16, and the graduates of the Real Schools 
enter at once the second class, omitting the two lowest ones. To show 
the importance of this school even to the lower classes, we mention that 
of 18 boys who left the third class, i. e., the second from below, five de- 
voted themselves to agriculture, two to dyeing, one, respectively, became 
appreieur, cotton-spinner, constructor of machines, miller, brewer, 
merchant, and apothecary ; one went to a Polytechnic School, and of 
two the profession chosen was not known. 

The pupils are either full scholars or pursue only single branches of 
instruction. Full scholars have to pay 24 thalers annually ; partial 
scholars pay 2 thalers for any one-hour lesson a year ; if they attend 
three or more different lessons also, 24 thalers in all. The expenses for 
books amount to 12-15 thalers a year. There were in the last year 
225 pupils, and, besides the principal. Prof. Bottcher, 18 teachers, 5 
of them with the title of professor. It is a Royal School, and received, 
in 1862, 10,000 thalers from the state, (Home Department.) 

2. — Organization of Studies. 

The school is divided into several sections, according to the profession 
chosen by the pupils. 

Section A. — a. For Mechanical Engineering. 


Section A. — b. For Chemical Engineering ; i. e., for sugar refining, calico print- • 
ing, &c. — 4 years. 

Section B. for any Chemical business without the application of machines, as 
Boap-boiling, dyeing, coloring, &c— 3 years. The highest class corresponding to 
II of A. 

Section C, for Farming — likewise 3 years; all combined in general branches. 

There is added a course of Manufactural Drawing, [fahrikzeichnen,) in two 
classes, with 25 pupils. 

The studies in A and B being, on the whole line, the corresponding 
(see above) classes in the Polytechnic School, (the present principal of 
the latter was formerly principal in Chemnitz,) I shall point out here 
the studies of Section C, the Agricultural Section, having added that 
all who have passed through the course of the 3d class may^ without 
examination, enter the lowest class of the Polytechnic School ; from 
the 2d class they may enter the last term of the general course ; from 
the 1st class they may enter the lowest class of the professional course, 
or if practical skill is proved, the second year's course of the same, but 
at its beginning. 

Section C. — Agricultural School. 
Fourth Class or First Year : 

{a.) Common to all sections of that class. 

1. Arithmetic, 6 hours. — With Hofmann'' s Aufgahm, 1 and 2 parts; the four 
rules; interest; chain rule; involution* extracting square and cube roots ; alge- 

'braic fractions; equations with one unknown quantity. 

2. Geometry, A, \xo\xx^. — Lines; angles; area of regular polygons and of circles ; 
equality and proportion of surfaces ; contents of figures. 

3. Natural Philosophy, 6 hours in summer, 4 in winter. — With Fnsmann's Fie- 
ments of Physics. General introduction — climatology, doctrine of heat, magnet- 
ism, and electricity. 

4. Drawing, (free-hand exercises,) 6 hours. — From geometrical bodies, plaster 
models, (method of Bupuis,) with pencil or chalk, chiefly in outlines. 

5. Geometrical Drawing, 4 hours — Plain drawing, as preparing for projecting 
and mechanical drawing ; exercises in painting, with India ink. 

6. German language. 4 hours. -^ With Gotzinger's Grammar. 
(5.) Agricultural Scjaool 

T. Natural History, 4 hours in summer. — Botany, with particular regard to' such 
plants as are important to common use ; outlines of the physiology of plants. In 
winter, zoology, with outlines of anatomy and animal physiology, {mammalia.) 

Third Class or Second Year : 

[a.) With all sections. 

1. General Chemistry, 8 hours. — Inorganic chemistry ; organic chemistry ; ele- 
mentary analysis of organic bodies ; the more important vegetable and animal 
matter, as fibre, starch, sugar, organic acids and bases, oils, colors, bones, flesh, 
sugar, urine, etc. and their products of decomposition, (fermentation, distillation, 
etc.;) their quality and use ; their relation to living vegetable and animal bodies. 

2. German, 4 hours. — Two of these are grammar, and two oral and written ex- 
ercises, alternating with reading of dramatic pieces. 

(6.) Agricultural section. 

3; Arithmetic, 2 hours. — Equations, with several unknown quantities ; equations 
of the second degree; logarithms; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; 
interest on interest, etc. 

4. Geometry, 2 hours. — Plain trigonometry ; stereometry. 


5. Natural Philosophij, 2 hours. — Solid, liquid, and aerial bodies; acoustics; 

6. Botany, 4 hours in summer. — With particular regard to such wild-growing 
plants as are important for agriculture, with excursions. 

7. Zoology^ 2 hours in winter. — With particular regard to useful and injurious 

8. Mineralogy, 4 hours in winter. — Crystallography ; physical and chemical 
qualities of minerals in general ; physiography of minerals, with particular regard 
to such as are the component parts of the mould, (soil.) 

9. Knowledge of machines and technology^ 4 hours in winter. — Description of the 
chief motors and parts of mnchines, and of the manufacturing in wood and iron. 

10. Mechanical drawing, 4 hours in summer; in winter, 2 hours. — Brief de- 
scription of parallel projection ; drawing of agricultural utensils and machinery. 

11. Practical (jeon\,etry, (surveying.) — In summer, one afternoon, in several 
divisions, each consisting of 5-6 pupils. 

12. Mercantile Arithmetic, 2 hours in summer. — Explanation of the Leipsic Ex- 
change List (courszetiel ;) calculations of interest, of stocks and shares, invoice, &c. 

13. Book-keeping and Correspondence, 2 hours in summer, 4 hours in winter. — 
Theoretical and practical with regard to business concerns occurring on a farm of 
middle size, and to brewery, distillery, &c., besides topographical drawing, 
belonging to 10, combined with the II class of section A. 

Second Class or Third Year, and last in this section : 

(a.) W^ith all sections. 

1. German Language and Literature, 4 hours. — Two of them in history of litera- 
ture ; one in oral and written exercises, with records ; one in popular logic and 

(%.) Agricultural section. 

2. Physiology of Plants, 4 lessons in summer. — Anatomy of cultivated plants 
explained by microscopic illustrations ; general ph. of cultivated plants ; influence 
of soil and climate, etc.; doctrines of soil and manure; watering and draining; 
raising and propagating of plants; crossing; varieties, etc., with practical exer- 
cises. In winter — special physiology of plants; systematic description of the 
cultivated plants and of the best methods of cultivating them. 

3. Physiology of Animals, 2 lessons in summer. — Anatomy of doraestis animals. 
In winter 4 hours — general physiology of domestic animals ; cattle breeding ; the 
plastic process ; excretion of milk ; the functions of nerves and muscles ; special 
physiology of domestic animals; the specific qualities; the production of flesh, 
milk, fat, wool ; muscular power with regard to feeding ; the hoof of the horse j 
diseases of animals ; practical exercises. 

4. Farming, 4 hours. — Principles of rural economy ; capital and labor, etc.; 
requisites of farming ; organization and management of a farm ; buildings, uten- 
sils, manure; cattle breeding; agricultural book-keeping ; agricultural valuation. 

5. Agricultural Architecture, 2 hours. — Making of bricks, pipes, air and water 
cement, burning of lime, etc.; best construction of buildings, barns, stables, etc. 

6. Practical Geometry, 1 afternoon in summer — surveying of larger grounds. 
In winter — theory of field surveying. 

V. Geognosy : 2 hours in summer, with excursions. 

8. Agricultural Chemistry, 4 lessons in summer, 2 lessons in winter. — Inorganic 
and organic chemistry reviewed and completed, with particular regard to agricul- 

Besides, there are — 

Chemical Exercises with other sections, 4 in summer and 4-8 hours in winter. 

Technical Chemistry, with section B, in 2 hours ; especially on manufacturing 
of starch, sugar, vinegar, or brewing, distilling, etc. 

All pupils of the Industrial School nave opportunity to learn French, in 5 
classes, 3 lessons a week ; English, in 4 classes, 3 lessons a week ; history and 
geography. 14 hours for the 4th class, which all pupils must attend who enter not 
sufficiently prepared in these subjects. 


Joined wiih this school, and therefore to be mentioned here, is the 
so-called — 


[Formerly in Freiberg ; for the last 15 years in Chemnitz.) 

It has in view to train millwrights, makers and inspectors of wells 
and water-works, as well as fo^-emen in engine factories and spinning- 

The journeyman-pupil, on admission, must be at least 16 years old, 
and have worked two years with a master, and produce a testimonial 
from him. 

The course, consisting of three half-year classes, commences on the 
first of October and ends at Easter of the second year — -18 months. 
The pupil has to pay six thalers for six months; and poor and worthy 
pupils of the school may, as in other schools, pay nothing at all. Books 
and stationery cost about ten thalers per annum. The number of schol- 
ars amounts to 82, with 10 teachers, one of whom, with the title of pro- 
fessor, particularly belongs to this school. It received, in 1862, an 
annual supply from the state of 1,450 thalers. 

The plan of lessons is : 

in. IT. I. 

Ut H. r. 2d H. r. 3d H. T. 

Arithmetic *i - - 

Mathematics and mechanics, (logarithms, plane 

trigonometry, statics) - 8 - 

Mechanics _ _ 4 

Geometry, (stereometry) 5 - - 

Surveying-, (measuring of field and water) - 4 - 

Geometrical drawing and projection 8 - - 

.Natural philosophy and chemistry 4 2 - 

Ornamental drawing 4 - .4 

Architectural drawing - 4 - 

Mechanical drawing - 8 8 

Construction ; - 2 6 

Mechanical technology - 4 - 

Construction of mills, (for millers) - 2 2 

Spinning and weaving, (for the respective jour- 
neyman-pupils) - — ■ 4 

Construction of pipes and wells, (for conduit- 
masters) — - -4 

German 4 4 _ 

Book-keeping - _ 2 

The Royal Workmasters' School in Chemnitz has had from 1855 to 
to 1866, in all, 326 pupils, of whom there were 206 from Saxony, (25 
Chemnitz;') 55 from Thuringia, 59 from Prussia. 8 from Scbleswig- 
Holstein, 8 from Austria, 5 from Russia, 4 from Anhalt, 5 from Wur- 
tenjiberg, 3 from Lubeck, 2 from Fmnce^ 1 from Bavr»ria, 1 from Bre- 
men, 1 from America. Of thnse 326, there were 239 constructors of 
machinery, and iron workmen in iri'Mcral ; 5f2 constructors of mills, mill- 


Wrights and millers; 17 spinners, weavers, and appreteurs ; 18 of va- 
rious trades, as watchmakers, cabinet-makers^ founders, tinkers, gird- 
lers, copper-smiths, masons, stocking-manufacturers, gardeners, &c. 

The full course has been passed by 157 pupils. 

There is joined one more school to the Royal Industrial School at 
Chemnitz, a so-called 


{Architectural School for Masons and Carpenters .) 

There are five such schools in Saxony, one of them mentioned as 
being under the same management as the Polytechnic School at Dres- 
den, another joined to the Academy of Arts in Leipsic, and two inde- 
pendent ones in Plauen and Zittau. This seems to be the proper place 
to speak of this class of schools. 

These schools are intended to train good carpenters and mason mas- 
ters, and require for admission the beginning of apprenticeships at least 
for six months. 

The course embraces the time of three winters, (in Leipsic of two,) 
so4hat in summer the pupils work with their master ; only in Leipsic 
and Zittau there is a summer course established for more advanced stu- 
dents. The number of pupils in all five schools was, 1865-1866, 
548; (in Chemnitz, 109; in Zittau, 1.49, &c.) In Leipsic the average 
number in winter is 88 ; in summer, 25-30. 

The expenditure for these schools by the Home Department is, ai>- 
Bually, 7,550 thalers ; (for Leipsic, 1,850 thalers.) On the average, 
the winter-course term of a pupil costs 21 thalers, of which 171^^0 ^^^ 
paid by the state, and 3fo by the pupil. The proper pay of the pupil 
is 5 thalers for the term of six months. 

Of the 736 pupils who attended the school in Dresden in the first 25 
years, (1837-'62,) there attended 191 during one winter term, 
200 during two winter terms, 250 during three, 90 during four, and 
5 during five. 

Most of the students repeated the third course, and some, by compul- 
sion, the first or second course. 

Of the 117 pupils last winter in Dresden, there were 87 masons, 28 
carpenters, and 2 stone-cutters ; of whom 51 were journeymen, and G6 

Of the ten teachers in Chemnitz, (seven in Leipsic and Dresden,) 
one professor is exclusively employed in this school ; another professor, 
common to this and the Workmasters' School, and the rest employed in 
the Home Industrial School. 


The. plan of studies in Chemnitz is as follows : 

III. II. I. 

First W. T. Second TV. T. Third W. T. 

Arithmetic, (quadratic equations) T - - 

Geometry, (stereometry) 5 - 

National phiilosophy ... 4 - - 

Mechanics - 4 2 

German lanp:uage 4.2 2 

General architecture 4 2 - 

Architectural drawing 6 4 4 

Ornamental drawing ^ 4 4 

Projection 4 2 - 

Embossing in clay — - 3 

Modelling : - - 3 

Perspective - 2 2 

ca%°e"J;,,}-p-«-i^ { : t : 

Construction^ (continuing the course on ma- 
sonry.) — - 4 

Designing of architectural plans... — 6 8 

Estimating of the costs - — 2 

There is an examination at the close of each winter term, when the 
pupil may get a testimonial from the school of his attainments, in order 
to be admitted to the examinations for masters of architecture. 

The plan of studies in the summer term at Leipsic is : 

1. Architectural drawing, 12 lessons a week. 

2. Drawing, (free-hand practice,) 4 hours. 

3. Linear perspective, including construction of shades, &c., 4 hours. 

4. Architectural style of middle ages, 4 hours. 

5. History of architecture, with regard to masons and carpenters, 4 hours. 

6. Reviewing exercises in construction, 4 hours. 

7. Trigonometry and higher equations, with application to architecture, 4 

8. Guidance to solving problems of arithmetic and construing geometry, 4 

9. Doctrine of trade, including laws of exchange, -2 hours. 

10. German orthography and compositions, exercises in field-surveying: 4 hours. 

According to the prospectus of the school in Leipsic, an appropriate 
preparation is obtained in this school for such as wish to continue their 
scientific-technical or artistic-architectural, either in the Polytechnic 
School or in the Academy of Arts at Dresden. 

The Royal Committee of Examination for such architects as are' 
trained in the Workmasters' School, i. e., for master masons and master 
carpenters, (bauhand werker ,) Qonsists in Dresden of eight members, 
one of whom is a member of the municipality, (who presides;) one 
the chief professor of the Workmasters' School; one a master mason; 
one a master carpenter, with as many substitutes. 

Second Winter Term : 

1. The simple principles of mechanics, with the application of the same to 
architectural subjects, with exercises, 6 hours. 

2. Doctrine of construction of buildings in their stone, wood, and iron parts, 6 


3. Agricxdtitral architecture, 4 hours. 

4. Architectural drawing^ with exercises in projectino^ ground-plans, 2 hours. 

5. Doctrine of making estimates of costs, with an instruction in architectural 
law, 4 hours. 

6. Gervian, embracing correspondence with private persons and magistrates ; 
compositions and free discussion, 4 hours. 

7. Book-keeping and laws of exchange, 2 hours. 

8. Modelling and embossing in clay, 4 hours. 

Practical instruction in the Baugewerkcn does not come within the 
purpose of the institution, yet, as far as is possible in the limited time, 
there are modelling exercises for masons, carpenters, and stone-cutters 
in the workshop of the Institution during the free time and on Sundays. 

The proper course of two winter terms in Leipsic is as follows, 
(lessons, 8-12 and 2-6 :) 

First Winter Term : 

1. Arithmetic, including the elements of algebra, 6 hours a week. 

2. Descriptive Geometry, Stfreomeiry. and Rectangular Trigonometry, 4 hours. 

3. General Architecture, as introductor}- to the subject of building materials and 
implements, as well as the purposes, parts, arrangements, requisites, and deficien- 
cies of buildings, 6 hours. 

4. Drawing, both froe-hand and geomrtrical drawing, projections, with the 
principles of the construction of shadf, from models and papers, 8 hours. 

5. Architectural Drawing, for learning the needed manual skill in drawing the 
different parts of a building and constructions from papers, and after a given 
scale, 12 hours. 

6. Archifcc'iiral doctrine of forms, or drawing of the most important arch 
forms, (styles,) with illustrations on the black-board, 4 hours. 

7. GeriJian language. 4: hours. 

8. Modelling and einbossing in clay, 4 hours. 


1. — History and Object. 

The Higher Weaving School at Chemnitz was founded in 1857, and 
was so prosperous that the town of Chemnitz, assisted by the state, 
erected, in 1865, a large and convenient building for the same, at a 
cost of 26,037 thalers, the interest of which at the rate of 6 per cent., 
(1,562 thalers,) to be paid by the school to the town, (for which the 
latter is bound to keep it in order,) has been guaranteed, and thus far 
paid by the ^linister of the Interior. Before that time the state had 
given an annual grant of 500 thalers, of which 260 thalers were ex- 
pended for the hired rooms, so that 240 thalers remained for the ex- 
penditure of the school, which now must be brought up by the income 
from tuition fees. 

Documents relating to this Scliool. 
1. The Higher Industrial School at Chemnitz, proaramnie of 1867, containinn a report on the 
Workmaptcr t^chool and on the Architectural Scliool; 2. Prospectus of tiie same, iu German, 
1867; 3. Prospeetusofthe Workmastt-rs' School, 1867 ; 4. Mitlheil-ungenHberdieBausewerken- 
schule von 1837, 6/s 1862, pp. 14; 5. Annual reports on the same in the Prorrrammfs of the 
Polytechnic School, [twelve ;] 6. Plan of lessons in the Bau^ewerkcnschule at Leipsic 
[wiitun in German,! 1857 1868; 7. Prospectus of the same, [do.,] 1867-1868; 8. School laws in 
the same, [do.,] 1867-1868. 


The annual expenditure amounts to 3,000 thalers. The pupil has to 
pay for the full year's course 90 thalers ; for six months, 60 thalers. 
For patterns and the necessary weaving material he has to pay, for six 
months, 10 thalers in advance; if more be needed in that time, he has 
to supply the remainder. But the woven clothes the student receives 
as his property at the end of the course. 

The Directory consists of a member of the municipality, (at present 
the president, Adv. Schmidt,) of a professor of the Royal Workmas- 
ters' School, and two proprietors of weaving factories. 

The institution is intended to train, by scientific instruction and prac- 
tical exercises, workmasters and manufacturers for all kinds of weaving, 
as well as to impart to young men who will devote themselves to the 
manufacturing trade, either as buyers or sellers, an accurate knowledge 
of manufacturing, and thus the ability of estimating the merchandise. 
For this purpose the school has — 

a. One shaft-room, with 22 hand-looms, and all auxiliary machines 
for spooling, shearing, &c. 

h. One Jacquard-room, with 16 Jacquard machine-looms, and 2 ma- 
chines for stiffening by gumming, (hartenschlag ,') spooling-wheels, 
chenille machines, &c. 

c. One machine-room, with a steam-engine and boiler ; seven looms 
{Jcraft) of English and German construction — some with Jacquard ma- 
chines ; one hand-weaving l»om ; one spooling machine^ and one beam- 
loom (haum) — all this worth about 4,000 thalers. 

There were in the last summer term thirty-three pupils (seventeen 
foreigners) and four teachers, with one master-weaver assisting in the 
practical exercises. 

2.— Course of Instruction. 

The course of instruction one year, in two terms and classes. , In- 
struction is given from 8 to 12 A. M., and 2 to 4 P. M. daily, four 
times a week. Each lesson is at least of two hours ; in the morning, 
generally of four continuous hours 

First term, (of six months :) 

1. Lectures on weaving material, two hours 

2. Lectures on construction and .systems of the various hand-weaving looms, 
and of the auxiliary implements, two hours. 

3. Free-hand drawing, (outlines, designing of patterns,) and chromatics, 
(doctrine of colors,) four hours. 

4. Analysis {decomposition) of pattern, making of cartoons, and calculation 
of the respective stuff for hand and Jacquard weaving, with the appropriate in- 
struction in ^'appretur'' (finishing) and its machines, eighteen hours. 

5. Exercises m shaft weaving, six hours. 

Second term, (class :) 
1. Composition of patterns for hand and Jacquard weaving, four hours. 


2. Lectures on mechanic looms, and on the auxiliary machines for mechanic 
weaving, fonr hours. 

3. Continuation of analysis {decomposiiio7i) of Jacquard stuffs, velvets, 
gauzes and ribbons, eight hours. 

4. Drawing, four hours. 

5. Exercises in weaving on looms of various construction, twelve hours. 

The parents of the pupils receive quarterly censuren, on application, 
of the attainments and moral conduct of their sons. 

O'a leaving school, after having finished the course, the student re- 
ceives a testimonial. The best are honored with prizes or commenda- 
tory testimonials. 


The state grants for agriculture in general 20,000 thalers yearly, 
not including the academies in Tharand and Leipsic, which re- 
ceived each 16,000 thalers. Half of that sum is given to the five dis- 
trict associations, (Jcreisvereine,') which they have to account for in a 
regularly drawn up register of annual expenditure; the other 10,000 
serve to pay the expenses of the experimental stations, ( Versuchs-sfa- 
tlonen,) of the general secretary for the agricultural associations (Dr. 
Reuniug, privy counsellor of the government) and their office, of the lec- 
tures in the associations, &c. Of the experimental stations, which were 
first founded in Saxony, some are kept and supported by government, as 
the one in Chemnitz, joined to the Industrial (Agricultural) School there, 
with 1,200 thalers; another (physiological) joined to the Veterinary 
School in Dresden with 900 thalers ; others are aided directly and indi- 
rectly by government, as Poramritz, with 600 thalers; Mockern, near 
Leipsic, with 500 thalers. Fanning schools, such as are in Wurtem- 
berg and Prussia, do not exist in Saxony. Having a merely practical 
aim, to be attained by working and school instruction, the former is not 
considered necessary here, and the latter impracticable; likewise the 
supplementary schools for farming, (fortbild/nigs schulen,') which have 
sprung up here in the last twenty-five years, and have been partially 
aided by government, were, with the exception of two, given up, and 
left to their own resources. 

Besides the Agricultural Academies,* much reliance for promoting 

*In the se-'sion of tho Diet in 1867 it wns proposfd by the deputies, and as good as agre' d to 
by goveriinjent, that the agricultural section in Thaia'id should be sej^arated Ircm the acad- 
emy, and probalily tran- leVrpfl to Piagwitz, near l.eip-ic, in orJer to b'- conneeieil with the 
universiiy. Besides, I am lerainded here or" t le agricultural section in the Industrial Si-hool 
at (hcrrnilz, of the Veterinarv School, and mi'nt*oii ihe inst tution I'nr horse breedi grthe 
stallion being sent thencf at proper times througliout the couutrj'; in Moritzburg, near^^Dres- 
den, with a slate grant of 30,000 th *ers. 


1. Prosperity of the H'sher Weaving .-School at Chemnitz ; 2. Plan of Lessons; 3. Letter 
from the President of the Directory, Adv. Schmidt. 


the interests of agriculture is laid by the Saxon government on associa- 
tions. To work through them efficiently, first, a monthly official mag' 
azine for these associations is issued, and edited by the general secre- 
tary, which has been very successful. Also, scientific lectures are held, 
chiefly by chemists, at the experimental stations, without having special 
travelling teachers employed for this purpose, as is the case in other 
countries. Finally, there are Agricultural Commissaries for benefiting 
farms, who are instructed not only to hold lectures in the associations, but 
also to assist the farmers with their advice. This is done by adjusting 
farms, by projections of draining, construction of meadows, &c. Pro- 
prietors of small farms receive this advice gratis. This institution has 
been of great importance, for, by it, model farms in the hands of pri- 
vate parties have been formed in great number, whereas the model 
farms founded by the government in Saxony generally did not realize 
the hopes. 

The associations are quite independent. There are at present three 
hundred. These unite to form district associations, the committees of 
which are composed of the presidents of the former. Deputies of the 
district associations form the Council of Agriculture, which is a con- 
sulting board for government. Deputies of this council have to look 
after the interests of the schools, of forestry, natural sciences, horse- 
breeding, and horticulture.* It is not necessary to add that there are 
frequent agricultural exhibitions in the districts and in the country. 

Besides the direct and indirect aid to the agricultural interests of the 
kingdom, the government renders still more important help by provid- 
ing schools where scientific agriculturists can be trained. 

1. — Establishment^ Organization and Admission. 

This academy was founded in 1811 by H. Cotta, and established as 
a state institution in 1815. The original building belonged to Cotta, 
and was bought for 7,000 thalers in 1845 ; but the present house was 
constructed in 1847 at an expense of 45,133 thalers. 

The agricultural section was added in 1830, with 4 students, (in 
1816, 62 students of forestry;) in 1837 there were 24 students of for- 
estry and 26 of agriculture. From America there were, from 1852 to 

* The botanical garden in Dresden has about twenty-five thousand cultivated plants, and 
sends awav, on an avoragi^, three thousand packages of seed annually, receiving nearly the 
same amoui.t. It serves as a scientific and cducationnl institution, and is open all d;iy to any 
visitor. Nearly the same may be said about the botanical garden in the university at Leipsic, 

Letter from the General Secretary of Agriculture, Dr. Reuning. 


1865, 24 students — 14 of forestry and 10 of agriculture ; from England, 
none of forestr}-, 14 of agriculture. On the average, there have been 
admitted in the summer 28 students, (15 Saxons,) and in the winter, 
15, (3 Saxons.) 

H. Cotta died in 1844. The present principal is J. Fr. Judeich, to 
whom we are indebted for a presentation copy of the Tharander Jahr- 
huch of 1866. The principal of the agricultural department is Dr. 
Schober ; the administration of general affairs, however, is always 
entrusted to the principal of the forest department. Schober, since 
1852, in Tharaud, has written the history of the academy to be found 
in the above-mentioned book, which was published at the semi-centennial 

The grounds belonging to the academy (forest of Tharand, a botanical 
garden, and the farm) cover an area of 10,928 Saxon acres. The 
library consists of 670 books on forestry, 70 on huntsmanship, 719 on 
agriculture, 31 on horticulture, 85 on veterinary science; the rest on 
other sciences, with 65 periodical publications on forestry, 91 on agri- 
culture, &c. 

^The collection for foresters contains 132 different instruments and a 
technological collection of 390 pieces ; for huntsmanship, 63 plaster- 
tables, with game tracks, and a well-arranged shooting stand. The 
agricultural collection has 90 utensils and machines, 98 models, 18 
sorts of apparatus, not to mention the botanical, zoological and min- 
eralogical collections of all kinds. The physical cabinet contains an 
apparatus of 112 ph. machines. 

In the budget of 1864-1866, the annual expenses were estimated at 
14,850 tbalers, to which the state (the two academies in Tharand and 
Freiberg belong to the financial department) granted 13,650 thalers 
per annum, expecting an income from the students of 1,200 thalers. 

The expenses were, ia thalers, (three English shillings:) 

10. 150 for salaries, 950 for the library, 250 for the gardens, 900 for the chemical 
laboratory, 350 thalers to poor students, 600 for ihe building?, 200 for the 
furnimre, 110 for printing, &c,, 370 for excursions, 50 for expeiiraents in the 
woods, 320 for fuel, light, &c., lOO for aiding scientific travels, 500 fo